Presentation on theme: "ROSTER STAFF D1.HML.CL10.16 D1.HRM.CL9.09 D2.TRM.CL9.21"— Presentation transcript:
1 ROSTER STAFF D1.HML.CL10.16 D1.HRM.CL9.09 D2.TRM.CL9.21 Trainer welcomes students to class.
2 Roster staff This Unit comprises four Elements: Identify the role of rostersExplain the operational aspects of employment instrumentsGenerate staff rostersUpdate staffing recordsTrainer advises trainees this Unit comprises four Elements, as listed on the slide explaining:• Each Element comprises a number of Performance Criteria which will be identified throughout the class and explained in detail• Trainees can obtain more detail from their Trainee Manual• At times the course presents advice and information about various protocols but where their workplace requirements differ to what is presented, the workplace practices and standards, as well as policies and procedures must be observed.
3 Assessment Assessment for this unit may include: Oral questions Written questionsWork projectsWorkplace observation of practical skillsPractical exercisesFormal report from employer/supervisorTrainer advises trainees that assessment for this Unit may take several forms, all of which are aimed at verifying they have achieved competency for the Unit as required.Trainer indicates to trainees the methods of assessment that will be applied to them for this Unit.
4 Element 1 – Identify the role of rosters Performance Criteria for this Element are:Explain the functions of rostersDescribe situations to which rosters might applyIdentify personnel responsible for developing staffing rostersIdentify the impact of labour budgets on rostersDifferentiate between roster formatsIdentify factors that impact on the selection of staff for rostersTrainer identifies for trainees the Performance Criteria for this Element, as listed on the slide.
5 Explain the functions of rosters A roster is a plan organising staff and indicating:Names of staff workingDays/dates of workWork times – perhaps with breaks shownWork locationRoleTrainer defines ‘roster’ offering a roster is a plan that organises staff, indicating:Names of staff who are to workDays of work – usually with datesStart timesBreak timesFinish timesWhere they are to workTheir role.
6 Explain the functions of rosters May also provide information about staff ‘movements’Help ensure ‘the right people are in the right numbers in the right place at the right time’Trainer adds more information about what staff rosters are stating:It also gives information as to staff movements, such as:Who is on annual leaveWho is on sick leaveWho is undertaking training.The purpose of rosters can be seen as ensuring the right people, in the right numbers, are employed at the right place at the right time.
7 Explain the functions of rosters Businesses use rosters to:Organise staffBalance their mix/use of staffCommunicate with employeesControl labour costsHelp workersMeet imposed obligationsTrainer indicates reasons businesses use rosters:Organising staffRostering is a means of organising staff.It enables the supervisor/person preparing the roster to:Determine and/or know who is working on a particular shift and who is notMake sure there are sufficient staff to cater for anticipated service needsDistribute the projected workload equitably among staff and across the working dayGuarantee the level of service required/promised to customers is delivered – across the working day.Balancing experienced staffRostering enables those preparing the rosters to ensure skilled workers are rostered on duty with people who are not so experienced: in this way, rosters help make sure customer is adequately served (now) by staff in both numbers and skills and guarantees the presence of suitably experienced staff (into the future)..This is an effective and efficient use of staff.Rosters should reflect a good mix of experience and, in some cases, a mix of genders, ages and nationalities/language skills.Communicating with staffRostering is a means of communicating with employees, to inform them of:When they are required for work – in terms of:When they need to arrive/be at workWhen their breaks areWhen they can go homeWhen they are not required for workWhen their leave days are available to be taken.Good rosters reflect to the employee the busy periods and the goals of the organisation in terms of service.In some cases, the roster may indicate to the employee what location and work they will be doing at a given time.
8 Describe situations to which rosters might apply Will be developed to suit individual needAre commonly prepared for:Departments/sections/specified areasThe whole organisationA specific projectTrainer explains businesses prepare rosters to suit their individual need highlighting rosters for accommodation venues which also provide (say) food, beverages, gaming, entertainment and functions will be fundamentally different to an enterprise selling travel or one which operates tours.This said rosters are commonly drawn up by organisations on the following bases:An individual department – see following slidesA whole enterprise – see following slidesA specific project – see following slides.
9 Describe situations to which rosters might apply Department/section-based rosters:Are common to larger businessesVery common in hotelsPopular where businesses are open for long hoursAllows better allocation of staff to suit individual departmental needTrainer discusses preparation of rosters for individual departments, section or areas stating:Many organisations are structured on a department basis. This means the organisational chart for the business identifies several departments/revenue centres.Where rosters are prepared for individual departments a separate roster is created for each department showing staffing required on a department-by-department basis. This approach:Is common to larger businesses – with higher employee numbersIs most common in hotels/accommodation venues – who have more roles and departments to cover/staffIs popular with organisations open longer hours – especially those which operate on a 24/7 basisAllows management/supervisors in each department to use their knowledge and experience of the department to develop a roster – so each one best suits the unique demands of the department as those needs fluctuate over time.Classroom Activity (1)Trainer distributes and discusses sample organisational chart explaining its use and identifying the various departments/divisions shown.Classroom Activity (2)Trainer distributes and discusses sample department-based roster/s.
10 Describe situations to which rosters might apply Whole of organisation rosters:Are less structuredApply more to smaller operationsAre prepared by business owner/manager rather than supervisorsApply to businesses open relatively few/er hours or standard hours which remain (more or less) constantTrainer discusses preparation of rosters for whole organisations stating:Some organisations prepare rosters on an enterprise-wide basis where one roster only identifies staffing required for the period in question for the entire business. These organisations:Tend to be less structured – in terms of departmentalisationTend to be smaller operations – with fewer employeesAre often managed by one person (a Business/Office Manager) – as opposed to several Supervisors or Departmental ManagersUsually open fewer, standard or more restricted hours – such as ‘Business Hours’ or (for example) ‘Monday – Saturday, 9:00AM – 6:00PM’Classroom ActivityTrainer distributes and discusses sample whole of organisation roster/s.
11 Describe situations to which rosters might apply Project-based rosters:Are prepared for special events, occasions, functions or activitiesAddress work which needs to be undertaken ‘before’, ‘during’ and ‘after’ the event/projectTrainer discusses preparation of rosters for projects stating:Rosters may also be prepared for project-based work including:Nominated events – such as a certain trip, tour, or MICE eventSpecific functions – such as a certain dinner, ball or party.These rosters will address roles/staffing requirements:Prior to the event/functions/project – such as planning and preparation, reservations, set-upDuring the event/functions/project – covering implementation and conduct of the activityAfter the event/functions/project – such as clean-up, administration, follow-up and returning areas/vehicles to ‘normal’ condition.Classroom ActivityTrainer distributes and discusses sample project-based roster/s.
12 Describe situations to which rosters might apply Those preparing rosters need:Authority to actKnowledge of all employment instruments in useGood operating knowledge of the businessGood knowledge of staff of the businessThorough understanding of factors impacting on staffingTrainer provides an overview of the pre-requisite knowledge needed for people to develop/prepare rosters observing they need:Authority to act in this regard – as delegated to them by management/business ownersIntimate knowledge of the employment instruments – as they apply to all staff covered by the rostersGood operating knowledge of the business – so there is an understanding of:The busy and slow times of departments or the business – which may relate to:Hours of the day – certain times may be busy, others may be very quietDays of the week – some days may be traditionally busy while others are notHoliday periods – which (depending on the business) can mean trade is busy/busier or slow/slowerUp-coming trade for the business – in terms (for example) of:Accommodation bookedFunction bookings/reservationsTours which have been bookedGood knowledge of staff within the organisation – in relation to their:Skills, attitudes and knowledgeExperience and expertiseAvailabilityPreferencesThorough knowledge of all factors impacting on staffing for the business – which can address:Service levels, standards and promises made to customersLegislation applying to employment and IRPlans the organisation has – which may (for example) address expansion, contraction, succession planning and other staff-related training and development mattersLabour budget.
13 Describe situations to which rosters might apply Rosters may be prepared by:Business ownerManagers/supervisorsRoster CommitteeTrainer states the job of developing rosters may be allocated to:Owner of the business – which is usually the case in smaller owner-operated businesses with very few staff, and no internal hierarchical structureManagers – these may be:Office Managers or Business Managers – who are in-charge of a branch or single officeDepartment manager or Supervisor – who are in-charge of a department/area/revenue centre within the businessDivision or Section Manager – being a person responsible for several departments/areas/revenue centresA Roster Committee – commonly used where a roster is required for a specific project.The Committee will comprise key personnel (managers/supervisors) from all the departments/sections with responsibility under the project.Classroom ActivityTrainer arranges for Guest Speaker to attend and talk to students about their role in preparing rosters explaining factors/issues they consider, describing why they use rosters and showing and explaining a range of rosters they have developed.
14 Identify the impact of labour budgets on rosters Is the amount of money available to pay staffMay also be called ‘staff budget’Covers all classifications/types of employeesTrainer explains:The labour budget is the amount of money available to pay staff.The budget (also known as ‘staff budget’) contains the money to pay all staff for all hours worked for the period in question – this includes:Permanent/full-time staffPart-time employeesCasual workersOvertime.
15 Identify the impact of labour budgets on rosters Labour budget may also cover identified/nominated ‘on costs’ such as:TrainingUniformsLeave entitlementsMandatory/legislated contributionsTrainer states the labour budget may also contain funds to cover ‘on costs’ highlighting:In terms of rosters/labour ‘on costs’ cover additional expenses related to the employment of staff, such as:TrainingUniformsLeave entitlementsMandatory/legislated contributions.
16 Identify the impact of labour budgets on rosters Labour budget prepared by management – may be determined on a:Lump sum basisPercentage of sales basisTrainer states the labour budget is prepared by management who usually determine the amount of money available for the employment of staff in one of two ways:Lump sum allocationPercentage of sales basis.In this option management/business owners allocate an amount to the budget they believe is sufficient based on their:Industry knowledgeKnowledge of the individual businessPersonal experienceExpectations about service levels and standards they want the staff/the business to deliver.Percentage of sales basisMany businesses will forecast sales/revenue for the period in question, and use that figure as the amount available for labour, because they operate on a ‘percentage of sales’ labour budget basis.In effect, the more sales there are, the more staff can be rostered to work for the period..Correspondingly, less revenue means fewer staff can be employed.Classroom ActivityTrainer distributes and discusses sample labour budgets.
17 Identify the impact of labour budgets on rosters ‘Labour cost percentage’:Is the percentage of sales/revenue which can be used to pay labor used to generate that incomeCalculated using formula:Labour cost x 100SalesFor example: sales 8550, labour costs 2250 = labour cost percentage of 26.3%Trainer introduces need to calculate labour cost percentage noting:Labour cost percentage is the percentage of sales/revenue which can be/are used to pay the wages to generate that income.It is calculated by dividing the labour cost by the sales, and multiplying by 100 over 1. For example:Labour cost x 100Sales 1Assume: Sales 8550 and Labour Costs 2250Labour cost percentage would be calculated as follows:2250 x 100 = 26.3%The labour cost percentage for these figures is thus 26.3%Classroom ActivityTrainer distributes handouts requiring students to calculate labour cost percentages using the statistics supplied and provides assistance and feedback as appropriate.
18 Identify the impact of labour budgets on rosters Rosters may need to be ‘costed’ which requires for each person listed on the roster:Identifying their pay rate for every hour they are rosteredMultiplying hours worked by the appropriate rate/hourTotalling costs for each worker to arrive at total labour cost for the period/rosterTrainer identifies there may be a need for those preparing rosters to cost them before they are given to staff/submitted for approval noting costing a roster means, for every person listed on the roster:Identifying their pay rate – as appropriate for all time shown on the roster: this may mean different pay rates for:Early starts and late finishesWeekend workWork on public holidaysHigher duties (where extra allowances are payable)OvertimeMultiplying ‘hours worked’ by the appropriate pay rate – for each employee for the complete roster periodTotalling the costs for each worker – to obtain a total labour cost figure for the roster: this is the ‘expected costed roster figure’ for the period.Classroom ActivityTrainer presents students with sample roster and supporting employment instruments and pay rates and asks them to cost the roster, providing assistance and feedback as required.
19 Identify the impact of labour budgets on rosters Costed rosters need to be compared to labour budget:Over-budget rosters may need to be re-workedThere may be extra funds available for ‘special circumstances’ where costs are ‘too high’Situations where the percentage is ‘under budget’ may mean money can be carried over to use at a later time as/when neededTrainer notes costed rosters need to be compared to relevant labour budget noting this will mean:Evaluating the figure calculated against the money/funds allocated – where the labour budget was developed on a lump sum basis – to ensure it fits within the allowable parametersDetermining projected sales/revenue for the roster period – and using the labour cost percentage equation to work out the labour cost percentage for the roster.In the previous example, if management had set a labour cost percentage target of 30%, they would be happy because results have come in under budget.If the target for staff/labour was 25%, then the outcome would have come in slightly over budget.Where results are over budget, some operations allow this to be carried forward to next roster period where the situation has to be retrieved.Likewise, where the outcome is under budget, this may allow slightly more to be spent on subsequent rosters.In other organisations, each roster period stands alone, and the expectation is the budget must be met every time: no carry-overs are permitted.These calculations are done before the roster is put in place (to make sure it is within budget), and then the same calculations are done after the period, using the actual figures which have emerged, to see how the costed roster compared to the actual roster.This allows anything over budget to be identified and factored in to the next roster – meaning cut-backs will probably have to be made.
20 Identify the impact of labour budgets on rosters If labour budget continues to be exceeded this may mean:Need to apply techniques to control itAllocation of extra fundsIncreasing labour cost percentageClosing the businessTrainer states there are several possible implications if a labour budget continues to be exceeded – that is, if the cost of paying staff consistently exceeds the limitations imposed by management – these can include:Applying techniques to bring the labour budget back under control – see following slideMoving extra funds to the labour budget – where the budget is allocated on a lump sum basis. This may be necessary because staff have to be paid as a fundamental business operating cost.Lifting the labour cost percentage figure for the budget – where the labour budget is calculated on a cost of sales basisChanging the nature and operating environment of the business – so it can function in an acceptable way under a new/revised format. This often requires a major change to issues such as:Market positioningPricingBrandingBusiness plans and strategies.Closing the business – if the situation cannot be resolved (because the operation has ceased to be profitable or competitive).
21 Identify the impact of labour budgets on rosters Possible ways to control/improve labour cost percentages:Reduce staff numbers and/or hoursIncrease selling pricesChange opening/operating hoursUse online alternativesAlter service levels, standards and criteriaUndertake advertising/promotionExamine mix of workers being usedTrainer presents techniques which might be able to be used to bring labour budgets back under control:Reducing staff numbers – by retrenching staff: this may adversely affect quality/style of service provision which can lead to a downward spiral of fewer sales meaning (again) a further need to cut staff numbersReducing staff hours – through rostering staff to work fewer hours: this too may have a direct impact on revenue and/or quality of service deliveryIncreasing selling prices – which may also negatively influence revenueAltering business hours for the organisation – there may be room to open the business for fewer hours meaning a reduced need for staffClosing certain aspects of the business:On a permanent basis – while retaining the other activities of the organizationFor nominated hours on certain days – when business records indicate trade is insufficient to justify openingMoving more of the business to an online environment, where possible – to reduce the amount of face-to-face contact required between staff and customersChanging service delivery standard and criteria – which may mean (for example):Increasing the length of waiting time customers may have to spend before being servedAllocating more customers for the same number of staff (or fewer staff) to deal withCleaning facilities less frequentlyReducing the type and/or number of products and/or services availableUndertaking a promotional/advertising campaign – designed to generate extra sales from the same labour cost outlayLooking closely at the mix of workers used to staff the roster – for example this can mean:Using no casual staff or fewer casual staff – because their pay rate (on an hourly basis) is usually higher than the per hour pay rate for permanent/full-time employeesUsing no part-time staff or fewer part-time staff – see immediately aboveUsing more casual or part-time staff – where it is believed permanent/full-time are being paid but are not being productive while at work (perhaps because there is no work for them to do)Rostering staff who are multi-skilled – so they can perform more than one role when at work.
22 Differentiate between roster formats Two options for presenting approved rosters:Paper-based formatElectronic formatTrainer advises there are two basic options for formats when presenting a roster:Paper-based formatElectronic format.Classroom ActivityTrainer distributes and discusses examples of format options identified.
23 Differentiate between roster formats The paper-based format option:Produced by hand on paperA template may be used as the model/basisRoster is photocopied for distributionInexpensiveNo special training requiredTrainer discusses paper-based option noting this option is often used by smaller business with fewer staff operating standard hours to produce a limited range of products/services and:The roster is written by hand on paper – a pro forma template document may be used as the basis for developing the roisterThe original is photo-copied for distribution to staff – where multiple copies are requiredIt is an inexpensive approach – there is no outlay for systems or technology/softwareNo special training is required – apart from experience with the business and with preparing rosters.
24 Differentiate between roster formats Electronic format rosters:Produced using dedicated softwareRequires base data/parameters to be enteredSpecial training requiredCan give fairer and more cost-effective outcomeMay save timeFacilitates storage of past rostersTrainer discusses electronic format option noting it features the use of special software programs (‘roster programs’) to assist with determining the most cost-effective use of staff and producing the final hard-copy roster which is printed off (where copies are required for distribution) or ed to staff.The benefits of using rostering software may include:Fairer treatment of individual staff – the software does not play favourites in terms of who is assigned which jobs/rolesOptimal allocation of staff to service identified busy periods – within designated payroll parametersCapturing and storing of previous rosters – for possible future re-use/referenceSaving of time – the software should produce a roster in less time than a person (however there is a need to factor in the time it takes to learn the system and input the necessary information, pay rates and other employment parameters which can impact remuneration [such as timing of rest breaks, meal breaks, breaks between shifts]).The down-sides of this option are:Initial expense in purchasing the software and/or hardwareTime spent learning the system.Classroom ActivityTrainer facilitates student internet research into relevant websites such as:
25 Differentiate between roster formats Many rosters feature abbreviations – interpretations can vary between businesses who use them:*** = Not on roster; ADO = Accrued Day OffLSL = Long Service Leave; AL = Annual LeaveWhat do the following mean?COM; FO; DR; NA; RDO; Pub Hol; SL; WC; TrgTrainer explains every workplace will, over time, develop abbreviations which it uses on its rosters noting these abbreviations can be specific only to that particular organisation and make no sense (or have no use) in other businesses while in addition there are several abbreviations in common use:*** = Not on rosterADO = Accrued Day OffLSL = Long Service LeaveAL = Annual LeaveClassroom ActivityTrainer asks students to define the abbreviations shown on the slide:Com or Bev = Compassionate or Bereavement LeaveFO = Front OfficeDR = Dining RoomNA= Not available for work (often used for casuals)RDO = Rostered Day OffPub Hol = Public Holiday (meaning staff member is not required)SL = Sick LeaveWC = Staff member is on Worker’s Compensation LeaveTrg= Staff member is attending training.
26 Differentiate between roster formats Basic requirements for rosters:Easy to understandProvided in print which is easy to readMade available as requiredNot changed with appropriate consultationInclude relevant/necessary informationTrainer identifies basic requirements in relation to staff rosters:Are easy to understandAre printed/written in print which is easy to readAre made available as required – a standard requirement is staff receive their roster 14 days in advance of their first day/starting timeAre not changed after they have been distributed without prior discussion with, and consent from, the staff involvedProvide all relevant information such as:Names of staff who are to workDays of work – usually with datesStart timesBreak times – see comment belowFinish timesWhere they are to workRole/position to be worked.
27 Differentiate between roster formats The ‘24-hour clock’ often used on rosters to avoid confusion between AM and PM times:Midnight = 0000 or 00.003AM = 0300 or 03.009.35am = 0935 or 09.35Midday = 1200 or 12.004:45PM = 1645 or 16.4511.25pm = 2325 or 23.25Trainer introduces concept of the 24-hour clock format in relation to rosters stating:It is sometimes called the ‘international time’ format.It is commonly used as it avoids confusion over whether times given are AM or PM.In this system:Midnight is 0000 or 00:003am = 0300 or 03:009:35AM = 0935 or 09:35Midday = 1200 or 12:004.45 in the afternoon = 1645 or 16:4511:25pm = 2325 or 23:25.Classroom Activity (1)Trainer facilitates internet research on relevant websites such as:Classroom Activity (2)Trainer presents students with list of times:In AM and PM format and asks them to convert to 24-hour clock formatIn international time format and asks to convert to AM and PM format .
28 Differentiate between roster formats Rotating rosters:Used where times/staff can be repeated on some sort of rotating basisSuited to businesses where trade and staffing needs are constantMay be based on early shift, middle shift and late shift basisMay rotate through different jobs/positionsTrainer introduces concept of rotating rosters stating:Rotating rosters are rosters which can be repeated on a regular/ongoing basis.They are suitable for operations where trade and staffing requirements are constant and predictable as they save time and effort.The organisation may, for example, prepare three different rosters which allocate staff to certain jobs, working different shifts (in order to equitable distribute early starts, late finishes, quiet shifts and busy times).If roster may be prepared for a two-week period, meaning at the end of six weeks all staff would have worked an early shift, a middle-of-the-day shift and a late shift.They may have also rotated through different roles/positions depending on their training, experience and skills: this would help relieve monotony and boredom of repeating the same work all the time.Classroom ActivityTrainer distributes and discusses sample rotating rosters.
29 Identify factors that impact on the selection of staff for rosters Considerations when selecting staff may include:ExperienceGenderAgeSkillsLanguagesService delivery levels/abilityLeave entitlementsStaff requestsTrainer identifies and discusses the following are common considerations when deciding which staff to include on rosters being prepared:Experience – many operators will seek to roster a mix of ‘experienced’ staff with employees who are new to the job/less experienced.This is to allow the less experienced staff to learn from the persons they are rostered to work with.Such as approach may be a deliberate action to support formal on-the-job training using the ‘buddy system’.Gender – while it can be illegal to employ staff on the basis of their gender, many employers will intentionally select a mix of males and females for a roster in order to reflect the composition of their customers.This is done where it is believed people may be more comfortable with staff of a certain gender – for example, where it is felt women prefer being served by females.Age – again, it can be illegal to employ staff on the basis of age but many businesses will intentionally hire staff to reflect the age profiles of their customers.Where this is the case, the roster will ensure younger staff are rostered to cater for younger customers and elder staff are rostered on when/where more senior customers are expected.Skills – there is a non-negotiable need to ensure every roster contains staff capable of undertaking the duties/work required.As most workplaces require a variety of jobs to be completed, there is a demand for staff with a range of skills appropriate to the products/services being offered.
30 Summary – Element 1 When identifying the role of rosters: Understand reasons the business uses staff rostersLearn information required in a rosterIdentify organisational requirements (restrictions and parameters) applying to rostersDetermine labour budget for each roster period and/or how such figure is calculated(Continued)Trainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
31 Summary – Element 1Identify different occasions/situations for which rosters need to be preparedDetermine frequency with which rosters must be prepared and the duration of rostersIdentify who prepares/prepared rosters in order to learn from themDevelop comprehensive knowledge of workplace and staff(Continued)Trainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
32 Summary – Element 1Find out who needs to view, approve or authorise rosters before they are communicated to staffLearn or develop solutions to apply to unacceptable/out-of-control labour budgets and rostersIdentify roster format used by the organisation and obtain samples of same(Continued)Trainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
33 Summary – Element 1 Learn how to interpret and read existing rosters Learn how to use ‘international time’ to state times of the dayEstablish the factors the organisation considers when selecting staff for rostersTrainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
34 Element 2 – Explain the operational aspects of employment instruments Performance Criteria for this Element are:Describe the range of employment instruments in use by the industryDifferentiate between staff employment classificationsDistinguish between applicable pay ratesIdentify leave entitlements(Continued)Trainer identifies for trainees the Performance Criteria for this Element, as listed on the slide.
35 Element 2 – Explain the operational aspects of employment instruments Identify meal and break entitlementsIdentify allowance entitlementsDescribe legislated requirements that apply to staff rostersIdentify requirements that apply to specific work-related incidents and situationsTrainer identifies for trainees the Performance Criteria for this Element, as listed on the slide.Class Activity – General DiscussionTrainer leads a general class discussion by asking questions such as:What are employment instruments and what information do they contain?How might workers and managers/supervisors use employment instruments?What types of leave are employees entitled to?What requirements apply to staff meal and other breaks?What are allowances? What examples of allowances do you know of?
36 Describe the range of employment instruments in use by the business Document containing entitlements and conditions of employmentAlso known as ‘Terms of Employment’Legally enforceableMust comply with IR legislationTrainer begins describing employment instruments stating:An ‘employment instrument’ is a document containing the entitlements and conditions for employment of staff.These entitlements and conditions are also known as ‘terms of employment’.It is a legally enforceable document meaning both employer and employees are bound by it.Employment instruments must comply with relevant Industrial Relations legislation of the country to which they apply.
37 Describe the range of employment instruments in use by the business Employment instruments may:Vary between countriesDiffer between industries/industry sectorsChange for individual employeesAlter depending on job position/titleTrainer provides more detail on employment instruments offering they may:Vary between countries – there are similarities across the globe relating to generic contents of employment instruments but each nation has their ownDiffer between industries and industry sectors – as most industries/sectors have their own unique terms of employmentChange for individual employees – based on their qualifications, experience and expertiseVary depending on the job position of the worker – different classifications/job roles may attract different entitlements and conditions.
38 Describe the range of employment instruments in use by the business Contents of employment instruments can include:Rates of payClassifications of staffHours of work(Continued)Trainer states while all employment instruments are unique and stand alone, they can be expected to address the following:Rates of pay/remuneration – for permanent/full-time staff, part-time workers and casual employees, including penalty rates. These rates of pay will cover considerations (as/where applicable) to:Normal (or ‘ordinary’) working hours – as defined by the individual employment instrument.Time worked on week days and weekendsTime worked when employee has started work before declared ‘normal/ordinary’ hoursTime worked when employee has worked after declared ‘normal/ordinary’ hoursTime worked on declared, accepted or nominated Public HolidaysOvertime – including definition of sameTime worked when required rest and/or meal breaks have not been taken.Classifications of staff – identifying:Definitions of full-time/permanent, part-time and casual staff – in terms of hours worked per week/monthJob positions and giving an overview of the tasks related to each role/position/classificationHours of work – identifying:The number of hours in a working week or month for a full-time/permanent employee and/or a part-time workerThe minimum and maximum hours per day which can or must be workedRostered days off
39 Describe the range of employment instruments in use by the business DefinitionsLeave entitlementsBreaksAllowancesRedundancy and termination informationTrainer continues identifying possible contents of employment instruments:Definitions – of words, terms and phrases used in the document so there is clarity regarding meaning of statements made in the documentLeave entitlements – see later slides for examples and explanationsBreaks – see later slides for examples and explanationsAllowances – see later slides for examples and explanationsRedundancy and termination entitlements and requirements – specifying:What employees are entitled to if they are made redundant by the employerThe legal reasons for terminating staff.
40 Describe the range of employment instruments in use by the business Example instruments may take the form of:AwardsAgreementsContractsTrainer explains employment instruments may include:Awards – these are terms of employment negotiated between employer groups (such as peak industry representative bodies) and employee groups (such as trade unions).A standard requirement is a copy of all Awards under which staff work must be posted/made available in a public/convenient location in the workplace so staff have ready access to read it and learn about/understand their entitlements and obligations.Agreements – which are terms of employment negotiated between:A single individual employee and their employerA group of workers and their employer.Agreements must always comply with over-arching employment/IR legislation.Employment contracts – these are terms of employment negotiated between individual employees.Classroom ActivityTrainer distributes and discusses sample Award/s, Agreement/s and Contract/s.
41 Describe the range of employment instruments in use by the business Those preparing rosters need to know the employment instruments for staff selected to work on rosters in order to:Ensure most cost-effective rosterRoster staff according to conditions/terms of employmentBe able to properly cost the rosterTrainer identifies why it is important for those preparing rosters to understand the employment instruments which apply to the staff they intend selecting for the roster – in order to:Ensure the most cost-effective roster is produced – through making sure:Breaks are rostered to be taken when stated – and staff are not made to work longer than required thereby attracting penalty rates/higher levels of payStaff are only rostered for their allocated/agreed ‘normal/ordinary’ hours – and are not rostered to work extra hours which attract overtime paymentsStarting and finishing times for employees are scheduled to minimise payment of penalty ratesStaffing levels are minimised at times when wage/remuneration levels are high/highest (commensurate with providing required levels of service)Develop a roster which provides the agreed/required conditions of employment for all workers – in term so of (for example):Meal breaksRest breaksBreaks between finishing one shift and starting the next shiftMaximum hours worked in a day, week or other nominated time period (fortnight or month)Be able to properly cost a roster – to determine whether or not is meets the restrictions imposed by management/the labour budget.
42 Differentiate between staff employment classifications ‘Time worked’ is key in terms of classifying staff:Hours worked are often assessed on a weekly/fortnightly basisClassifications include:Permanent/full-timePart-timeCasualSpread of hoursRequirements that require/trigger payment of penalty ratesTrainer explains concept of ‘time worked’ as a key in classifying staff highlighting;Employees are often classified in relation to the number of hours per week/fortnight they work.Classification in this regard generally addresses distinctions between full-time, part-time and casual staff.
43 Differentiate between staff employment classifications Considerations relating to classifications include:Definitions of each classification in relation to hours of workSpecification of how identified hours for each classification may be worked(Continued)Trainer identifies considerations relating to classifications of staff:Definitions of each classification in relation to hours of work – for example.Stating permanent staff will work 38, 40 or some other number of hours per week – or the hours may be able to be worked in a variety of ways (per fortnight or month) as stated in the documents: see below, this sectionIdentifying part-time staff will work (for example) between certain hourly weekly limits (say, no less than 16 hours/week and no more than 20 hours/week) with each roster period comprising at least four hours.There may be a prescribed number of days on which they work – for example, ‘on no more than four/five days per week’.Identifying (for example) casual employees are rostered and paid at a nominated hourly rate which varies depending on the day of the week and time of the day they are rostered.Casuals must usually be rostered to work a prescribed minimum number of hours per engagement/every time they are listed on the roster – such as a minimum of four hours per engagement.How hours of work may be worked – for example:Full-time staff may be able to work their hours per week in various ways such as (for example) a staff member may be entitled/able to work a 38-hour in the following ways:A 19 day month, of eight hours per dayFour days of eight hours/day and one day at six hours/dayFour days of nine and a half hours/dayFive days of seven hours and 36 minutes/day152 hours per each four-week period with a minimum of eight RDOs per four-week period
44 Differentiate between staff employment classifications Awards and Agreements may also distinguish between ‘categories of staff’:By name/definition of categoryBy grade of employeeList of tasks/work each category may performTrainer identifies it is common for Awards and Agreements to identify and distinguish between categories of staff which may mean the documents will:Name and define categories of employees – by the work they perform. For example, in a hotel an employment instrument may categorise/classify employees by department and role as follows:Food and beverage – F&B attendant; supervisor; waiter; bar attendantKitchen – cook; chef; section chef; head chefGaming – croupier, security; technicianFront Office – receptionist; telephonist; guest serviceDifferentiate between different grades of employees – such as:Grade 1 – the highest level where (for example) certain qualifications, licences, trade certificates, permits, training and/or experience are requiredGrade 3 – the lowest/starting level for employees with no qualifications or experienceList examples of work/tasks each category and grade of staff can be expected to undertake – providing guidance to employers about the roles and responsibilities for each classification of worker at each grade.Employment contracts always specify the category/classification of the person to whom the contract applies and identify the roles and responsibilities they are being engaged to perform.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
45 Distinguish between applicable pay rates Payment of the correct wages to staff is important because:It is a real requirementIt keeps staff happyIt helps retains staffIt ensures labour costs actually reflect hours worked‘Employment instruments’ are the source documents.Trainer introduces this topic stating payment of applicable rates of pay to staff is an important requirement because:It is a legal requirement – it is an offence to under-pay staffIt helps keeps staff happy and working for the business – because employees usually know what they should be paid and become disgruntled if they do not receive this amount/their entitlementsIt ensures the labour costs being incurred genuinely reflect the hours worked and the staffing roster prepared – as opposed to simply being an estimation of the cost of wages/labour.The relevant ‘employment instruments’ are the source documentation for identifying applicable pay rates.
46 Distinguish between applicable pay rates Considerations relating to pay rates:Pay rates based on classificationApplicable penalty ratesAllowancesGrade-related paymentsMandatory contributionsTrainer highlights when calculating the wages which will be incurred from implementing a roster which has been prepared there is a need to be accurate and include all relevant and legitimate payments to which staff are entitled illustrating depending on the employment instrument these payments can relate to:Rates of pay – for permanent, part-time and casual staff as applicable to the days rostered as they apply to individual worker classification. It is standard/common for these classifications to receive a different hourly rate of pay. Generally:Full-time staff receive the least per hour – but the up-side is they are eligible to a range of entitlements and they work more hoursCasual staff receive the most per hour – as they are eligible to no/fewer entitlements and they work fewer hoursPart-time staff – their hourly rate of pay usually sits somewhere in between full-time and casual staffPenalty rates – which may apply to work performed at certain times and under nominated circumstances such as work undertaken on weekends, public holidays, split shifts, early starts, late finishes, and designated overtime situations. For example, an employment instrument may provide in some cases:Time-and-a-half for some hours worked under certain conditions – that is payment at a rate that is 1½ times normal rateDouble time under certain circumstancesDouble time-and-a-half for hours in other situationsPayments for allowances – as they may relate to meals, travel, accommodations, special qualifications held, use of personal equipment and similar other topics specified under individual employment instrumentsGrade-related payments – higher grade employees traditionally receive a higher hourly or weekly rate of pay than lower grade employees.Where staff are required to perform work duties outside their designated classification they may also be entitled to a higher duties allowance (where they receive extra money for doing higher-level work)Mandatory contributions – the business is required to make in terms (for example) of on costs and matters such as workers’ compensation, insurance and/or superannuation or other similar contributions.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides students with a roster and pay rates and asks students to:Calculate wages at normal rates for full-time and casual staff to identify the extent of the difference between staffing the roster using different staff classifications.
47 Distinguish between applicable pay rates Some businesses make a conscious decision to pay staff more wages than they are entitled to under applicable employment instruments – these payments may be called:Over-Award paymentsAbove-Award paymentsBonusesTrainer introduces over-Award payments noting some (but certainly not all) businesses elect to pay certain staff payments which are above the designated minimum payments they are entitled to explaining these can be referred to as:Over-Award paymentsAbove-Award paymentsBonuses.
48 Distinguish between applicable pay rates Businesses usually offer/make over-Award payments in order to:Attract staff to work at the organisation or at a certain jobMotivate workersReward and recognise staff achievementTrainer states over-Award payments are usually offered/made available to:Attract suitable/required staff to the businessMotivate employeesReward effort and achievement.
49 Distinguish between applicable pay rates Where over-Award payments are made:Staff need to know when they are entitled to themStaff must be told when they will be paidStaff must be told how they are calculatedThey must be paid without failure every time staff are entitled to themTrainer advises where over-Award payments are paid:Staff must be advised when they will be paidStaff must be told how they are calculatedThey must be paid every time they are due/employees are eligible in order to maintain staff trust.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
50 Distinguish between applicable pay rates Standard ways to determine what applies in relation to pay rates:Read relevant employment instrumentsTalk to staff with previous rostering experiencedSpeak with ‘relevant others’Trainer advises standard practice to determine the applicable pay rates, entitlements and allowances for employees on a roster are:Read the employment instrument relevant to each person included on the roster – there may be more than one Award, Agreement and/or Contract for each organisationTake time to understand what each employment instrument says/means in relation to the specific provisions of each document with special attention to interpretations/definitions of terms and their application for the purposes of rosters and remunerationSpeak to other staff with experience of rostering employees and interpreting/understanding the contents of applicable employment instruments – to gain their insight into application of those documents in terms of rostering staff in the most efficient and cost-effective mannerSpeak with relevant others – these may include:ManagersHR/payroll staffEmployment officialsTrade unions.
51 Identify leave entitlements In relation to leave entitlements:There is an absolute need to read and understand the provisions of each employment instrument relevant to the workplace in relation to:Types of leave provided forEligibilityAmount of leaveEmployers may offer additional entitlements at their own discretionTrainer stresses information presented in relation to this topic is indicative only – it is presented only as a possible example of what each type of leave may entitle employees to highlighting it is critical those with responsibility for preparing rosters read relevant employment instruments as they apply to their workplace and identify:The types of leave provided forWhen staff are entitled to each type of leaveThe amount of leave available in each category of leave.In addition, employers are always free to offer leave entitlements/payments in excess of the minimum provided for under employment instruments.
52 Identify leave entitlements Annual leave:Payable to F/T and P/T staff after 12 monthsMay be X weeks paid leave for every year workedLoadings and/or pro rata payment may applyCan be deferred by arrangement/agreementMay be able to be taken as single days instead of a blockTrainer states in relation to annual leave the following is indicative of what may apply – specifics are subject to change based on individual employment instruments:It usually applies only to full-time and part-time employees – casual employees are not entitled to annual leaveIt may be payable after the employee has completed 12 months of continuous service (see below) with the employerIt provides for a set amount of paid leave (say, four weeks) for every 12 months of continuous serviceA percentage may be added to standard pay rates when calculating annual leave payments to represent penalty payments normally made to staff throughout the yearA set amount of time needs to be worked before staff are eligible to any annual leave payments – for example, they may have to work for a minimum of X weeks or X hours before becoming eligibleFull-time and part-time staff who leave or who are dismissed after they have reached minimum period for eligibility but before twelve months service has occurred may be entitled to pro rata annual leave payment.That is, if staff have worked for six months they are eligible to half their entitlement.Annual leave may be able to be deferred by the staff member or the employer – for a set period/number of months or yearsStaff may be allowed to take annual leave as single days off throughout the year by arrangement/agreement with their employer.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
53 Identify leave entitlements Sick leave:Available when workers are unable to work due to sickness or injuryX hours/year will be allocatedEmployee needs to work minimum hours to be eligibleUnused sick leave is not ‘paid out’ when staff leave the employerEvidence may be required to support authorisation of paymentTrainer discusses sick leave saying it may apply only to full-time and part-time employees (casual employees are often not entitled to sick leave) explaining it means the employer pays the employee if they are ‘off work’ due to sickness or injury:It may be payable only after the employee has completed a specified number of hours/weeks/months work with the employerIt provides for a set amount of paid leave (say, 10 days ) for every 12 months of continuous serviceStaff have no entitlement to having unclaimed sick leave paid out when they leave the employ of the employerIt may be a condition of payment of sick leave supporting evidence of sickness or injury (such as a doctor’s/medical certificate) is provided.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
54 Identify leave entitlements Bereavement leave:Provided to enable F/T and P/T staff to have paid time to deal with the death of nominated persons such as family membersX hours per family member or per year providedEvidence may be required to provide proof of the death before payment will be madeTrainer discusses bereavement leave:It may apply only to full-time and part-time employees – casual employees are often not entitled to bereavement leaveIt is paid when a member of the employee’s immediate family or household diesThe employment instrument will/may specify who is deemed to be ‘immediate family’ – to prevent confusion about (for example) if this type of leave can be claimed for death of an in-law, uncle, aunt, cousin or niece.Commonly this type of leave applies to:ParentsOffspring/childrenSpousesA set number of hours may be provided for this type of leave – this time may be expressed in terms of:Number of hours per deathTotal number of hours per year.Employers can demand proof of the death of the person for whom bereavement leave is claimedThere is generally no ‘qualification period’ before employees become eligible for this type of leave.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
55 Identify leave entitlements Carer leave:Not a common type of leaveProvided to enable staff to have unpaid time away from work to look after nominated persons (family) who are ill or require support or careTrainer explains carer leave:Carer leave is not covered by employment instruments to the same extent as other types of leaveIt is usually provided for full-time and part-time employees onlyIt enables eligible staff to take paid or unpaid leave to care for nominated people who are ill and require care or supportThe employment instrument will prescribe the people and their relationship to staff to whom carer leave appliesA set number of hours per year may apply:On a per person who needs to be cared for basisOn a total number of hours per year basisProof of the need for carer support from a medical practitioner/office may be required.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
56 Identify leave entitlements ‘Parental leave’ is a generic term for:Maternity leavePaternity leaveAdoption leaveTrainer introduces parental leave noting parental leave is a generic term used for:Maternity leave – leave granted to women who give birthPaternity leave – leave granted to father’s whose partners give birthAdoption leave – leave granted to staff to enable adoption of a child.Trainer illustrates possible provisions of parental leave as follows:Not all employment instruments provide for paternal leave.In relation to this type of leave the following is indicative of what may apply – specifics are subject to change based on individual employment instruments:This type of leave is often unpaid leaveEmployers may be required to re-employ those who have taken these classifications of leave after their leave period has finishedA maximum period of time the person can elect to take off work is identified – such as 52 weeksThe person seeking this type of leave is required to give a nominated amount of notice of their intention to take this type of leave – such as giving four week’s noticeFor women who give birth there may be a statement:Identifying the time before the birth when they may take this leave – such as six weeks prior to the birthIdentifying the time after the birth when they may elect to return to work – such as six weeks after the birth (meaning they are not eligible to return sooner than this)This leave needs to be taken in a single unbroken period – it cannot be taken a day or a week at a timeSpecial leave may apply to women who lose their child prior to birth or during childbirth – for example, they may be eligible to paid sick leave.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
57 Identify leave entitlements Jury service:Employers usually required by law to release staff for jury serviceMake up pay may have to be paid by employer to supplement money paid by Court to jury membersProof of attendance may be requiredTrainer discusses jury service as follows:The employer is usually required by law to release all classifications, types and grades of staff from work/rostered hours to serve as required on a jury – it can be a criminal offence to fail to release staff to attend jury serviceThe employer may be required to pay employees money to supplement the allowance provided by the Court for jury service – up to the amount they would have normally earned for the period in questionStaff who are called for jury service are obliged to notify their employer of this at the earliest opportunity stating dates they have been called to serve – to allow for alternative roster arrangements to be madeProof of attendance for jury service may be required before relevant payments are madeClassroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
58 Identify leave entitlements Study leave:May be provided by employers to support staff undertaking approved trainingMay apply only to certain staff and/or coursesMay embrace time off and/or cost of trainingPayment may only be made on successful completion of the trainingProof of enrolment/attendance may be requiredTrainer discusses study leave:Study leave is usually not provided for under employment instrumentsMost study leave occurs under the terms/conditions of an internal ‘Staff training’ or ‘Study leave’ policy put in place by the organisationStudy leave may:Only apply to certain staff/classifications of staffOnly apply to nominated courses or training opportunitiesParameters will exist in relation to:The maximum number of paid hours staff will be granted paid study leaveExpenses which can be claimed – these may include:Enrolment, tuition and course feesTravel and accommodationBooks and course/.training requisitesProof of enrolment, attendance and/or successful completion may be requiredSome employers will only reimburse study expenses upon successful completion of study, training or courses.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
59 Identify leave entitlements Leave without pay:Organisations have the right to grant this as they see fitAdvanced notice usually required and certainly preferredThe reason for the leave is usually required and is often a significant factor in determination of whether or not the leave will be grantedTrainer discusses leave without pay stating all organisations have the right to grant any employee leave without pay if they choose to do so.Staff can apply for leave without pay for any reason, or to extend the duration of other leave for which they are entitled to take paid leave.Businesses will normally:Required advanced notice of intention to take this type of leave – including details of reason and relevant datesAccommodate these requests where it is reasonably practical to do so.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
60 Identify leave entitlements ‘Continuous service’:May need to be calculated to determine eligibility for leave/paymentsEmployment instruments should specify what events do not break continuityEmployer may be required to notify staff in writing where action is deemed to constitute a break in continuous serviceTrainer It may be/is necessary to calculate ‘continuous service’ in order to determine when staff are entitled to annual leave. For example, in working out ‘twelve months’ continuous service’ (the common basic requirement for eligibility for annual leave) the following absences from the workplace may be counted as time worked:Up to a nominated amount of time per year for sickness or accident – such as ‘up to X hrs’ or ‘up to four weeks’Any time taken as long service leaveAll time taken as annual leaveLeave which was granted by the employer at their discretionAny temporary stand down from work due to reasons where the employee was not at faultAbsence for any reasonable cause – with the onus on the employee to prove such absence was ‘reasonable.Where less than twelve months have been worked, absences from the workplace (as provided for) are counted on a pro rata basis.It is also a common requirement that where an employer believes an employee’s absence from work constitutes a break in/for the purpose of calculating/determining continuity of service, the employer must notify the staff member in writing of this.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
61 Identify meal and break entitlements Knowledge of breaks is important so as to:Schedule them on rosters as requiredAvoid penalties for failing to schedule breaks as requiredKeep staff happy and restedComply with regulations and requirementsDemonstrate respect and concern for workersAll staff are usually eligible for breaks.Trainer highlights it is important for those who develop rosters to know about breaks and when they need to be taken in order to:Schedule them at the appropriate timesAvoid situations where penalty payments are incurred as a result of staff not being able to take a break when they are entitled toKeep staff happy, fed and restedComply with IR agreements/requirementsDemonstrate respect and concern for staff.All staff (full-time, part-time and casual) are usually eligible for breaks.
62 Identify meal and break entitlements Meal breaks:Provided so staff can eat a mealUsually regarded as unpaid timeEligibility relates to:A minimum number of hours have to have been workedA set amount of time for the break is allocatedTrainer discusses meal breaks stating:A meal break is provided to give staff the opportunity to eat a meal.Generally staff are entitled to a meal break on the following basis:They need to have worked a nominated amount of time – say five hoursThey are then eligible to be given an amount of time to eat a meal – say 30 minutesThe meal break time is ‘unpaid’ – meaning it does not count as part of the working day/hours worked for the day.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
63 Identify meal and break entitlements Rest breaks:Provided for rest and recoveryUsually treated as paid timeCriteria apply regarding eligibility, timing and durationTrainer discusses rest breaks stating:A rest break is provided to give staff the opportunity to have time away from work during the working day to rest and recuperate.In general, rest breaks:Apply if a worker is required to work more than a given number of hours after they have had a meal break – say, for more than five hours after having taken lunchGive the staff member a period of time off work – say, 20 minutesAre paid – this means the employer has to pay the employee for the time they are resting: this highlights the need to avoid paying rest breaks as they are unproductive timeCan apply where a worker has been asked to work more than (say) two hours of overtime.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topic on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
64 Identify meal and break entitlements Breaks between shifts:Usually a requirement for staff to have a given number of hours between shiftsPenalties apply if they do not get this breakThe requirement can even apply where staff arrange between themselves to swap shiftsTrainer discusses breaks between shifts stating:Most employment instruments identify a minimum amount of time (a stated number of hours – for example 10 hours) staff are entitled to between rostered shifts with the exception of situations where they are working agreed split shifts.Breaks between shifts are provided to enable workers to socialise, take care of family commitments, and rest.The requirement for a nominated break between shifts may apply to permanent, part-time and casual staff.If the roster (or actual hours worked) does not give employees their entitlement in this respect:They may be entitled to be paid overtime for all time worked until they can take their allocated time for break between shifts –which can be very expensiveThey may be entitled to choose to start work later than their rostered time for the next shift without loss of pay for the late start – to ensure they actually receive their ‘break between shift’ entitlement.A word of warningThose preparing rosters and in charge of staffing need to be aware this requirement regarding /break between shifts’ may apply even where staff arrange between themselves to swap shifts.This means if two staff organise with each other to swap shifts for mutual benefit (perhaps one worker wants time off to attend a family event), then this arrangement can have (perhaps unintended) impact on wages where one of the workers does not receive their ‘break between shift’ entitlement.
65 Identify meal and break entitlements Employer approaches to meal breaks:They provide no foodThey may provide basic food at a basic cost/chargeThey may provide food free-of-chargeThey may give an allowanceTrainer identifies a variety of options exist across different industries and industry sectors in relation to the provision of meal breaks, for example:The business may provide no food for employees at all – if workers want to eat a meal during their meal break they have to provide it for themselves.Most workplaces however will be under some legal obligation to provide suitable facilities for staff to eat their meal – that is, dining facilities of some sort.The business may provide basic food for employees at a basic cost – the choice of food is usually restricted and the amount charged may be determined by a clause in the employment instrument, or set by the employer at a discounted rate compared to what normal customers are expected to payThe business may provide a range of food and drinks to staff free-of-chargeThe business may allocate an allowance to employees – for every meal they are entitled to while rostered to work (see following slide)Where the business operates (for example a hotel or an accommodation venue) the business may provide accommodation and meals to staff in return for a standard ‘Board and Lodging’ charge as identified in the employment instrument. This charge/fee is taken from employees’ pay every time wages are paid.
66 Identify allowance entitlements Allowances:Cash payments made to eligible staffPaid under prescribed situations as identified in employment instrumentsPaid as part of regular pay/wagesProof of eligibility may be requiredTrainer introduces allowances stating:Allowances are cash payments made to eligible staff.They are paid for situations as prescribed in relevant employment instruments, with management always having the right to identify and pay additional allowances at their discretion.Allowances are usually paid every pay day as part of the weekly, fortnightly or monthly wages paid to employees.Very few businesses pay allowances as a lump sum payment.Proof of eligibility is required before some allowances are paid.
67 Identify allowance entitlements Allowances available may include:Meal allowanceFirst-aid allowanceClothing allowanceTools and equipment allowanceTravel allowance(Continued)Trainer identifies and describes range of possible allowances:Meal allowances – this is an amount of money given to employees who are entitled to a meal break while at work.It is usually provided by businesses instead of them providing an actual meal.First aid allowances – this is a set amount per week paid to holders of designated first aid certificates/qualifications.Proof of currency of certification is normally required.Clothing allowances – may be paid to employees who are required to wear certain clothes/uniforms and/or to present themselves according to a certain standard as set by the organisation.Tools and equipment allowances – these are allowances given to staff for using personal tools/equipment for the purpose of work.For example, many chefs will use their own knives/tools and be paid an allowance for doing so.Travel allowances – this is not a common allowance. It may be paid:To employees required to start work before public transport is runningTo employees who finish work after public transport has stopped runningWhere employees attend training or an event/conference on behalf of the organisation.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topics on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
68 Identify allowance entitlements Disability allowanceShift allowanceHigher duties allowancePer diem allowanceTrainer continues identifying and describing range of possible allowances:Disability allowances – are allowances paid to staff with identified mental or physical disabilities to support and encourage their engagement with paid employment.This allowance may be paid to the employer by a government agency and passed on to the employee every pay day.In some cases, the government will pay employers an allowance (effectively a subsidy) to employ people with disabilities.These funds can also be used to modify the workplace to suit the needs of those with disabilities.Shift allowances – these are allowance paid to staff if they work nominated shifts such as early shifts or late shifts or split shifts.Higher duties allowances – where an employee is required to perform duties above what they normally do, they may be eligible to be paid extra money in the form of a higher-duties allowance.Those preparing rosters need to be aware this payment may apply where one staff member is filling in for someone else, where staff are asked to undertake a wide range of tasks and in situations where their roles have been expanded to include more responsibilities and/or work of a more difficult/complex naturePer diem allowance – ‘per diem’ is Latin for ‘per day’.It is an amount paid to eligible workers on a daily basis to cover expenses such as travel, accommodation and food when they attend a conference, seminar or other event on behalf of the organisation they work for.Classroom ActivityTrainer provides actual examples of topics on slide (taken from sample employment instruments) as relevant to host country and industry type or sector as applicable to students.
69 Describe legislated requirements that apply to staff rosters Requirements may be contained in Acts and Regulations within:IR legislationEmployment legislationWorkplace relations legislationLabour legislationAnti-discrimination legislationWorkers’ compensation legislationTrainer notes every country will have its own legislation in respect of employment explaining these requirements are contained in various Acts and Regulations under the general heading of:Industrial relations legislationEmployment legislationWorkplace relations legislationLabour legislationAnti-discrimination and Equal Opportunity legislationWorkers’ Compensation legislation.
70 Describe legislated requirements that apply to staff rosters Ways to identify legislated requirements:Contact relevant government departments/agenciesVisit websitesObtain support documentationSpeak to relevant othersTrainer identifies ways to determine what applies to legislated requirements:Contacting the relevant government department/agency – and speaking to Officers/Inspectors or asking them to visit your workplace and talk to you theseVisiting the websites of these departments/agencies – and reading the information, advices and similar they make availableObtaining relevant documents – which may include:Fact sheetsPostersFormsReportsCopies of legislationSpeaking to other persons – for example:Managers and owners of the businessThose with previous experience preparing rosters, hiring staff and/or paying wagesRepresentatives from peak industry bodies.Class Activity (1) – HandoutsTrainer distributes and discusses sample fact sheets, posters, reports, forms as identified on the slide.Class Activity (2) – Guest SpeakerTrainer arranges for a Guest Speaker from a government body/agency to attend and discuss employment legislation as it impacts on rosters bringing relevant information/support material for distribution.Class Activity (3) – Internet research activityTrainer provides supervised access, research and discussion of findings in relation to websites relevant to appropriate government bodies/agencies with employment-related authority.
71 Describe legislated requirements that apply to staff rosters Anti-discrimination and EO legislation may provide:Staff are not to be discriminated against when rosters are developed or training is arrangedThe basis on which discrimination is deemed to take place – such as in relation to age, gender, race, disabilityTrainer provides example of requirements which may apply in relation to anti-discrimination and equal opportunity legislation indicating such laws generally:Means staff must not be discriminated against when the roster is being prepared – all staff must be given equal chance in terms of opportunity to work, participate in workplace training and be given promotion.Identify the basis on which it is illegal to discriminate against staff – such as (but not necessarily limited to), on the basis of their:GenderAgeRaceDisability.Class Activity – Presentation and DiscussionTrainer presents and discusses relevant host country legislation as identified/discussed on slide as it relates to staff rosters.
72 Describe legislated requirements that apply to staff rosters Legislation may also require:Staff get copy of terms and conditions of employmentCopy of same is available in workplaceRosters provided in advanceChanges must be negotiated and not imposedCertain things must be shown on rostersEmployers to check staff hold necessary licences, permits or qualifications as required by their work roleTrainer provides example of requirements which may apply in relation to display of rosters and access for staff to related information stating such laws generally require:All staff to be given a copy of the terms and conditions of their employment – including pay ratesA copy of employment instruments to be readily available in the workplace – for staff to read/access as requiredRosters to be given to staff in advance of their first working date – a common requirement is for 14 days notice to be providedChanges to prepared/notified rosters to be negotiated with staff – as opposed to changes being imposed on employees without consultationBreaks to be shown on rosters – indicating when meal and rest breaks are scheduledRDOs to be shown on rostersEmployers to ensure staff rostered for duty are holders of mandatory certificates, licences or qualifications – as required: this may, for example, impose an obligation such that:Food handlers are holders of a nominated ‘Safe Food Handling’ certificateStaff working in a gaming environment hold a designated ‘Responsible Service of Gaming’ qualificationWorkers selling/serving liquor have a successfully completed a given ‘Responsible Service of Alcohol’ course.Class Activity – Presentation and DiscussionTrainer presents and discusses relevant host country legislation as identified/discussed on slide as it relates to staff rosters.
73 Describe legislated requirements that apply to staff rosters Workers’ compensation legislation may provide:All workers are registered under a nominated schemeEmployers pay a premium to cover/insure all workersEmployers administer claims and compensation when a need to do so arisesEmployers facilitate return to work of injured workersTrainer provides example of requirements which may apply in relation to workers’ compensation legislation indicating such laws generally:Impose obligations in relation to protecting workers against workplace accident and/or injury.In addition to the need to comply with relevant workplace health, safety and welfare legislation there is often a requirement necessitating:Employers to register all employees with a designated government agency/body under a nominated insurance schemePayment by employers of an insurance premium for all their workersAdminister claims made under the scheme when a worker is injured/becomes eligible for payment.More on this topic is in following slides under ‘Accident Pay’.Class Activity – Presentation and DiscussionTrainer presents and discusses relevant host country legislation as identified/discussed on slide as it relates to staff rosters.
74 Describe legislated requirements that apply to staff rosters Other IR requirements may relate to:Appeal mechanismsPayment of wagesContributions to schemesNeed to take annual leaveRestrictions relating to annual and long service leaveRequirements for advanced notification of nominated requestsTrainer provides example of requirements which may apply in relation to a range of other IR requirements observing such laws generally contain reference to:Appeal mechanisms – dictating the structure and/or processes which apply if staff have a complaint about their workplace or their rostersPayment of wages – specifying issues such as:When wages must be paid – such as weekly, monthlyHow wages are paid – such as cash, cheque or direct deposit into a bank accountContributions to certain government-imposed schemes – such as superannuationNeed for annual leave to be taken within a given period – so it does not accrue beyond a nominated amountRequirement staff are not permitted to work when taking annual leave or long service leaveRequests by staff for time off need to be made in writing X days in advance of the time being requested.Class Activity – Presentation and DiscussionTrainer presents and discusses relevant host country legislation as identified/discussed on slide as it relates to staff rosters.
75 Identify requirements for specific work-related incidents/situations Important to note:Legislation and employment instruments govern situations and what appliesVariations require approvalStandard business ethics should applyNot all will have potential to impact rostersDifferent countries and different documents may contain different requirementsTrainer observes in relation to this topic it is important to note:Relevant incidents and situations in relation to this topic must be identified/prescribed in employment instruments or applicable legislation – they cannot be identified/raised by employers or employees on an ad hoc basisApplications to vary the prescribed requirements as stated in legislation/employment instruments will need to be negotiated with stakeholders and may need approval from authoritiesStandard business operating protocols of honesty, transparency and equity should govern all actions in this regardNot all of these requirements will have a direct impact on the development of rosters – but they often provide an important context for roster development in terms of planning and identifying who is available for the roster.Rather, knowledge of these requirements tend to impact more directly on those with responsibility for preparing/paying staff wages.Information provided below under each of the examples listed is intended to be indicative only and is not meant to represent specific requirements for different countries, pieces of legislation or employment instruments..
76 Identify requirements for specific work-related incidents/situations Employee stand down – wages may be able to be deducted where:Workers go on strike or attend stop-work meetingPlant/machinery breaks down and affects workPower is rationed and impacts workThere is lack of fuelMaterials required for work are not deliveredAny cause arises (except ‘slackness of trade’) which employer cannot be held responsible forTrainer introduces ‘employee stand down’ defining it as a situation where the employer tells staff they are not to work rostered hours/days for a specific reason which has impacted the business and noting legislation/employment instruments may allow an employer to deduct wages from staff where they have to be stood down because of the following:A strike by staff or a stop-work meeting convened by staff or a trade unionThe breakdown of plant or machinery resulting in an inability of the business to produce the goods/services needed to continue tradingRationing of power from a supplier such as a black-out, brown-out or stipulated restrictions banning the use of certain equipment necessary for conducting the businessA lack of necessary fuel (of any kind, as appropriate to the nature of the business) or any lack of appropriate transportAs a result of non-delivery of raw and/or finished materials/products by a supplier or as a result of other industrial action by a trade union bodyDue to any cause which the employer cannot reasonably be held responsible – however this does not permit employers to stand workers done simply because of ‘slackness of trade’.
77 Identify requirements for specific work-related incidents/situations Where stand down provisions exist:A minimum ‘notice time’ usually applyNotification normally must occur in a specified manner/wayStaff who are already at work may be entitled to a guaranteed number of hours pay for that dayTrainer continues discussing stand down stating where stand down provisions apply there can be requirements attaching to them, such as:A minimum amount of notice advising of the intention by management to stand employees down may need to be given – for example, four hours noticeThe notification of intention to stand employees down may need to be provided in specified way/manner – for example:It may need to be given in writingIt may need to posted in a nominated location so it is readily accessible and visible to staff who are impacted by itIf employees who are subjected to stand down begin their rostered working day at the time stated on the roster they may be entitled to being paid for a nominated number of hours work – for example, they may need to be paid at least four hours, and if they are asked to attend work twice on the same day they must receive a full day’s pay.Class Activity – Presentation and DiscussionTrainer presents and discusses sample information from relevant documents as identified/discussed on slide.
78 Identify requirements for specific work-related incidents/situations ‘Accident pay’:Employer may be required to lodge claim in support of workerPayment of nominated wages for a specified period may be requiredMake up pay may have to be paid within prescribed parametersTrainer introduces ‘accident pay’ stating if a staff member has an accident at work and is entitled to compensation under relevant legislation or insurance coverage, the employer may be required to:Lodge claims when a worker is injured or becomes ill as a result of workPay workers under the workers’ compensation scheme that applies – options in this regard will vary and may include, for example:Paying workers a nominated portion of their ‘normal’ wages for a given period – for example ‘80% of normal wages for a period of no longer than 26 weeks’Providing ‘make up pay’ to workers – this is money paid by the employer in addition to money paid to the worker by the insurer: for example, this may be a percentage of normal wages or designated amount.Class Activity – Presentation and DiscussionTrainer presents and discusses sample information from relevant documents as identified/discussed on slide.
79 Identify requirements for specific work-related incidents/situations Injured workers:Must not be forced back to workMust be helped back into the workforce by rostering them appropriately – for example:Fewer hours/daysLighter/suitable or different dutiesTrainer discusses concept of ‘Return To Work’ of injured workers noting those who prepare rosters need to ensure:Injured/sick workers are not forced to return to work until they are well enough/fit enough to work – forcing employees to return before they are fit/well can result in legal action for breach of Duty of Care and/or certain aspects of relevant IR/employment legislationWorkers who have been sick/injured are assisted in their efforts to return to work – this may mean a staff member who wants to return to work is:Rostered to work fewer hours than normal – to allow them to gradually become ‘work ready’Allocated work/duties suitable to their decreased capacity – instead of expecting them to return to normal duties which may be too stressful, demanding or tiring.
80 Identify requirements for specific work-related incidents/situations If terminating F/T or P/T staff requirements may include:Prescribed notice is given – or payment in lieu of noticeNotice period may depend on:Length of Continuous serviceAge of employeeTime may be added for job-seekingStaff are also obliged to give notice of intention to leaveTrainer states where an employer seeks to terminate the services of a full-time or regular part-time staff member, specific periods of notice are usually provided for under employment instruments explaining these are often determined on a sliding scale – for example:Those who have been employed in continuous service for 12 months or less may be entitled to one week’s noticeFor those who have over one year and up to three year’s continuous service may be eligible for two week’s noticeStaff with in excess of five year’s continuous service may be entitled to four week’s noticeIn addition, some employment instruments may contain age-related provisions – for example, staff above 45 years at the time of being given notice and who have a minimum two year’s continuous service may be due an additional week’s notice.Payment in lieu of notice may be given.Notice of terminationStaff are generally required to give the same notice as required by the employer.If staff do not give required notice, wages to the same value may be able to be deducted from their final pay.In addition some employment instruments provide:Where an employee has been given notice of termination they are allowed one paid day (at normal rates) to seek alternative employment – this day usually has to be taken at a mutually convenient timeExit interviews are provided – where outgoing staff and management meet to discuss the termination.Class Activity – Presentation and DiscussionTrainer presents and discusses sample information from relevant documents as identified/discussed on slide.
81 Identify requirements for specific work-related incidents/situations Redundancy = where business decides a job no longer exists.Possible causes can include:Changes in business ownership or directionEconomic conditionsAction taken by competitorsFalling profitsTrainer discusses ‘Redundancy’ saying it occurs when a business decides they do not want to continue making a position available due to, for example:Change in business ownershipChange in strategic direction of the businessEconomic conditionsActivities of competitorsFalling profits.
82 Identify requirements for specific work-related incidents/situations Redundancy provisions usually:Apply only to F/T and P/T staffCover transfer to lower paid dutiesAllow pay in lieu of noticeIndicate severance pay applicable and how it is to be calculatedTrainer explains provisions in employment instruments relating to redundancy:Commonly apply only to full-time and part-time employees and may include:If the worker who is faced with redundancy is transferred to lower paid duties, the employer may be required to give the same notice as if work had been terminatedThe employer may at their own discretion pay the staff member in lieu of notice – this payment may be calculated as an amount equal to the difference between the former rate of pay and the new rate for the number of weeks of notice still owingDetails relating to severance pay – see below.Class Activity – Presentation and DiscussionTrainer presents and discusses sample information from relevant documents as identified/discussed on slide.
83 Identify requirements for specific work-related incidents/situations In relation to severance pay:It may be calculated on a sliding scale:One year service or less = nil severance payOne to two years service = four week’s payFive to six years = 10 week’s payA maximum normally applies (for example) 10 years service and above = 12 week’s payRequirements usually apply to when and how it is paidTrainer discusses severance pay explaining it is the pay provided to staff who are made redundant and provisions similar to the following may apply:Severance pay is often calculated on a sliding scale – for example:One year or less of continuous service: nil severance payOne year to two year’s continuous service: four week’s payFive to six year’s continuous service: 10 week’s payThere will normally be a stated maximum – for example:Ten years and over of continuous service: 12 week’s pay.There are usually also requirements specifying:When it is paid – within 14 daysHow it is paid – cash, cheque, direct deposit.
84 Summary – Element 2When explaining the operational aspects of employment instruments:Identify all relevant employment instruments applicable to staffRead and understand every aspect of all relevant employment instrumentsBe able to define and differentiate between classifications for under employment instruments(Continued)Trainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
85 Summary – Element 2Develop knowledge of rostering restrictions including liability for payment of penalty ratesLearn and be able to differentiate between categories/grades of staffIdentify and be able to differentiate between pay rate options (including allowances and entitlements)(Continued)Trainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
86 Summary – Element 2Identify and be able to differentiate between leave and break types and eligibility and entitlementsIdentify legislated requirements and obligations which apply to the development of staff rostersLearn requirements which apply to specific work-related incidents which have the capacity to impact roster formulation/operation.Trainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
87 Element 3 – Generate staff rosters Performance Criteria for this Element are:Prepare staff rosters to comply with identified operational demandsDistribute rosters to staffTrainer identifies for trainees the Performance Criteria for this Element, as listed on the slide.Class Activity – General DiscussionTrainer leads a general class discussion by asking questions such as:What is involved in developing staff rosters?What operational demands impact on the formulation of staff rosters?How can you identify/determine these issues/factors?How are staff rosters distributed to staff in the workplace?
88 Prepare staff rosters to comply with identified operational demands Critical points:Allocate ‘adequate’ time to:Become aware of relevant internal issuesDraft and revise the rosterCost the rosterLiaise with others(Continued)Trainer explains the following points are critical for those with responsibility for creating staffing rosters to meet operational demands of a department, section or organisation:Allocate adequate time for the process – developing rosters takes time and is important to allocate sufficient time. Time is needed to:Become familiar with a range of issues which can change over time and thus vary in relation to each roster which has to be prepared – these issues can be changes in bookings, staff requests for time off/leave, new or different management directives, special events/occasionsDraft an original – then revise and refine it (potentially many times)Cost the draft/s – to ensure the roster fits within the allocated labour budget for the periodLiaise with other supervisors/managers – to coordinate efforts in relation to overall staffing of the business: for example, it may be possible/necessary to share staff between departments where two different persons are responsible for preparing relevant rosters.Class Activity – Guest SpeakerTrainer arranges for Guest Speaker to attend and discuss their approach to and activities involved in preparing staff rosters.
89 Prepare staff rosters to comply with identified operational demands Avoid distractionsBe sure of the rules:Have copies of relevant employment instruments, legislation and internal policies, criteria, service delivery standards and procedures(Continued)Trainer continues explaining critical points for those with responsibility for creating staffing rosters to meet operational demands of a department, section or organisation:Avoid distractions while preparing the roster – make an effort to ensure no interruptions from telephone calls, hands-on work obligations or other forms of interruptions.It is critical to focus on the task and not get distracted.Be sure of the ‘rules’ which apply to rosters as they apply to the roster being prepared – this means it is vital to have a comprehensive and detailed knowledge (and copies) of:Relevant legislationInternal policiesSOPsApplicable employment instruments
90 Prepare staff rosters to comply with identified operational demands Gather relevant information:Trade/activityStaff requests and absencesObtain relevant documents:Previous rostersJob descriptionsRates of pay(Continued)Trainer continues explaining critical points for those with responsibility for creating staffing rosters to meet operational demands of a department, section or organisation:Gather all information relevant to the roster period – this can include:Details of expected trade/activity levels – which may be influenced by:Advanced bookingsUpcoming public holidaysTime of the yearInternal historic data on trade/sales/activityKnown staff absences – due (for example) to:LeaveIllnessTrainingStaff requests – for:Time offPreferential treatmentEnsure documentation which may be required is readily available – this can include:Previous rosters – which may provide a basis/framework for the roster being developedJob descriptions of employees – to confirm capacity to perform workRates of pay – to assist with costing
91 Prepare staff rosters to comply with identified operational demands Consider using technology to assist in the processWork in a structured manner as appropriate to the department or organisationEnsure/double-check roster will:Cover all required timesAddress all required servicesMeet internal requirementsMinimise payment of penalty ratesAccommodate ‘special circumstances’Provide required mix/blend of staff(Continued)Trainer continues explaining critical points for those with responsibility for creating staffing rosters to meet operational demands of a department, section or organisation:Use technology to assist in the process – where applicable use rostering software programmes to:Help develop draft rostersCost labourCompare roster options/alternativesWork in a structured manner – develop a ‘system’ for creating the roster, for example:In a dining room – start with (say) the supervisors, then the bar staff, then the food waiters then the drink waiters, then the cleanersIn an office setting start with (say) supervisors, then receptionists, then consultants/customer service staff and then cleanersIn a housekeeping setting start (say) with Executive Housekeeper, then Assistant Housekeeper, then Room Attendants, then PortersWhere a roster has to be developed for a number of departments/sections:Develop the roster for the largest and busiest department/section/area first – and then move on to other areas in descending order of size/activityBe prepared to use staff who are multi-skilled and can be moved between departments/roles
92 Prepare staff rosters to comply with identified operational demands Create the ‘right’/’best’ mix of F/T, P/T and casual staffConsider alternatives when penalty rates apply:Service rooms later/next dayClose department or reduce opening timesReduce staffing/service levels(Continued)Trainer continues explaining critical points for those with responsibility for creating staffing rosters to meet operational demands of a department, section or organisation:Be alert to the potential to use a certain mix of:Permanent staffPart-time workersCasual employeesto create the most cost-effective mix of workers for the roster.The difference between a cost effective roster and one which is not can often be not the hours being worked but the classification of employees being usedConsider reducing staff levels when penalty rates apply – for example, it may be possible to:Clean vacated rooms the day after a Public Holiday instead of on that day – this has the potential to save wages if the room is not needed for re-saleClose a department, room or section when penalty rates apply – or reduce their operating hours to some extentProvide a lower level of staffing during these times – as a general staffing/rostering principle or practiceClassroom ActivityTrainer conducts class exercise where students prepare and cost a staff roster to meet the identified requirements for an organisation/department (as provided by the trainer).
93 Prepare staff rosters to comply with identified operational demands Be alert to savings offered by combining dutiesPerson developing roster may need to work at times to save labour/moneyConsider paying small amounts of overtime rather than employing another personStagger times for:StartsBreaksFinishing workTrainer continues explaining critical points for those with responsibility for creating staffing rosters to meet operational demands of a department, section or organisation:Stay alert to the potential/need to combine duties – to minimise/optimise staff use. This may/will require knowledge of:Job descriptionsCapacity and experience of individual staffBusiness plans to train/promote individual workers and/or offer them additional roles and responsibilities or promotionThose responsible for developing rosters should always be alert to the opportunity or need for them to:Be prepared to undertake work themselves at certain times to help prepare an efficient rosterPay small amounts of overtime rather than employing extra staff as a more cost-effective alternative for providing necessary staffing levels – an effective roster does not necessarily mean no overtime is being paidStagger staff starting times – so, for example:One staff member starts 30 minutes before opening in order to undertake opening proceduresAnother staff member comes on duty at opening timeOther staff start 30 minutes, one hour, 90 minutes later – as traditional level of trade/demand dictateStagger staff finishing times – so, for example:One staff member finishes work 30 minutes before closing as/if trade slackens off at this timeOther staff member leave at closing timeOne or two staff stay back for 30 minutes after closing to undertake closing proceduresStagger staff lunch breaks – so, for example, rather than having all staff taken a 30 minute lunch break at 1:00PM the roster might show:One person takes lunch at 11:30AMOne at NoonOne at 12:30PMOne at 1;00PM and so on.
94 Prepare staff rosters to comply with identified operational demands Before distributing roster there may be a need to:Prove roster is within budgetCommunicate with other supervisors/ managersObtain management approvalFile a copy for future referenceTrainer advises prior to distributing the roster to staff it may be standard practice to:Prove the budget complies with budget restrictions – through development of a costed rosterLiaise with other supervisors/managers – to share intentions and communicate proposed staffing arrangementsSubmit the roster for approval – to owner, manager or administrationFile a copy of the roster and supporting documentation – for future reference.
95 Distribute rosters to staff Communication ways to distribute/communicate rosters:Post in workplaceGive out copies to individualsrosters to staffDiscuss at staff meetings/briefingsTrainer states typically a copy of the roster will be posted on the noticeboard within the workplace – or in some other recognised and suitable location depending on the nature of the department/unit reinforcing:Employment instruments will often/usually:Stipulate where roster is postedDictate how far in advance the roster must be provided to staff who are listed to work on the roster.Other communication options include:Distributing hard copies to individual staff – by hand at staff meetings/briefings and/or with wages/pay adviceing electronic copies to staff – either at their work-based address or to their private home .Distribution may be supplemented by mentioning the roster for the next week/fortnight at a weekly staff meeting or daily staff briefing.
96 Distribute rosters to staff Internal communication/distribution of rosters may be required with:Managers/supervisorsOwner-managerPersonnel/HR departmentTrainer further notes the person preparing the rosters may also be required to send copies of relevant rosters to others within the organisation highlighting this could include:Managers/supervisors of related sections – for general informationThe pay office – for verification of hours worked and wages paidOwner-manager – for informationPersonnel department – for analysis of human resource activities (such as training) and for checking of various entitlements such as leave.
97 Summary – Element 3 When generating staff rosters: Allocate time for the processDraft an originalCost the draft and revise as requiredLiaise and cooperate with relevant others(Continued)Trainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
98 Summary – Element 3Comply with internally and externally rules/requirementsAccommodate known upcoming trade levels and staff movements/preferencesRefer to previous rosters and other relevant/supporting documentationWork in a structured manner to develop rosters(Continued)Trainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
99 Summary – Element 3Roster staff to accommodate service levels/criteria and to include opening and closing proceduresDouble-check to ensure all requirements have been addressedBe prepared to stagger starting times, finishing times and breaks(Continued)Trainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
100 Summary – Element 3Use a blend of staff as best suits customer and organisational needApply acceptable options for addressing rosters which are cost-excessiveCommunicate rosters to staff in accordance with internal and legislated requirementsTrainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
101 Element 4 – Update staffing records Performance Criteria for this Element are:Verify and approve timesheets for paymentMaintain staff records that impact on roster preparationTrainer identifies for trainees the Performance Criteria for this Element, as listed on the slide.Class Activity – General DiscussionTrainer leads a general class discussion by asking questions such as:What is involved in verifying timesheets for payment?Why is there a need to check and approve timesheets for payment?What staff records and details need to be maintained and updated?What important protocols apply to maintenance of staff records and information?
102 Verify and approve timesheets for payment Form the basis for staff paymentOften need to be checked and approved before payment can be processedRecord/contain necessary detail relevant to individual staff and their work history for the periodTrainer advises a timesheet is a standard pre-printed document provided by the employer noting completed and approved timesheets form the basis of payment of wages for employees highlighting timesheets are completed by hand/in writing by staff to record:The days they workWhen they start and finishWhen they take breaksCertain other details as required by the employer.
103 Verify and approve timesheets for payment Where timesheets are used:They must be completed and signed by each staff member on a daily basisThey must be easily/readily accessibleA clock should be close byTraining must show staff how to complete themFalse entries may lead to dismissalOvertime worked may require management signatureTrainer states where timesheets are used:Every employee should be required to compete and sign their own timesheet on a daily basis – and not complete it only at the end of a week or fortnight: every worker has their own timesheetThey are located in an area which is readily accessible to all staffA clock should be provided near the timesheetsStaff need to be trained in how to complete the timesheets in accordance with house requirementsStaff must be advised false claims on the timesheet will lead to dismissalWhen overtime is worked there is usually a requirement for a supervisor or manager to co-sign the timesheet/the overtime to approve it – the reason for the overtime may be written on the reverse side of the time sheet to explain/justify it.
104 Verify and approve timesheets for payment Information on timesheets:Staff name and payroll numberCost centreEmployment statusStart date with organisationHours workedDates for the periodTrainer identifies details contained/shown on timesheets:Employee name and payroll numberCost centre against which the wages will be postedEmployment status – full-time, regular part-time or casualDate staff member started work with the organisationThe ordinary hours worked, shown as a fraction – full-time staff are shown as 1.0, and a regular part-time employee working 19 hours/week (where fulltime hours are 38 per week) would be shown as 0.5The pay period, by dates, for this timesheet.Classroom ActivityTrainer distributes and discusses sample timesheet/s.
105 Verify and approve timesheets for payment Person responsible for verifying timesheets will vary depending on:Size of the business/number of staffNature of structure/departmentalisationScopes of authority/responsibilities attached to individual management-level rolesTrainer states the person who is responsible for verifying timesheets is likely to vary between businesses explaining the individual will differ depending on:Size of the organisation – number of staff employedStructure and departmentalisation of the workplaceScopes of authority and responsibilities given to supervisors/managers – in relation to staffing and related issues.
106 Verify and approve timesheets for payment Responsible persons may be:Business owner, operator or managerDivision managerDepartment/section managerHR personnelPerson who developed the rosterTrainer observes in practice, the responsible person may be:Business owner, operator or managerDivision managersDepartment or Section managers or supervisors – who worked in and/or were responsible for staff for the period of the roster. These individuals will commonly be the ones who may:Authorise certain staff to work overtime/extra hoursCall people in to work who are not shown on the roster – this may be done to (for example):Cover staff who have been injured or had to leave work unexpectedly/before their rostered finishing timeCater for unexpected high levels of trade necessitating attendance of more staff than originally rosteredSend casual staff home before their finishing time as stated on the roster.HR personnel – employed in an administrative capacity in ‘the office’ of the organisationThe person who was responsible for drawing up the roster to which the timesheets relate.
107 Verify and approve timesheets for payment Options to timesheets may be:Time cards and a time clockElectronic swipe cardsIt is a standard requirement staff must only use their own card and must not process/use anyone else’s under any circumstances.Trainer explains some establishments do not use timesheets noting they may use:Time cards – which are punched with a time clockElectronic swipe cards.Where these options are in use it is unacceptable for anyone else except the staff member to punch or swipe their card.In most cases, allowing another person to swipe/punch/use a time card is grounds for dismissal as it opens up the system to fraud and abuse.
108 Verify and approve timesheets for payment Activities in approving timesheets for payment:Comparing time claimed against rosterApplying personal knowledge of the period and hours workedMaking sure all required details are includedSigning timesheetsForwarding timesheets for paymentResponding to queries from payroll/HRTrainer states approving claims by staff for payment of wages may require:Validating timesheets/time-clock cards – by:Comparing the times claimed against the hours listed on the roster for each worker – and following up discrepancies (unders and overs) as necessary with individual employees and/or other supervisors or managersUsing personal knowledge of hours worked by staff on the basis of observation and information to confirm hours claimed – such knowledge will be in relation to levels of trade and permissions for overtime, deferred breaks and similar which are known to have been given/grantedEnsuring all relevant/required details have been included on the timesheets – by individual workersCounter-signing timesheets – which provides the authorisation necessary for Payroll/HR to process/pay the claimForwarding approved time sheets with appropriate signatures – to management or accounts department/payroll for paymentClarifying queries from payroll officers, human resources department and/or accounts department – as they arise concerning individual staff and their hours/attendance and eligibility for payment.Class Activity – Demonstration and Practical ExerciseTrainer demonstrates how to verify timesheets by comparing timesheets against roster, and provides opportunity for students to do the same.
109 Maintain staff records that impact on roster preparation Security, privacy and confidentiality issues mean records and data:Must be protected from lossNeed to be protected from unauthorised access/useTrainer comments on security, privacy and confidentiality issues stressing staff records and data must be:Handled and stored/filed so they are protected from loss – such as:Within locked filing cabinetsUnder password protected electronic filesIn offices where entry is restricted to authorised personnel onlyMaintained within a system which has protocols guarding against unauthorised access/use – which may include SOPs and/or policies which:Prohibit staff from viewing any staff records apart from their own files/recordsRequire documentation to be ‘signed out’ when authorised supervisors/staff want to access or take records – in order to track and monitor the movement of documentsRequire documentation to be ‘signed back in’ – after they have been used to support the control procedures for the recordsRequire paper-based records not to be left ‘lying around’ – so others/unauthorised people can read themRequire electronic records not to be left ‘open’ – again, to guard against unauthorized access.Class Activity – ExcursionTrainer arranges Excursion to suitable business so students can:View rosters in the workplaceView filing facilitiesTalk to staff about rostersTalk to those who develop staff rostersObserve workplace activities and compare same to roster.
110 Maintain staff records that impact on roster preparation Needs to update staff records may be imposed by:Legal compliance requirementsStaff-generated reasonsInternal organisational requirementsTrainer highlights the need to update staff records comes from three main sources:Legal compliance requirementsStaff records will need to contain documentation (usually a photocopy of an original) showing proof individual workers have complied with legally imposed requirements to, for example:Gain/hold a certificate, licence, permit or nominated qualificationUpdate, re-new or refresh these certificates, licences and similar – in situations where such documents have a time-limited duration (for example, may first aid and safety-related certificates are valid only for say, three years and must be renewed in order to maintain their currency and legitimacy).Staff-generated reasonsThis relates to situations where staff:Have gained new qualifications, certificates, licences or other qualificationsHave up-graded an existing qualification, certificate, licence or similar – for example, a staff member may have up-graded a Certificate IV qualification to a DiplomaHave renewed an existing qualification, certificate, licence or similar – for example, by completing a mandatory update or refresher courses to keep their certification current/valid.Have obtained new/different experience.Organisational requirementsThis relates to amending staff files on the basis of:In-house training delivered to staff – so the records accurately reflect the training reach staff member has completed with the date they did so, and the result/outcomes they achievedExperience staff gain within the establishment – this information could be of use to management when it comes time to allocate extra responsibilities or select a person for promotion or further training.
111 Maintain staff records that impact on roster preparation Information to be maintained may include:Leave entitlements/updatesPublic holidays – taken/not takenWarnings and disciplinary actionApplications for leave(Continued)Trainer informs information which impacts on roster preparation that may need to be updated can include:Leave entitlements – any leave taken must be recorded:In terms of type of leave takenAmount of time taken – in hoursWhen the leave was taken – dates of sameWith accompanying/supporting documentation (if required – such as medical certificates, proof of death of a relative [for bereavement leave].Public holidays – a record needs to be kept indicating whether staff were paid for working on these days, or whether additional time is owing and needs to be added to annual leave (or some combination, as appropriate, for this issue).Warnings given to staff – there is usually a requirement for supervisors/managers to keep a record of:Warnings given to staff – in relation to poor performance, inappropriate actions, unacceptable practices, lack of effort, late attendance or minor issuesDisciplinary action taken against staff – for minor infractionsApplications for leave – many businesses require employees to make a formal application for annual and long service leave.There may be a certain form which needs to be completed for this purpose detailing required/preferred start and finish dates.This information will need to be provided by staff in advance of the leave they are applying (by, for example, four or eight weeks) so the person creating the roster can factor in their absence and make alternative staffing arrangements.
112 Maintain staff records that impact on roster preparation Requests for preferential treatmentDetails relating to action taken in regard to Workers’ Compensation – claims, payment, return to workHR/payroll may maintain/keep these records.Trainer continues to inform of information which impacts on roster preparation that may need to be updated:Requests for preferential treatment – some businesses are prepared to give employees preferential treatment in terms of rostering, and some businesses do not do this. Staff requests in this respect may be madeFor certain shifts – some workers prefer early or late shiftsFor certain days off – some prefer to have weekends off and others want nominated other daysFor nominated roles/departments – some employees prefer working certain jobs and/or in certain departments/areasTo accommodate family/social occasions and other reasons– such as time off to attend weddings and other events/celebrations, or to attend training.Worker’s compensation – records need to be kept as to how many weeks staff have been paid their entitlement for this.This needs to be done to:Ensure the worker receives their full legal entitlement but the employer does not pay more than they are legally obliged to payDemonstrate to authorities, trade unions or individual staff the legally imposed obligations in this regard have been discharged.In many premises, it will be the payroll office who finally records and applies these statistics, but it will often be the supervisor who provides the HR department with the facts and figures for them to process.
113 Maintain staff records that impact on roster preparation Considerations regarding staff records/data:Staff may be allowed to view their own recordsFiling options:Paper-based systemElectronicTrainer discusses filing of records/data explaining:It may be house policy to allow staff to view their personal records/file so there is transparency in the process.This can identify and resolve any problems/errors in the records: in the workplace it is common for everyone’s recollection to become blurred with the passage of time and the clearer issues are when there is a dispute, the better.Allowing staff to openly view their staffing records certainly sends a clear message to staff (things are being done honestly and in accordance with legal requirements), and helps to build trust and goodwill.Supervisors should be aware staff should be allowed to view only their own records as there are privacy concerns involved where staff are able to look at the files of others.Common filing options relate to:Use of a paper-based systemA manilla folder for each staff member which contains all their documents/photocopies of them – this should begin with their original job application, resumé, certificates, qualifications, licences, in-house employment-related forms, next of kin form as well as job description and any documents added (up-dates, refreshers, new qualifications, internal performance reviews) throughout their working life with the business.Manilla folders are usually filed in a locked filing cabinet – it is not acceptable (for privacy reasons) to simply keep them in a lever arch file, on a shelf.Use of an electronic database – this option duplicates the paper-based alternative. The same information is stored with relevant information being:Scanned into the systemTransferred internally through linked systemsEntered by hand.Classroom ActivityTrainer distributes and discusses sample staff records and explains their processing in terms of updating information contained.
114 Summary – Element 4 When updating staff records: Monitor and verify staff timesheets and time cardsCheck overtime claimed has been worked or otherwise approvedSign timesheets and cards for payment/processing(Continued)Trainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
115 Summary – Element 4Confirm revenue centres against which labour costs are to be chargedFollow up and resolve discrepancies and unauthorised claimsRespond to queries by administration in relation payment of wages(Continued)Trainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.
116 Summary – Element 4Create and maintain staff records/files which influence staffing decisionsTake and keep copies of compliance certification required/held by staffEnsure privacy and confidentiality of staff recordsTrainer provides a recap of the Element asking questions to check trainee understanding and responding to questions from trainees, as required.Trainer thanks trainees for their attention and encourages them to apply course content as required in their workplace activities.