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THE 1920s: CHANGE VS. TRADITION EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH THANKS TO CRISTINA WEST AND SCOTT MASTERS.

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Presentation on theme: "THE 1920s: CHANGE VS. TRADITION EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH THANKS TO CRISTINA WEST AND SCOTT MASTERS."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE 1920s: CHANGE VS. TRADITION EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH THANKS TO CRISTINA WEST AND SCOTT MASTERS

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS  TODAY:  WHAT CAUSED THE TENSION BETWEEN NEW AND CHANGING ATTITUDES, ON THE ONE HAND, AND TRADITIONAL VALUES AND NOSTALGIA, ON THE OTHER HAND, IN THE 1920s?  WHICH GROUPS WERE PROGRESSIVE/RADICAL AND WHICH WERE CONSERVATIVE, AND WHY?  BROAD: HOW DID THE U.S. BECOME A SUPER- POWER? HOW DID U.S. IDENTITY CHANGE AS A RESULT?

3 BACKGROUND: POST-WAR TENSIONS  WAR-TIME ECONOMY:  WAR PRODUCTION + MOBILIZATION OF NEARLY 5 MILLION MEN = FLU DEATHS  HIGH EMPLOYMENT, HIGH WAGES  NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD GAVE UNIONS COLLECTIVE BARGAINING RIGHTS (TO AVOID STRIKE)  INCREASE IN UNION MEMBERSHIP (E.G., MORE THAN 3 MILLION MEMBERS OF AF OF L)  SOME INFLATION (LOTS OF MONEY CHASING SCARE GOODS – BUT WAGES ROSE WITH INFLATION

4 ECONOMY 1919 – 21: RECESSION THEN DEPRESSION -- CAUSES  ECONOMY 1919 – 21: RECESSION THEN DEPRESSION -- CAUSES  DEMOBILIZATION: OVER 4 MILLION SOLDIERS RETURNED , WITH NO JOBS AND NOTHING BUT $60 AND A TRAIN TICKET HOME  WAR PRODUCTION ENDED  LAYOFFS + SOME FACTORIES SHUT DOWN PERMANENTLY  TOO MANY WORKERS, TOO FEW JOBS  DECLINING WAGES AND ABOUT 5.5% UNEMPLOYMENT  CONTINUED INFLATION: COST OF LIVING DOUBLED 1918 – 1920

5 WELCOME BACK TO LOW WAGES AND HIGH C.O.L.!

6 1919 & 1920 FEDERAL RESERVE RAISED INTEREST RATES (REDUCED MONEY SUPPLY) TO FIGHT INFLATION  CREDIT TIGHTENS  INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION DECREASED ≈ 29%  1919 & 1920 FEDERAL RESERVE RAISED INTEREST RATES (REDUCED MONEY SUPPLY) TO FIGHT INFLATION  CREDIT TIGHTENS  INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION DECREASED ≈ 29%  DEPRESSION, 1920 – 21  ESTIMATES OF GDP DECLINE VARY, BUT ≈ 6%  DEFLATION - RETAIL PRICES ≈ 18%, WHOLESALE PRICES ≈ 36% (WORST IN U.S. HISTORY)  UNEMPLOYMENT = 10%

7  FARM PRICES = DEFLATION/ DEPRESSION EVEN EARLIER THAN REST OF ECONOMY PLUS EVEN MORE ACRES UNDER CULTIVATION  THE USUAL (FARM PRICES DROP, FORECLOSURES)

8 STOCK MARKET: DOW-JONES AVERAGE "ROARING 20s" DIDN’T BEGIN UNTIL 1922!

9 POST-WAR STRIKES: IN 1919 OVER 4 MILLION U.S. WORKERS (MOSTLY AF OF L) WENT ON STRIKE – MORE THAN EVER BEFORE OR SINCE  WHY?  EMPLOYERS WANTED TO CUT HIGH WAGES AND BREAK POWER UNIONS GAINED DURING WWI WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF MAJOR STRIKES IN 1919 BOSTON POLICE STRIKE, STEEL STRIKE, COAL STRIKE BOSTON POLICE STRIKE, STEEL STRIKE, COAL STRIKE STRIKES UNSUCCESSFUL AND OPPOSED BY PUBLIC

10  BOSTON POLICE STRIKE, SEPTEMBER 1919  ORGANIZATIONAL STRIKE – POLICE WANTED AF OF L UNION LOW WAGES, LONG WORK HOURS, ETC. LOW WAGES, LONG WORK HOURS, ETC.  ≈ 1100 POLICEMEN STRUCK (72% OF FORCE)  SOME MINOR VANDALISM AND LOOTING  MASSACHUSETTS GOVERNOR CALVIN COOLIDGE CALLED OUT 5,000 TROOPS IN MASSACHUSETTS MILITIA AGAINST STRIKERS (5 TO 1!)  STRIKING OFFICERS AND MANY OTHER COPS REPLACED

11 MASSACHUSETTS MILITIA IN SCOLLAY SQUARE, BOSTON. DURING STRIKE 9 POLICEMEN WERE KILLED

12  CALVIN COOLIDGE: "THERE IS NO RIGHT TO STRIKE AGAINST THE PUBLIC SAFETY, ANYWHERE, ANYTIME." A HERO: REPUBLICAN VP NOMINEE, 1920 A HERO: REPUBLICAN VP NOMINEE, 1920 TYPICAL NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF THE POLICE STRIKE: "BOLSHEVISM IN THE UNITED STATES IS NO LONGER A SPECTER. BOSTON IN CHAOS REVEALS ITS SINISTER SUBSTANCE." PHILADELPHIA LEDGER

13 "HE GIVES AID & COMFORT TO THE ENEMIES OF SOCIETY" – CHICAGO TRIBUNE

14 "STRIKING BACK" – NEW YORK EVENING WORLD

15  1919 STEEL STRIKE, SEPTEMBER 1919  ORGANIZATIONAL STRIKE – AMALGAMATED ASSOCIATION OF IRON, STEEL AND TIN WORKERS (AF OF L) WANTED STEEL INDUSTRY TO RECOGNIZE AND BARGAIN WITH UNION ≈ 350,000 STEELWORKERS STRUCK, SHUT DOWN STEEL MILLS IN NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, WEST VIRGINIA, OHIO, ILLINOIS, INDIANA AND COLORADO  ≈ 350,000 STEELWORKERS STRUCK, SHUT DOWN STEEL MILLS IN NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, WEST VIRGINIA, OHIO, ILLINOIS, INDIANA AND COLORADO  WILLIAM Z. FOSTER, L, AF OF L (MARXIST, IWW) LED STRIKE

16 U.S. STEEL CHAIRMAN ELBERT GARY REFUSED TO NEGOTIATE  U.S. STEEL CHAIRMAN ELBERT GARY REFUSED TO NEGOTIATE LED STEEL INDUSTRY IN HIRING ,000 AFRICAN-AMERICAN AND MEXICAN STRIKE- BREAKERS ("SCABS") LED STEEL INDUSTRY IN HIRING ,000 AFRICAN-AMERICAN AND MEXICAN STRIKE- BREAKERS ("SCABS") AS USUAL, PINKERTONS, LOCAL AND STATE POLICE, AND IN SOME PLACES THE ARMY AND NATIONAL GUARD ATTACKED STRIKERS AS USUAL, PINKERTONS, LOCAL AND STATE POLICE, AND IN SOME PLACES THE ARMY AND NATIONAL GUARD ATTACKED STRIKERS  RESULT = COMPLETE DEFEAT FOR UNION.

17 PUBLIC OPINION – AGAINST STRIKE, EQUATED UNIONS WITH SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM

18 ELBERT GARY – A HERO

19  UNITED MINE WORKERS (UMW) – COAL STRIKE, NOVEMBER 1919  LED BY UMW PRESIDENT JOHN L. LEWIS, L (NOT A MARXIST)  ≈ 400,000 COAL MINERS STRUCK OVER WAGES  RED-BAITING: MINEOWNERS CALLED UNION "BOLSHEVIKS," ETC.  ATTORNEY GENERAL A. MITCHELL PALMER GOT INJUNCTION AGAINST STRIKE UNDER WARTIME FOOD AND FUEL ACT – BUT WAR WAS OVER!  FACING CRIMINAL CHARGES AND ACCUSATIONS OF COMMUNISM, LEWIS CALLED OFF THE STRIKE

20 "KEEPING WARM" – LOS ANGELES TIMES

21 "IF CAPITAL AND LABOR DON'T PULL TOGETHER" – CHICAGO TRIBUNE

22  THE INTERNATIONAL WORKERS OF THE WORLD ("WOBBLIES) – A RADICAL UNION, SUCCESSOR TO KNIGHTS OF LABOR  FOUNDED 1905, IN CHICAGO BY WILLIAM "BIG BILL" HAYWARD, MARY "MOTHER" JONES, EUGENE V. DEBS, AND OTHER SOCIALISTS, ANARCHISTS, COMMUNISTS, ETC.

23 THE FEW OWN THE MANY BECAUSE THEY POSSESS THE MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD OF ALL... THE COUNTRY IS GOVERNED FOR THE RICHEST, FOR THE CORPORATIONS, THE BANKERS, THE LAND SPECULATORS, AND FOR THE EXPLOITERS OF LABOR. THE MAJORITY OF MANKIND ARE WORKING PEOPLE. SO LONG AS THEIR FAIR DEMANDS - THE OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL OF THEIR LIVELIHOODS - ARE SET AT NAUGHT, WE CAN HAVE NEITHER MEN'S RIGHTS NOR WOMEN'S RIGHTS. THE MAJORITY OF MANKIND IS GROUND DOWN BY INDUSTRIAL OPPRESSION IN ORDER THAT THE SMALL REMNANT MAY LIVE IN EASE." — HELEN KELLER, IWW MEMBER, 1911 " THE FEW OWN THE MANY BECAUSE THEY POSSESS THE MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD OF ALL... THE COUNTRY IS GOVERNED FOR THE RICHEST, FOR THE CORPORATIONS, THE BANKERS, THE LAND SPECULATORS, AND FOR THE EXPLOITERS OF LABOR. THE MAJORITY OF MANKIND ARE WORKING PEOPLE. SO LONG AS THEIR FAIR DEMANDS - THE OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL OF THEIR LIVELIHOODS - ARE SET AT NAUGHT, WE CAN HAVE NEITHER MEN'S RIGHTS NOR WOMEN'S RIGHTS. THE MAJORITY OF MANKIND IS GROUND DOWN BY INDUSTRIAL OPPRESSION IN ORDER THAT THE SMALL REMNANT MAY LIVE IN EASE." — HELEN KELLER, IWW MEMBER, 1911

24  WOBBLY THREAT? ORGANIZED FARMWORKERS, TEXTILE MILLS, WESTERN MINES, LUMBERJACKS, CALLED GENERAL STRIKES, OPPOSED WWI  BUT LIKE KNIGHTS OF LABOR, RHETORIC ABOUT CLASS WAR AND LACK OF FOCUS ON PRACTICAL WORKING CONDITIONS, DISDAIN FOR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENTS  LOW MEMBERSHIP (ABOUT 50,000 AT PEAK © 1920)  STATE AND FEDERAL GOVERNMENTS CRACKED DOWN ON IWW

25  EXAMPLE: THE CASE OF JOE HILL, 1915 HILL, SWEDISH IMMIGRANT, ITINERANT WORKER, IWW ORGANIZER, SONGWRITER – CONVICTED AND EXECUTED FOR ARMED ROBBERY AND MURDER IN SALT LAKE CITY – ALMOST NO EVIDENCE! HILL, SWEDISH IMMIGRANT, ITINERANT WORKER, IWW ORGANIZER, SONGWRITER – CONVICTED AND EXECUTED FOR ARMED ROBBERY AND MURDER IN SALT LAKE CITY – ALMOST NO EVIDENCE! HIS FINAL LETTER TO BIG BILL HAYWARD: "DON'T WASTE ANY TIME IN MOURNING. ORGANIZE... COULD YOU ARRANGE TO HAVE MY BODY HAULED TO THE STATE LINE TO BE BURIED? I DON'T WANT TO BE FOUND DEAD IN UTAH." HIS FINAL LETTER TO BIG BILL HAYWARD: "DON'T WASTE ANY TIME IN MOURNING. ORGANIZE... COULD YOU ARRANGE TO HAVE MY BODY HAULED TO THE STATE LINE TO BE BURIED? I DON'T WANT TO BE FOUND DEAD IN UTAH."

26  DURING WWI, FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TRIED TO WIPE OUT IWW SEPTEMBER 1917 – FEDERAL AGENTS RAIDED 49 IWW MEETING HALLS NATIONWIDE, ARRESTED HUNDREDS OF WOBBLIES SEPTEMBER 1917 – FEDERAL AGENTS RAIDED 49 IWW MEETING HALLS NATIONWIDE, ARRESTED HUNDREDS OF WOBBLIES U.S. CHARGED 165 IWW LEADERS WITH VIOLATING ESPIONAGE ACT – ALL CONVICTED U.S. CHARGED 165 IWW LEADERS WITH VIOLATING ESPIONAGE ACT – ALL CONVICTED  BY END OF WAR, WOBBLIES WERE NO THREAT AT ALL (IF THEY EVER WERE)

27 RED SCARE, 1919 A. MITCHELL PALMER ATTORNEY GENERAL  LED BY A. MITCHELL PALMER, U.S. GOVERNMENT MANAGED TO TRANSFER WARTIME PUBLIC XENOPHOBIA AGAINST GERMANS TO PEACETIME XENOPHOBIA AGAINST "REDS" – COMMUNISTS, SOCIALISTS, ANARCHISTS, WOBBLIES  NATIVISM LINK: "NEW IMMIGRANTS" EQUATED WITH "FOREIGN AGITATORS"

28  CAUSES OF RED SCARE:  1919: COMMUNIST THIRD INTERNATIONAL DECLARED GOAL OF WORLDWIDE COMMUNISM MITCHELL COULD CLAIM COMMUNIST PLOT AGAINST U.S. "FREEDOM" MITCHELL COULD CLAIM COMMUNIST PLOT AGAINST U.S. "FREEDOM"  APRIL AND JUNE 1919 – LETTER BOMBS ("WE WILL DESTROY TO RID THE WORLD OF YOUR TYRANNICAL INSTITUTIONS" ON PINK PAPER) SENT TO PALMER, SENATORS, FBI INVESTIGATORS  NOBODY KILLED BUT  PUBLIC PANIC

29

30 "WHAT A YEAR HAS"PUT THEM OUT AND KEEP BROUGHT FORTH" – NEWTHEM OUT" – PHILADELPHIA YORK WORLDINQUIRER

31

32  1919 STRIKES

33  RACE RIOTS, SUMMER 1919 BACKGROUND: "GREAT MIGRATION" OF AFRICAN- AMERICANS TO NORTHERN CITIES (≈ 2 MILLION 1910 – 1930, ≈ 500,000 BY 1919) BACKGROUND: "GREAT MIGRATION" OF AFRICAN- AMERICANS TO NORTHERN CITIES (≈ 2 MILLION 1910 – 1930, ≈ 500,000 BY 1919) WHY: INDUSTRIAL AND OTHER JOBS IN NORTH (ESPECIALLY DURING WWI), LESS WHY: INDUSTRIAL AND OTHER JOBS IN NORTH (ESPECIALLY DURING WWI), LESS 1915: BOLL WEEVIL WIPED OUT COTTON CROP, BANKRUPT SOUTHERN PLANTERS EJECTED SOUTHERN SHARECROPPERS 1915: BOLL WEEVIL WIPED OUT COTTON CROP, BANKRUPT SOUTHERN PLANTERS EJECTED SOUTHERN SHARECROPPERS ALSO, RETURNING BLACK WAR ALSO, RETURNING BLACK WAR VETS MORE ASSERTIVE ABOUT RIGHTS

34

35  AT LEAST 30 RACE RIOTS OF 1919 ( = ATTACKS BY WHITES ON AFRICAN-AMERICANS, ESPECIALLY RETURNING VETS MOST RIOTS IN NORTHERN CITIES SUCH AS CHICAGO, PHILADELPHIA, SYRACUSE N.Y, AND WASHINGTON D.C. MOST RIOTS IN NORTHERN CITIES SUCH AS CHICAGO, PHILADELPHIA, SYRACUSE N.Y, AND WASHINGTON D.C.  SOME AFRICAN-AMERICAN RESISTANCE (FIGHTING BACK)  MEDIA AND PUBLIC BLAMED RIOTS ON AFRICAN- AMERICANS AND BOLSHEVIK AGITATORS

36 ABOVE, WHITE GANG LOOKING FOR AFRICAN-AMERICANS DURING CHICAGO RACE RIOT OF 1919 LEFT: HEADLINE IN ARKANSAS NEWSPAPER HEADLINE IN NEW YORK TIMES: "REDS TRY TO STIR NEGROES TO REVOLT"

37 THE NEW BLACK MILITANCY: "IF WE MUST DIE" BY CLAUD MC KAY – THEY DIDN'T START IT BUT THEY RESISTED!

38  EDGAR HOOVER BLAMED THE RIOTS ON "BLACK MEN RAPING WHITE WOMEN" AND FOREIGN AGITATORS  HOOVER WAS THEN HEAD OF PALMER'S "GENERAL INTELLIGENCE UNIT" WITHIN JUSTICE DEPARTMENT

39 PALMER RAIDS,  STRATEGY: ROUND UP AND DEPORT FOREIGN RADICALS (INCLUDING WOBBLIES)  IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1919 AUTHORIZED DEPORTATION OF ALIEN ANARCHISTS AND ANY ALIENS ADVOCATING OVERTHROW OF U.S. GOVERNMENT  GOVERNMENT USED WARRANTLESS WIRETAPS (VIOLATED 4 TH AMENDMENT)  JANUARY 20, 1920: FEDERAL AND LOCAL RAIDED OFFICES AND HOMES NATIONWIDE, ARREST OVER 6,000 PEOPLE (INCLUDING SOME U.S. CITIZENS)  PEOPLE ARRESTED WERE DENIED ACCESS TO LAWYERS (VIOLATED 6 TH AMENDMENT)

40  POLICE ARRESTING SUSPECTED "REDS" IN CHICAGO BUT NOT EVERYONE ARRESTED WAS AN ALIEN! BUT NOT EVERYONE ARRESTED WAS AN ALIEN!

41 "RADICALS" AWAITING DEPORTATION HEARINGS AT ELLIS ISLAND

42  IN THE END ONLY ABOUT 565 ALIENS WERE DEPORTED – MOSTLY NOT FOR ANY ACTS, ONLY FOR MEMBERSHIP IN RADICAL ORGANIZATION DECEMBER, 1920: EMMA GOLDMAN WAS ON THE BUFORD

43  SECRETARY OF LABOR LEWIS FREEDLAND POST OPPOSED THE RAIDS AND THWARTED DEPORTATIONS  INITIALLY PUBLIC SIDED WITH PALMER, BUT AS 1920 WENT ON WITHOUT EITHER STRIKES OR A REVOLUTION, MEDIA SUPPORTED POST

44 DOES THE CARTOONIST SUPPORT THE PALMER RAIDS?

45  SOME EXCESSES IN STATES, SUCH AS NEW YORK'S EXPULSION OF FIVE (CITIZEN) SOCIALISTS FROM NEW YORK LEGISLATURE ALSO CAUSED RED SCARE TO LOSE PUBLIC SUPPORT  THERE WERE ALSO LYNCHINGS OF WOBBLIES

46 SACCO AND VANZETTI: VICTIMS OF THE RED SCARE?  ARRESTED 1920 FOR ARMED ROBBERY AND MURDER – EXECUTED 1927  PLENTY OF EVIDENCE THAT THEY WERE ANARCHISTS, NOT MUCH THAT THEY DID THE CRIME  WERE THEY GUILTY? (YOU SHOULD HAVE AN OPINION BASED ON ASSIGNED READING)

47 SUPREME COURT DECISIONS  SCHENCK V. UNITED STATES, OPINION BY OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, JR. 2. FACTS: CHARLES SCHENCK, SECRETARY OF SOCIALIST PARTY OF AMERICA, WAS CONVICTED OF VIOLATING THE ESPIONAGE ACT FOR DISTRIBUTING A HANDBILL COMPARING THE DRAFT TO SLAVERY 3. ISSUE: DID THE CONVICTION VIOLATE SCHENCK'S 1 ST -AMENDMENT RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF SPEECH?

48 4. HOLDING: NO. DURING WARTIME, FREEDOM OF SPEECH IS LESS BROAD THAN DURING PEACETIME  AND AT ANYTIME: FREEDOM OF SPEECH NEVER INCLUDES "SHOUTING FIRE IN A CROWDED THEATER AND CAUSING A PANIC."  IF SPEECH PRESENTS "A CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER" THAT SOMETHING THE GOVERNMENT HAS THE RIGHT TO PREVENT WILL HAPPEN, THE SPEECH HAS NO 1 ST – AMENDMENT PROTECTION 5. LEGAL AND HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE – A VERY BROAD EXCEPTION TO FREEDOM OF SPEECH!

49  ABRAMS V. UNITED STATES, OPINION BY JUSTICE JOHN CLARKE (A NONENTITY – NOT IMPORTANT) 2. FACTS: ABRAMS WAS CONVICTED UNDER SECTION OF ESPIONAGE ACT BANNING INTERFERENCE WITH WAR PRODUCTION. HE DISTRIBUTED A LEAFLET CRITICIZING 1919 DEPLOYMENT OF U.S. TROOPS TO RUSSIA TO FIGHT SOVIETS, AND URGING GENERAL STRIKE OF MUNITION WORKERS TO STOP PRODUCING WEAPONS FOR THIS (SO NOT AGAINST WWI OR ANY DECLARED WAR OF U.S.!)

50 3. ISSUE: WAS THE HANDBILL PROTECTED 1 ST – AMENDMENT SPEECH? 4. NOT PROTECTED SPEECH UNDER THE "CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER" TEST. EVEN THOUGH NO STRIKE OR DAMAGE TO WAR EFFORT WAS IMMINENT, THE HANDBILL HAD A "TENDENCY" TO CAUSE THOSE THINGS. 5. LEGAL AND HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: TURNED "CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER" TEST INTO "BAD TENDENCY" TEST – EVEN EASIER FOR GOVERNMENT TO RESTRICT SPEECH HOLMES DISSENT: "CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER" MEANS SOME UNLAWFUL ACTION IS IMMINENT

51  TWO ANTITRUST DECISIONS TO KNOW:  UNITED MINE WORKERS V. CORONADO COAL CO., 1922 – OPINION BY CHIEF JUSTICE TAFT JUST KNOW WHAT IT HELD: LABOR UNIONS ARE "ASSOCIATIONS" COVERED BY THE SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT – CAN BE SUED UNDER ACT FOR TREBLE DAMAGES FOR STRIKES, MULTI-UNION AGREEMENTS TO SEEK SAME WAGES, ETC. JUST KNOW WHAT IT HELD: LABOR UNIONS ARE "ASSOCIATIONS" COVERED BY THE SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT – CAN BE SUED UNDER ACT FOR TREBLE DAMAGES FOR STRIKES, MULTI-UNION AGREEMENTS TO SEEK SAME WAGES, ETC.  FEDERAL BASEBALL CLUB V. NATIONAL BASEBALL LEAGUE, 1922 – OPINION BY OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, JR. PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL LEAGUES ARE NOT COVERED BY THE SHERMAN ACT, BECAUSE BASEBALL IS A GAME, NOT A BUSINESS (EVEN THOUGH IT MAKES $) PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL LEAGUES ARE NOT COVERED BY THE SHERMAN ACT, BECAUSE BASEBALL IS A GAME, NOT A BUSINESS (EVEN THOUGH IT MAKES $)

52 ELECTION OF 1920: REPUBLICAN TRIUMPH ("IT'S THE ECONOMY, STUPID," PLUS THE RED SCARE AND OPPOSITION TO WILSON – END OF PROGRESSIVISM FOR A WHILE WARREN G. HARDING AND CALVIN COOLIDGE JAMES COX AND FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT

53 ALSO RAN: EUGENE V. DEBS, SOCIALIST PARTY: FROM PRISON ,000 VOTES (REFERENCE TO HARDING'S "FRONT PORCH" CAMPAIGN

54  WARREN G. HARDING – RANKED AS ONE OF THE WORST PRESIDENTS. ADVOCATED "RETURN TO NORMALCY"  SCANDALS, ESPECIALLY TEAPOT DOME BRIBERY SCANDAL 1921: HARDING TRANSFERRED NAVY OIL RESERVES AT TEAPOT DOME (AND OTHER WESTERN LOCATIONS) TO DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR 1921: HARDING TRANSFERRED NAVY OIL RESERVES AT TEAPOT DOME (AND OTHER WESTERN LOCATIONS) TO DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR 1922: SECRETARY OF INTERIOR ALBERT B. FALL LEASED RESERVES TO OIL COMPANIES – FOR PERSONAL LOANS = $404, : SECRETARY OF INTERIOR ALBERT B. FALL LEASED RESERVES TO OIL COMPANIES – FOR PERSONAL LOANS = $404,000 FALL WAS CONVICTED OF BRIBERY, FALL WAS CONVICTED OF BRIBERY, GOT 1 YEAR IN PRISON – FIRST CABINET GOT 1 YEAR IN PRISON – FIRST CABINET OFFICER TO GO TO PRISON FOR CORRUPTION

55  DEPLOYED MILITARY AGAINST STRIKES,, INCLUDING B-1 BOMBERS, AGAINST STRIKING COAL MINERS IN MATEWAN, W. VA. ( MINERS KILLED, HUNDREDS CONVICTED OF CRIMES LATER – THE USUAL!)  SUPPORTED AND SIGNED FORDNEY-MC CUMBER TARIFF, HIGHEST IN HISTORY – SUPPOSEDLY TO HELP FARMERS FARMERS OF COURSE OPPOSED IT! FARMERS OF COURSE OPPOSED IT!  DIED IN OFFICE, 1923

56  COOLIDGE: YET ANOTHER VP BECAME PRESIDENT (BUT WAS ELECTED IN OWN RIGHT IN 1924)  MOST FAMOUS QUOTATION: "THE BUSINESS OF AMERICA IS BUSINESS  BUT NO HELP FOR FARMERS!

57  HERBERT HOOVER (MINING ENGINEER): SECRETARY OF COMMERCE FOR HARDING AND COOLIDGE  ELECTED PRESIDENT 1928 HIS "SOUTHERN STRATEGY": OUST ALL BLACKS FROM REPUBLICAN PARTY LEADERSHIP, MAKE IT ALL-WHITE PARTY HIS "SOUTHERN STRATEGY": OUST ALL BLACKS FROM REPUBLICAN PARTY LEADERSHIP, MAKE IT ALL-WHITE PARTY

58 DOMESTIC POLITICS IN A NUTSHELL, 1920 – 32  CONSERVATIVE REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY  HARDING, COOLIDGE, HOOVER TRILOGY  LAISSEZ-FAIRE ON MOST DOMESTIC ISSUES:  NO HELP FOR FARMERS  OPPOSED TO UNIONS – SUPPORTED NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MANUFACTURERS "AMERICAN PLAN: COMPANY UNIONS COMPANY UNIONS "OPEN" SHOPS "OPEN" SHOPS STATE LAWS MAKING UNIONS ILLEGAL STATE LAWS MAKING UNIONS ILLEGAL

59  FAVORED EASY CREDIT TO PROMOTE BUSINESS BY PROMOTING CONSUMERISM  SUPPORTED HIGH TARIFFS SMOOT-HAWLEY TARIFF, 1930: HIGHEST YET  RETALIATORY TARIFFS BY CANADA, BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY SMOOT-HAWLEY TARIFF, 1930: HIGHEST YET  RETALIATORY TARIFFS BY CANADA, BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY U.S. EXPORTS DROPPED 61% BETWEEN 1930 AND 1933 U.S. EXPORTS DROPPED 61% BETWEEN 1930 AND 1933  TO WHAT EXTENT WERE THE HIGH TARIFFS OF THE 1920S A CAUSE OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION?

60 THE ROARING 20s WHILE ALL THOSE CONSERVATIVE REPUBLICANS WERE RULING THE COUNTRY, A LOT OF PEOPLE WERE PARTYING – IN VERY NON-CONSERVATIVE Q

61 PROSPERITY  1921: FEDERAL RESERVE CUT INTEREST RATES, RECOVERY BEGAN  ECONOMY BOOMED 1923 – 29: AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME INCREASED FROM $641 IN 1921 TO $ 847 IN 1929 (32%) AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME INCREASED FROM $641 IN 1921 TO $ 847 IN 1929 (32%) U.S. GDP GREATER THAN ALL OF EUROPE'S COMBINED U.S. GDP GREATER THAN ALL OF EUROPE'S COMBINED LOW INFLATION, LOW UNEMPLOYMENT (< 4%) LOW INFLATION, LOW UNEMPLOYMENT (< 4%) WHO DIDN'T PROSPER? WHO DIDN'T PROSPER? FARMERS AND NON-UNION BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS

62 WHAT FUELED PROSPERITY? CONSUMERISM!

63 ESPECIALLY THE MODEL T!  HENRY FORD'S ASSEMBLY LINE  STANDARD BLACK MODEL TO  REDUCED PRICE: $ $ $290 – 1925 MOST AMERICANS COULD AFFORD A CAR – BY 1930 MOST FAMILIES HAD ONE!

64 INDIVIDUAL MOBILITY: A MAJOR SOCIAL CHANGE

65  RISE OF AUTO AGE  RIPPLE SOCIOECONOMIC EFFECTS:  RUBBER  GLASS  STEEL  ROAD CONSTRUCTION  HOUSES IN THE SUBURBS  MOTELS  ROADSIDE RESTAURANTS AND DINERS  GAS STATIONS

66 ANOTHER REASON FOR INCREASED PROSPERITY: MORE PEOPLE MOVING TO CITIES (HIGHER INCOMES)

67 HOW 'YA GONNA KEEP 'EM DOWN ON THE FARM (AFTER THEY'VE SEEN PAREE) REUBEN, REUBEN, I'VE BEEN THINKING SAID HIS WIFEY DEAR NOW THAT ALL IS PEACEFUL AND CALM THE BOYS WILL SOON BE BACK ON THE FARM MISTER REUBEN STARTED WINKING AND SLOWLY RUBBED HIS CHIN HE PULLED HIS CHAIR UP CLOSE TO MOTHER AND HE ASKED HER WITH A GRIN): HOW YA GONNA KEEP 'EM DOWN ON THE FARM AFTER THEY'VE SEEN PAREE'? HOW YA GONNA KEEP 'EM AWAY FROM BROADWAY JAZZIN AROUND AND PAINTIN' THE TOWN HOW YA GONNA KEEP 'EM AWAY FROM HARM? THAT'S A MYSTERY THEY'LL NEVER WANT TO SEE A RAKE OR PLOW AND WHO THE DEUCE CAN PARLEYVOUS A COW? HOW YA GONNA KEEP 'EM DOWN ON THE FARM AFTER THEY'VE SEEN PAREE'?

68  RISE OF CONSUMER CREDIT:  BEFORE 1920, MOST AMERICANS THOUGHT PERSONAL BORROWING WAS WRONG EXCEPT IN EMERGENCIES  BY 1928, 2/3 OF ALL FURNITURE, WASHING MACHINES, CARS, ETC. WERE BOUGHT ON CREDIT  WHY? ADVERTISING – PEOPLE FELT THEY NEEDED THINGS THAT DIDN'T EVEN EXIST BEFORE!  WHAT WILL HAPPEN WHEN THE LOANS COME DUE?

69  PEOPLE ALSO BORROWED TO BUY STOCK  "BUYING ON THE MARGIN": 10-20% DOWNPAYMENT ON STOCK, THE OTHER 80-90% BORROWED FROM BROKER  IF STOCK PRICE ROSE ENOUGH, BUYER COULD PAY BACK LOAN AND MAKE PROFIT  BUT IF STOCK PRICE FELL, BROKER ISSUED "MARGIN CALL" AND BUYER HAD TO PAY DEBT OUT OF POCKET  STOCK MARKET WENT UP AND UP IN 20s, SO PEOPLE FELT OK TO BUY ON MARGIN (IT NEVER IS!)

70 SOCIAL CHANGES  "THE NEW WOMAN"  19 TH AMENDMENT, 1920 – WOMEN COULD VOTE  DID IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN ELECTIONS?  HEMLINES WENT UP, DID MORALS GO DOWN?  MORE WOMEN WORKED OUTSIDE HOME, MORE WENT TO COLLEGE

71 OUT WITH THE OLD, IN WITH THE NEW!

72  "THE FLAPPER" – FREE, FUN-LOVING, SEXUAL, SMOKING, DRINKING, DANCED THE CHARLESTON... LIBERATION, OR A NEW FORM OF OPPRESSION?

73 MISS AMERICA PAGEANT, 1926 WOMEN ENCOURAGED TO STRUT AROUND HALF- NAKED FOR ENJOYMENT OF MEN

74  "MORALITY POLICE"

75 "THE STENO POOL": OFFICE CLERICAL WORK BECAME FEMINIZED

76  ACCENT ON YOUTH: WHY? "NEW ERA?" DISILLUSIONMENT WITH WHAT OLDER GENERATION CREATED? LOSS OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN WAR, FLU?

77 "NOT FOR OLD FOGIES"

78  1920S STYLES

79  RISE OF MASS HOMOGENIZED CULTURE, DUE TO MOBILITY, RADIO AND FILM FIRST FULL-LENGTH MOTION PICTURE: BIRTH OF A NATION, 1915: RACIST (GLORIFIED KKK)

80 FIRST "TALKIE" – THE JAZZ SINGER (1920) – ALSO RACIST (YOU SAW A CLIP FROM IT EARLIER!)

81 1920S – A NEW KIND OF CELEBRITY– ATHLETES, PILOTS BABE RUTH &TY COBB JACK DEMPSEY CHARLES LINDBERGH THE SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS THE SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS

82 MOVIE STARS: CHARLIE CHAPLIN, MARK PICKFORD ("AMERICA'S SWEETHEART"), RUDOLPH VALENTINO

83

84 AND THE CELEBRITY FAMOUS FOR BEING FAMOUS CLARA BOW: THE "IT" GIRL – MINOR ACTRESS CELEBRATED FOR EXEMPLIFYING THE FLAPPER

85 JAZZ: THE 1920S IS THE "JAZZ AGE" LOUIS ARMSTRONG, "SATCHMO": "WEST END BLUES," ONE OF THE EARLIEST JAZZ RECORDS (RECORDS THANKS TO THOMAS EDISON)

86 YOUNG PEOPLE FLOCKED TO BARS AND NIGHTCLUBS TO HEAR JAZZ, SMOKE, DRINK. DRINK? HUH? WHAT ABOUT PROHIBITION (18 TH AMDT?)? PROHIBITION MAKE DRINKING GLAMOROUS!

87

88 “ WHEN PROHIBITION WAS INTRODUCED, I HOPED THAT IT WOULD BE WIDELY SUPPORTED BY PUBLIC OPINION AND THE DAY WOULD SOON COME WHEN THE EVIL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL WOULD BE RECOGNIZED. I HAVE SLOWLY AND RELUCTANTLY COME TO BELIEVE THAT THIS HAS NOT BEEN THE RESULT. INSTEAD, DRINKING HAS GENERALLY INCREASED; THE SPEAKEASY HAS REPLACED THE SALOON; A VAST ARMY OF LAWBREAKERS HAS APPEARED; MANY OF OUR BEST CITIZENS HAVE OPENLY IGNORED PROHIBITION; RESPECT FOR THE LAW HAS BEEN GREATLY LESSENED; AND CRIME HAS INCREASED TO A LEVEL NEVER SEEN BEFORE.” JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, JR. – AND HE WAS ABSOLUTELY RIGHT!

89  PROHIBITION LED TO ORGANIZED CRIME IN THE U.S. LEADING PROHITION-ERA GANGSTERS – AL CAPONE AND BUGS MORAN – BOOTLEGGERS WHEN GOVERNMENTS BAN SOMETHING PEOPLE WILL BUY NO MATTER WHAT (LIKE BOOZE AND DRUGS) IT CREATES BLACK MARKETS FOR THOSE THINGS

90  HOW MUST BLACK-MARKET BUSINESSES RESOLVE DISPUTES?  THROUGH VIOLENCE – “WAR” THE “SAINT VALENTINE’S DAY MASSACRE,” 1929 – PART OF A WAR OVER CONTROL OF THE LIQUOR TRADE IN CHICAGO

91  SUPPORT FOR PROHIBITION BECAME ASSOCIATED WITH “BACKWARD” ELEMENTS HUMORIST WILL ROGERS REMARKED, “THE SOUTH IS DRY AND WILL VOTE DRY. THAT IS, EVERYBODY SOBER ENOUGH TO STAGGER TO THE POLLS."

92 THE NEW KKK: ("KOONS, KIKES AND KATH'LICS): NOT JUST ANTI-BLACK, ALSO ANTI-SEMITIC, ANTI- IMMIGRATION, ANTI-WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE WOMEN'S KLAN – 500,000 MEMBERS NATIONWIDE

93

94 HIGH CULTURE OF THE 1920s  HARLEM RENAISSANCE (RESULT OF GREAT MIGRATION) – NOT JUST JAZZ – ALSO GREAT NOVELISTS AND POETS  LANGSTON HUGHES  JAMES WELDON JOHNSON  CLAUDE MCKAY  ZORA NEALE HURSTON  COUNTEE CULLEN

95 INCIDENT ONCE RIDING IN OLD BALTIMORE, HEART-FILLED, HEAD-FILLED WITH GLEE; I SAW A BALTIMOREAN KEEP LOOKING STRAIGHT AT ME. NOW I WAS EIGHT AND VERY SMALL, AND HE WAS NO WHIT BIGGER, AND SO I SMILED, BUT HE POKED OUT HIS TONGUE, AND CALLED ME, "NIGGER." I SAW THE WHOLE OF BALTIMORE FROM MAY UNTIL DECEMBER; OF ALL THE THINGS THAT HAPPENED THERE THAT'S ALL THAT I REMEMBER. --COUNTEE CULLEN

96 WHITE AUTHORS: "THE LOST GENERATION" (LARGELY EXPATRIATES F. SCOTT FITZGERALD (WITH ZELDA) ERNEST HEMINGWAY AND GERTRUDE STEIN (BY PICASSO) – SHE COINED TERM "LOST GENERATION"

97 F. SCOTT FITZGERALDF. SCOTT FITZGERALD –GREAT GATSBY –THIS SIDE OF PARADISE EARNEST HEMINGWAYEARNEST HEMINGWAY –SUN ALSO RISES (1926) – FAREWELL TO ARMS (1929) THEODORE DREISERTHEODORE DREISER –AMERICAN TRAGEDY (1925) SINCLAIR LEWISSINCLAIR LEWIS –MAIN STREET (1920) –BABBITT (1922) WILLIAM FAULKNERWILLIAM FAULKNER –SOLDIER’S PAY (1926) –SOUND AND THE FURY T.S. ELIOTT.S. ELIOT –THE WASTE LAND (1922)

98 CULTURE CLASS: OLD V. NEW – THE SCOPES TRIAL  TENNESSEE'S BUTLER ACT BANNED TEACHING EVOLUTION  IN DAYTON, TN., HIGH-SCHOOL BIOLOGY TEACHER JOHN SCOPES WAS CHARGED WITH VIOLATING THE ACT  TRIAL BECAME A NATIONAL CAUSE- CELÈBRE: SCIENCE V. BIBLE

99 THE MOST FAMOUS LAWYERS IN THE COUNTRY HANDLED THE TRIAL: CLARENCE DARROW FOR SCOPES, WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN FOR TENNESSEE

100  DARROW LOST – BUT HE HUMILIATED BRYANT BY PUTTING HIM ON THE STAND AND QUESTIONING HIM ABOUT THE BIBLE (LIKE "WHERE DID CAIN'S WIFE COME FROM?)  DARROW QUOTATION: "WE HAVE THE PURPOSE OF PREVENTING BIGOTS AND IGNORAMUSES FROM CONTROLLING THE EDUCATION OF THE UNITED STATES."  SCOPES GOT $100 FINE – CONVICTION REVERSED ON APPEAL  TRIAL MARKED BEGINNING OF STILL-EXISTING DIVISION IN CHRISTIANITY BETWEEN FUNDAMENTALISTS AND PEOPLE WHO ACCEPT SCIENCE

101 ARCHITECTURE "OLD STYLE" SKYSCRAPERS WRIGLEY BUILDING CHICAGO BEGUN 1920

102 NEW STYLE: ART DECO CHRYSLER BUILDING, BEGUN 1928 (COM. 1930)

103

104

105 CHRYSLER BUILDING LOBBY

106  IN 1928, U.S. APPEARED TO BE AT THE PEAK OF PROSPERITY  1928: STOCK MARKET BOOM: EVEN MORE PEOPLE INVESTED, MOSTLY ON THE MARGIN OCTOBER 24, 1929 – BLACK THURSDAY – STOCK MARKET CRASHED  MILLIONS OF MARGIN CALLS!

107 PROMPT FOR DBQ ESSAY YOU'LL WRITE NEXT CLASS: WHAT WERE THE PRINCIPAL CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION? BE SURE TO CONSIDER ALL POSSIBLE CAUSES IN YOUR ANSWER. USE THE DOCUMENTS AND YOUR OUTSIDE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PERIOD TO ANSWER THE QUESTION. BRING THE DBQ RUBRIC AND AN OUTLINE OF YOUR OI! YOU SHOULD HAVE A LOT OF OI FROM ASSIGNED READING AND THIS LECTURE


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