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 2002 Rolls-Royce plc The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied or communicated to a third party, or used.

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Presentation on theme: " 2002 Rolls-Royce plc The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied or communicated to a third party, or used."— Presentation transcript:

1  2002 Rolls-Royce plc The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied or communicated to a third party, or used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the express written consent of Rolls-Royce plc. Whilst this information is given in good faith based upon the latest information available to Rolls-Royce plc, no warranty or representation is given concerning such information, which must not be taken as establishing any contractual or other commitment binding upon Rolls-Royce plc or any of its subsidiary or associated companies. Ref.ppt Computational Fluid Dynamics Engineering Simulation Professor Peter Stow RR Engineering Fellow – Computational Fluid Dynamics Head of Aerothermal Methods Rolls Royce plc

2 Design Considerations Component Geometry Aerodynamics Heat Transfer Manufacture Material Weight Stress Level Vibration

3 Computer Aided Engineering AERODYNAMIC THERMODYNAMIC DESIGN AERODYNAMIC THERMODYNAMIC DESIGN CAD TEST MECHANICAL DESIGN ANALYSIS MECHANICAL DESIGN ANALYSIS MANUFACTURE PRODUCT CFD MODELS CFD MODELS STRESS VIBRATION MODELS STRESS VIBRATION MODELS MANUFACTURING PROCESS MODELS MANUFACTURING PROCESS MODELS

4 High Performance Computing Potential Impact Reduced engineering analysis time & cost –more automated analysis –more integrated analysis Improved accuracy of engineering analysis –more accurate numerical model –more accurate mathematical model of physical processes – achieved at acceptable cost – achieved in acceptable elapsed time Advances in computers mean that this is becoming possible

5 CFD Applications Combustion  Two-Phase Combusting flow  external aerodynamics  fuel injector and combuster cooling flows Exhaust  afterbody flow  nozzle, mixer, jet flow Turbine  multistage aerodynamics  aero design and optimisation  end wall and blade heat transfer  film cooling  rotor shroud leakage  rim seals  unsteady vane/rotor flow  forced response Engine Systems  rotating disc cavity flows  brush and labyrinth seals  secondary air system losses Nacelle  aerodynamics  crosswind effects  installed engine/pylon/wing interaction Fan  aerodynamics  fan flutter  fan/OGV/pylon interaction  IGV forced response  Compressor  Multistage aerodynamics  unsteady rotor/stator flow  annulus leakage flow

6 Swept Fan Aerodynamics Swept Fan Conventional Fan Shock more oblique, with lower losses. Leading edge swept rearwards Flow Leading edge Shock (more radial) Mn rel Reduced axial velocity at tip gives lower Mn and high blade angles

7 Fan Flutter - Issues Fan Flutter 5% Margin required (before threats) 3% Stability Margin (after stack-up) No Flutter post Bird-strike Intake: - Acoustics - Inlet Distortion - Non- axisymmetry Fan blade shape: - Aerodynamics - Untwist - Modeshape Tip leakage & Treatment Downstream Non- axisymmetric issues (pylon, reverser etc.) Acoustic Liners Fan Internal & Disk: - Mistuning - Damping Downstream Acoustics L/E Shape & Erosion Engine-to-engine Variability

8 Fan Flutter Aerodynamic Damping unstable Unsteady unstable stable Steady Viscous Flow Unsteady Linearised Flow Vibration Modeshape from SC03 Steady SC03 Mode stable Surface Work

9 Fan-OGV-Pylon Design Static Pressure

10 Fan-OGV-Pylon Design

11 Fan-BOGV-Pylon Interaction

12 Fan-BOGV-ESS Interaction

13 MULTISTAGE ANALYSIS

14 Unsteady Rotor-Stator Interaction Contours of Vorticity

15 3D Rotor-Stator Interaction

16 Turbine Forced Response

17 Wake Shaping Original Wake P 0 Shaped Wake P 0

18 Engine Intake Analysis Installed NacelleGround Plane Effects

19 25 Knot Forward Speed 35 Knot Crosswind Non-Dimensional Mass Flow = 2307 (full scale) Freestream P = 380kPa T = 298K Driving P = 292kPa 25 Knot Forward Speed 35 Knot Crosswind Non-Dimensional Mass Flow = 2312 (full scale) Freestream P = 380kPa T = 298K Driving P = 294kPa Horizontal Cross Section Windward Lip Horizontal Cross Section Windward Lip 25 Knot Forward Speed 35 Knot Crosswind Windward Lip Separation

20 25 Knot Forward Speed 35 Knot Crosswind Non-Dimensional Mass Flow = 2307 (full scale) Freestream P = 380kPa T = 298K Driving P = 292kPa 25 Knot Forward Speed 35 Knot Crosswind Non-Dimensional Mass Flow = 2312 (full scale) Freestream P = 380kPa T = 298K Driving P = 294kPa Fan Face Plane 25 Knot Forward Speed 35 Knot Crosswind Windward Lip Separation

21 Engine Intake Analysis

22 Installed Nacelle Analysis 1,930,378 Tetrahedral Cells 316,303 Points 91,316 Boundary Faces Inviscid Flow Solution: Pictures: Visual3 Solution on Chordwise Cut through Inboard Nacelle Flow Solution on Aircraft Surface - Fuselage, Wing, Nacelles and Pylons - Half Model Installed Nacelle Analysis

23 Traditional 3D Design by Analysis 1st Design 2nd Design nth Design Original Design Analyse Prepare next 3D CFD run Submit o/night run Wait for results Continue sequence Analyse Prepare next CFD run Submit o/night run Wait for results 2-D design tools Cloning stacking

24 FAITH Design System Seven Perturbations Automatic creation of perturbations and CFD submission for overnight runs No Communications

25 FAITH - 3D Forward Linear Design 2nd Re-design (= nth design in current process) Original Design Check linear design with overnight CFD run Linear Design Interactive day-time analysis

26 FAITH - 3D Inverse Linear Design 2nd Re-design (= nth design in current process) Original Design Check linear design with overnight CFD run Original Linear Design User defined target flow field Interactive day-time analysis No need to iterate Target

27 Non-Axisymmetric Endwalls

28 Application Areas (Whole Engine Modelling) Aerodynamic Requirements: Performance Efficiency (SFC) Surge Margin Noise Mechanical Requirements: Maximum Stress F.O.D. Manufacturing Processes and Cost Weight Aeroelasticity: Force Response Flutter Shape Optimisation Life Heat-transfer Cooling

29 Rolls-Royce SOPHY Design System PADRAM-HYDRA-SOFT Aerodynamic Design System Advance Parametric design system – R-R business application focus –Turbomachinery blading –Fan – BOGV - pylon –Intakes –By-pass Exhaust nozzle & afterbody –Fan tone noise, Fan-BOGV noise –Water-jet pump Direct links to CAD system(s) - Parametric representation Rapid automatic meshing – structured, unstructured, mixed grids State of the art versatile Optimisation system for design capability

30 Integrated Automatic Design Optimisation System SOPHY: SOFT-PADRAM-HYDRA Base design SOFT HYDRA PADRAM Cost constraints jm56 jm52 Design Review OK? New design Yes No Optimum design Convergence history Design parameters Optimizer Additional design parameters/ cost Automation Flowchart Geometry created & meshed parametrically CFD boundary conditions and mesh pre-processed in batch Costs and constraints extracted in batch Library of optimisers available

31 Current Design System PADRAM HYDRA SOFT LPC System OGV pre-diffuser Casing treatment Nacelle/ Intake Exhaust nozzle Water pump Nozzle design Multi-stage design Non axi- endwalls Forced response

32 Nacelle Automation and Optimisation SOFTGEMO HYDRAJL09-PAX JM52 Design Parameters cost and constraint functions mesh (RAMIN) RAMIN (Mesh)

33 Nacelle/Intake Design Space The Design parameters – 77 parameters: Intake Scarf Angle Intake Centreline Angle (relative to engine centreline) …….. Secondary geometric parameters : Internal Lip Tilt (angle between intake C/L and local lip axis topline, sideline and bottom line) Non-planer Highlight scarf angle: +10 deg +10°

34 RAMIN: Rapid Meshing for Intakes/Nozzles RAMIN Mesh on Symmetry Plane HYDRA solution

35 New Design Capability PADRAM HYDRA SOFT Low noise fan and OGV design Automatic design of Casing treatment Parametric Exhaust Nozzle System General Endwall design capability Parametric Collector box Internal cooling passages Rotor performance Stator Performance Pylon Inlet distortion Noise: Tone Broadband Buzzsaw Under platform Cavity Well design

36 High Performance Computing Potential - New Simulations Cheaper/more affordable computing offers vast prospects for new simulations Multistage Analysis - Steady/Unsteady CFD –Component optimisation over whole operating range –Whole engine optimisation Aeroelasticity - CFD Stress/Vibration analysis –Component optimisation for performance & structural integrity Noise Analysis - Unsteady CFD –Design optimisation for Noise as well Performance & Stability Turbine Heat Transfer -CFD Heat Conduction Stress Analysis –Performance & life optimisation Multi-disciplinary Optimisation –CFD Structural Analysis Manufacturing Turbulence & Transition modelling –Direct/Large Eddy Simulation

37 Turbulence & Transition DNS & LES

38 Tone Noise Sources and Propagation Distortion Noise Full 3D Non-linear Unsteady Buzz-Saw Full Annulus Non-Linear Rotor Alone Non-Linear Steady Fan/OGV OGV Geometry Fan/OGV Ratio Bypass 3D Bypass Liner/Geometry Optimisation Radiation and Transmission Thru’ Shear Layer Radiation Intake Liners Intake Geometry LP Turbine Multi-stage Unsteady

39 Broadband Noise Sources Rotor BB Self-Noise Interaction with Inlet B.L. Fan Wake/OGV Interaction OGV Self Noise Jet Noise Fan-OGV BB Sources due to turbulence interacting with (blade) surfaces Jet Noise due to Turbulence (and shocks)

40 Low Tone Noise Fan Blade Design HYDRA, PADRAM and SOFT used to demonstrate low tone noise fan blade design optimisation ~ 9dB reduction Cost Function (Pa) Design space covered axial and circumferential movement (lean & sweep) of blade sections over outer 20% of blade span (4 design parameters) Design Iterations datum cost Each iteration around 2 hours on PC cluster initial optimum achieved in ~ 2 days

41 ~ 75% span ~ 95% span Low Tone Noise Fan Blade Design Datum fan blade Low tone noise blade Design optimisation introduces forward sweep of blade sections over outer 20% of span - leads to swallowed shock at tip compared to expelled shock of datum blade contours of static pressure

42 Hydra QTD Buzz-Saw Analysis 26 blade full annulus Measured Static Stagger Angle Variation Hydra CFD mesh ~55M nodes Run time per aerodynamic point (96 cluster CPUs) ~ 10 days Viscous end walls Rotor tip gap included Acoustic Liner included Acoustic Liner

43 Broadband Jet Noise Plane Jet DNS Far-field Noise by Acoustic Analogy Exhaust Nozzle LES

44  2002 Rolls-Royce plc The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied or communicated to a third party, or used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the express written consent of Rolls-Royce plc. Whilst this information is given in good faith based upon the latest information available to Rolls-Royce plc, no warranty or representation is given concerning such information, which must not be taken as establishing any contractual or other commitment binding upon Rolls-Royce plc or any of its subsidiary or associated companies. Ref.ppt Computational Fluid Dynamics Engineering Simulation Professor Peter Stow RR Engineering Fellow – Computational Fluid Dynamics Head of Aerothermal Methods Rolls Royce plc


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