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English Linguistics 1. 3.3 Lexical fields also: semantic field, G Wortfeld, lexikalisches Feld items in the vocabulary / lexicon which cover a coherent.

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Presentation on theme: "English Linguistics 1. 3.3 Lexical fields also: semantic field, G Wortfeld, lexikalisches Feld items in the vocabulary / lexicon which cover a coherent."— Presentation transcript:

1 English Linguistics 1

2 3.3 Lexical fields also: semantic field, G Wortfeld, lexikalisches Feld items in the vocabulary / lexicon which cover a coherent area / field, a conceptual domain the whole lexicon of a language is split up into lexical fields Session 32

3 e.g. domains of 'meals', 'fruit', 'vegetables', 'cooking', 'drinking', 'places for eating and drinking' etc. meals breakfast, lunch, brunch, dinner,... = onomasiological approach (starts from concept, asks for all possible signs) general idea: the meaning of a member of the field can only be described by referring to the other members Session 33

4 E big, large, great, tall Ggroß suggestion: the meaning space is divided as with the parts of a mosaic Session 34

5 lexical field of 'asking': ask, inquire, interrogate, question, wonder... verbs of 'moving': walk, march, pace, amble, stroll, sneak, stagger... colour adjectives:... university teachers: professor, reader, lecturer, fellow (BE) (AE) Session 35

6 procedure for describing lexical fields: componential analysis or semantic feature analysis the meaning of a word is described as a bundle of semantic features girl[+ HUMAN, - ADULT, + FEMALE] boy[+ HUMAN, - ADULT, … ] woman[ … ] man[ ] cow[ ] Session 36

7  matrix with a finite number of semantic features  description of the whole vocabulary / lexicon of a language implies - existence of clear boundaries between individual items Session 37

8 Try to complete the semantic feature matrix for the following verbs (lexical field of cooking) by indicating whether the verb can be used to signal the semantic feature in brackets or not, e.g.: you can boil sth. in [water], therefore '+', you do not toast sth. in the [oven], therefore ' − ' + … yes − … no ± … both may apply Session 38

9 [water][fat/oil][oven][cooker][degree] cook±±±±± boil++ simmer+− fry+ roast+ toast−− bake−− Session 39 Fig. Lexical field verbs of cooking

10 [water][fat/oil][oven][cooker][degree] cook±±±±± boil++ simmer+− fry+ roast+ toast−− bake−− Session 310 Fig. Lexical field verbs of cooking

11 conclusion: - psychological reality of lexical fields is accepted by modern linguists - improbable, however, that systematic semantic features define the boundaries between individual items Session 311

12 remember the more recent idea of - prototypes / prototypical features in our minds - boundaries often fuzzy (exs.: chair, vase; see above) Are there other principles structuring the lexicon?

13 3.4. Lexical relations / meaning relations Synonymy expression of the same meaning by means of different words e.g. deep, profound The incident made a impression on me Session 313 deep profound

14 ex.commence – begin, finish – end, close – shut, adult – grown-up is there anything as absolute synonymy? test: exchangeable in all contexts? Session 314

15 This river is very deep / *profound. ? He commenced to cry. … absolute synonymy ….

16 many 'so-called synonyms' interchangeable only in some contexts = total synonymy – to die – to pass away – to kick the bucket what is the difference? Session 316

17 3.4.2 Relationships of contrast – – – – Session 417 dead single sleep have

18 1. complementarity relationship of contradiction the denial of one term is the assertion of the other, no 'room' in between

19 – – – – Session 419 old good love genius

20 2. antonymy, antonyms difference to 1.? Jumbo is a small elephant.

21 – – – – – Session 421 teacher buy over behind parent

22 3. converseness, converses express the same meaning with a reversal of the order of participants Harris was Chomsky's teacher. Chomsky … The cat is behind the car Session 322

23 – – – – – Session 423 arrive come have learn know

24 4. directional opposites express some kind of direction (also metaphorically) you must have (own) sth. before you, you have to learn sth. in order to, you can only forget what you Session 324

25 3.4.3 Hierarchical relationships Session 325 fish

26 3.4.3 Hierarchical relationships Session 326 fish

27 = hyponymy: relationship of inclusion, superordinate term (hypernym) includes a set of (co)hyponyms Session 327

28 Session 328 lips, teeth, tongue face chineyes nose mouth

29 = meronymy: part-whole relationship (meronym – holonym) the holonym cannot be used for the meronym! (≠ hyponymy) Session 329

30 3.5 Lexical ambiguity a word allows more than one meaning an old friend(1) friend who is aged (2) friend who one has known for a long time he lost his head (1) metaphorical (2) literal Session 330

31 two types of ambiguity: polysemy the various meanings are associatively related to one another mouth –(1) opening through which so. takes food (2) part of a river which empties into a lake, sea Session 331

32 homonymy bark(1) outer covering of wood (2) sound uttered by a dog swallow(1) to go down through the throat (2) small bird Session 332

33 difference between polysemy and homonymy: (a) differentiation based on etymology p. – etymologically the same word, additional meanings via meaning transfer h. – two originally differently sounding words coalesce in the course of their development lie– OE licgan 'to be in a flat position' – OE leogan 'to tell sth. that is not true' Session 333

34 two approaches may lead to divergent results! (b) based on psychological relatedness p. – associative connection by the native speaker h. – no associative connection lie – no link between two meanings, therefore lie 1 and lie 2

35 find the different meanings of box (n.) and ask yourself whether you can explain the meanings by associative connections or not Session 335

36 box (1) container for putting things (2) square on a page (3) (telephone) box (4) (witness) box (5) (royal) box (6) (to get a) box (on the ears) (7) box (hedge) Session 336

37 problematic cases pupil young student area in the middle of the eye G Schlosslock castle, palace Session 337

38 E pupil native speaker probably would assume – very different in meaning – therefore homonyms G Schloss see above

39 homographs: identical in spelling homophones: identical in sound regardless of spelling Session 339

40 3.6 Metaphor and metonymy Metaphor "a good metaphor implies an intuitive perception of the similarities of dissimilars" (Aristotle, Poetics) similarity at least in one characteristic or feature Session 340

41 in traditional terminology two concepts (tenor and vehicle) are linked (tenor need not be explicit) An idea hit him. physical impact  intellectual process hit (vehicle)idea (tenor) also: a striking idea, the impact of an idea frequent characteristic : Session 341

42 literature, rhetoric – focus on the 'ingenious' metaphor the evil empire (president Reagan) everyday use: metaphors are an important structuring principle, we conceptualize one conceptual/mental domain in terms of another source domain – target domain strength: whole domain may be made use of Session 442

43 Session 443 metaphor: mapping across domains

44 +Love is + Our relationship has hit a dead-end street. Look how far we've come. It's been a long, bumpy road. We can't turn back now. We're at a crossroads. We may have to go our separate ways. The relationship isn't going anywhere. We're spinning our wheels. Our relationship is off the track. The marriage is on the rocks. We may have to bail out of this relationship Session 444

45 transfer of knowledge about … to the concept … body metaphors foot of a hill... affection is warmth to greet someone warmly / coldly Session 445

46 3.6.2 Metonymy relationship of contiguity within a conceptual frame The pen is mightier than the sword. (Edward Bulwer-Lytton) 'the one who can use the pen...' Session 446

47 the primary function of metonymy is referential helps to avoid too many and too specific terms Session 447

48 Session 448 metonymy: mapping within a domain

49 two basic types: – part for the whole – the whole for the part = synecdoche in traditional rhetoric container  … the kettle's boiling, to drink a bottle Session 449

50 producer  … he bought a Picasso Session 450 Weeping woman

51 object  attribute a man of the bench (i.e. a judge) material  … a glass Session 451

52 his tongue was sharp (speech) The decision of the White House The Pentagon decided... Washington is insensitive... place  … Session 452

53 Session 353


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