Presentation on theme: "Powerful Reading Instruction in an RTI Framework"— Presentation transcript:
1 Powerful Reading Instruction in an RTI Framework Diane Haager, Ph.D.California State University, Los Angeles
2 "We believe that the public school system must meet the comprehensive learning needs of each student to reach high expectations. Equity of access to quality public education is the right of every student and the responsibility of the State of California.”California Department of Education, 2008
3 Instruction: The Core of RTI “Teachers have one universal wish that influences almost every instructional decision they make– to maximize their students’ learning. Many factors influence teachers’ ability to teach effectively. Contextual factors are often outside of teachers’ direct control… What the students bring to the classroom in terms of prior knowledge, culture, experience, and skills also influences the end result. As teachers, we may have direct control only over what we bring to the classroom: our own knowledge, skills, experience, and beliefs about teaching.”Haager, Klingner & AcevesHow to Teach English Language Learners: Effective Strategies from Outstanding Educators, 2010
4 PurposeExamine critical elements of a sustainable and manageable RTI modelConsider our roles and responsibilities in instructing all students, including struggling readers and students with disabilitiesLearn how to align Tier 2 supplemental instruction with individual student needs and Tier 1 core instruction
5 Along the path to RTI implementation Where you have been…Foundations of RTIInstructional core of literacyTiers of instructionWhere we are headed…Essential components of a successful RTI modelWays to support and maintain infrastructureContinuous improvement processKeeping the focus on student learning
6 Where we are now… 5-minute Team Discussion: Summarize your team’s major accomplishmentsIdentify one or two areas where you need more work
7 What should we focus on?A responsive system of providing high-quality, differentiated instruction to meet varying student needsAn assessment system that provides information about who is struggling and why, and monitors day-by-day progressA system of professional collaboration to support teachers and students through the process of early identification and supplemental instruction
8 Consider the case of Marty No RTI model in placeMarty has struggled for four years. In third grade, he is 2 years behind his peers in reading and has little hope of leaving the nonproficient category of state testing. His 3rd grade teacher is considering a referral for special education. By the end of 3rd grade, he may be tested and placed into SpEd services, which will provide modifications and accommodations to his core curriculum throughout his K-12 career. However, he must face high stakes standardized tests every year and, eventually, he must pass a test to graduate with a diploma. At this point, he is at great statistical risk of experiencing academic failure throughout school, and even dropping out by the age of 16.
9 An Alternative Scenario for Marty RTI Model in Place Marty’s school has been involved in establishing a sound, research-based core reading program. Despite excellent core instruction, Marty struggled with basic reading skills. In kindergarten, Marty’s teacher used standards-aligned assessments that pinpointed Marty’s difficulty with learning letters, sounds and phonological skills. He received minutes of supplemental instruction, 3 times per week for ten weeks. Though he made progress, his struggles continued in first grade. Using first-grade curriculum-based assessments, his teacher was again able to identify specific areas of need and provide supplemental instruction, 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week. By the second half of first grade, Marty is scoring at grade level on oral reading fluency assessments. The school continues to monitor his progress through third grade to make sure he stays on track. Marty does not need SpEd services.
10 Consider the case of Andrew No RTI model in placeIn kindergarten, Andrew had difficulty with acquiring basic early reading skills and seemed immature; he repeated kindergarten. In first grade, his teacher recognized his serious difficulties with learning basic sight words, decoding, and comprehension. She took his case to the Student Study Team, where she was advised to provide extra support and modify his work. She had several conferences with his mother who worked with him at home. By the end of first grade, he was so far behind that the teacher recommended to his second grade teacher that she consider a referral for special education. In second grade, the testing showed that there was no significant discrepancy between his capacity and academic performance. He did not qualify. When he was referred again in fourth grade, he qualified for special education with a designation of Specific Learning Disability. After five years, Andrew was reading at a beginning first grade level. He had no interest in learning to read; the system failed him for five years during the critical developmental period for acquiring reading
11 An Alternative Scenario for Andrew RTI Model in PlaceAndrew’s school has worked to implement a solid core reading program with periodic curriculum-embedded assessments to monitor student progress. In kindergarten, Andrew’s teacher found that he had significant difficulty with acquiring vocabulary and phonological skills. He participated in an extended-day intervention program 3 days a week. However, he continued to have serious difficulty. The first-grade assessments showed that he was behind in basic decoding and phonological skills. His teacher confirmed a significant overall reading difficulty as she worked with him in a small-group setting. Though he received supplemental instruction, 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, he showed minimal response to the whole-class and small-group instruction he received. By the second half of first grade, Andrew was considered for special education. His teachers had adequate documentation of his lack of response to the best of instruction. Because of strong collaboration between general and special education teachers, Andrew made a smooth transition to special education services. By fourth grade, he was less than a year below grade level.
12 RTI: Why is it important? For students like Marty and Andrew- students with and without disabilitiesTo create a seamless system that focuses on high-quality instruction, not rules and labelsTo reserve costly special education services for those who truly need themTo avoid disproportionate representation of minorities in special education
13 Why RTI? How did we get here? Problems with the current system of identifying learning disabilities are well documented:Teacher subjectivity in referral processInaccuracies and bias in assessment practices and toolsLack of high quality and differentiation of instruction in general education setting for students experiencing difficultyA wait-to-fail phenomenon leads to years of experiencing failure-The President’s Commission on Excellence in Special EducationThink about what you have learned about RTI. How does a systematic RTI approach counteract these problems?
14 What does RTI mean? “’data,” “if the child does not achieve adequately”based on“’data,”“after an appropriate period of time when provide appropriate instruction” in“routine classroom instruction and monitoring of the child’s performance”… there must be a systematic process that includes: high quality instruction,progress monitoring data collection, and intervention options
15 Three Tiers of Reading Instruction 4-6% need intensive interventionTier 3Intensive, specialized instruction (Special Education)15-35% need supplemental interventionTier 2Supplemental instruction in small-groups; differentiated instruction for Ells and others as neededTier 1Evidence-based core program and ongoing assessment to monitor reading and language learning for ALL students. Differentiated instruction for ELLs and others as neededInstruction for ALL students
16 Three Tiers of Reading Instruction 5-10% need intensive interventionTier 3Intensive and specialized instructionSupplemental instruction in small-groups; differentiated instruction for Ells and others as needed60-80% need supplemental interventionTier 2Tier 1Evidence-based core program and ongoing assessment to monitor reading and language learning for ALL students. Differentiated instruction for ELLs and others as neededInstruction for ALL students
17 Collaborative Teaming Essential ComponentsAssessmentHigh QualityCurriculum &InstructionCollaborative TeamingIntervention OptionsWhen the pieces are in place, there is a spiraling effect that brings the focus to the children who truly need an RTI process in place. RTI benefits children with disabilities by bringing the intervention in earlier and preparing general education teachers to address their needs. It also benefits students without disabilities who require early intervention to prevent reading failure.Commitment toImplementationOngoingImplementationSupportPositiveAdministratorSupport
18 Stop and Think! 5-minute Team Discussion: What is already in place? What needs to be strengthened:AssessmentCurriculum & High Quality InstructionIntervention OptionsImplementation SupportAdministrator RoleSchool-wide commitmentCollaborative Teaming
19 Determining Student Needs Refining Our Data Analysis
20 Skills assessment to identify student needs after screening indicates a need DiagnosticsSkills inventoriesPlacement testsPhonics screenerInformal Reading InventoryFormal diagnostic testsProgress MonitoringMeasuring students’ response to instruction provides further insight into their specific needsCBM is essential for ensuring student progress and individualizing instructionThese tools provide further insight into what to emphasize
21 Informal diagnostics: the interventionist’s toolkit For each student, teachers need info aboutPhonemic awarenessLetter-sound knowledge and decodingOral reading fluencySight word acquisitionVocabularyComprehensionPossible tools- DIBELS, phonics inventory, sight word inventory, maze or other comprehension tasks, portfolio of accumulated work, IRI
22 What to do with all that data? Teachers who use data to guide instruction have better student outcomesTeachers who discuss student data with colleagues, administrators, and parents have a better understanding of their students’ specialized learning needs.Teachers who track data have better opportunity to accelerate learning
23 Stop and Think!Discuss what you have learned about determining students’ individual learning needs.How are we using data?How are we discussing data?How are we tracking data?
24 Compiling dataFor example– using CORE Informal Assessments
25 Case Study: ROBERT3rd grader with significant reading difficulty
26 San Diego Quick Graded Word List Misread Wordsroad- readlive- l…l…thank- thinkalways- awayNight- don’t knowPossible DifficultiesRelying on initial soundsVowelssilent consonant clusters (igh)
27 Passage Reading Comprehension 2 Factual Questions are missed 1 Vocabulary Question is missedFluency1st grade passageReading speed 35 wpm (within norms for 1st grade reading level, but slow for 3rd grade)Instructional LevelELL consideration: fluency can slow down when students begin to read for meaning`
28 Further Recommended Investigation Assessment needed for:Basic Sight WordsComplete phonics inventory, including multisyllabic wordsOral reading fluency (timed reading)
29 Further Assessment Results Basic Sight Words90% on high frequency wordsPhonics inventoryCVC 100%Long vowel patterns, 75%Vowel diphthongs, 30%Multisyllabic nonsense words, 20%Oral reading fluency3rd grade benchmark passage, 35 WCPM, 60% accuracy2nd grade passage, 48 WCPM, 75% accuracy
30 Instructional Plan: Intervention Instructional level is 1st grade. It is possible to move Robert to a 2nd grade level within 8 weeks, then move onDecoding (8-week plan)2 weeks: Intensive instruction in long vowel patterns (review short)6 weeks: Intensive instruction in vowel diphthong patternsStudy words in isolation and in context of sentences, passagesFluency (8-week plan)Paired fluency activities, repeated reading, timed reading 2 X weekmonitor at GOAL level of 2nd gradeReinforce reading for meaning, even when doing timed readings
31 Instructional Plan: Core Program Full participation in core program, with significant support for word study work.ComprehensionGroup passage reading and strategies instructionFocus on reading for meaning and avoiding guessingVocabularyGroup passage readingPreteach words with daily review of words taughtEstablish vocabulary section of students’ reading journals with opportunities for word use in reading & writing
32 Robert’s intervention plan 30 minutes per day in interventionFocus: word study and fluencyPreteach vocabulary from coreReinforce English language development through listening comprehension, language use in small groupReinforce interest and motivation for readingminutes per day in Tier 1 with differentiationFocus: Grade level standardsAssistance with passage reading, word study tasksSmall group, peer-assisted vocabulary, comprehension instructionWriting instructionDiane Haager, 2009
37 Stop and Think!Discuss your use of data to inform your RTI process. Consider the following issues:Common tools across classrooms, schools, personnelTools for screening, progress monitoring, diagnosticsSystematic and consistent use of data to make decisionsData awareness becomes part of the school cultureBalance accountability to and shared responsibility for outcomesTension between district-created/required assessments and outside tools with established psychometric properties
38 High Quality Curriculum & Instruction Tier 1: Differentiating Instruction in the Core Reading Program
39 Differentiating Instruction through Enhanced Content Standards-aligned instruction: maintain high expectationsFocus on five essential components, with consideration for how ELLs may progress differentlyPhonological awarenessAlphabetic principleFluency with connected textVocabularyComprehensionEnhance the content to fill knowledge gaps in students based on classwide and individual needs
40 Marlene’s Classroom: Enhancing Phonemic Awareness for Some During whole-class phonemic awareness instruction, substituting sounds in words, Marlene fully captured and maintained student interest and engagement. She followed up the PA lesson with a small group of 4 struggling students. In 15 minutes, these students had multiple opportunities to further engage in the same task and receive specific feedback. Additionally, she spent 5 minutes drilling sight words while she had them in a small group.
41 Deborah’s Classroom: Enhancing Vocabulary for All Pre-teachingEach day, Deborah identified 3-5 words from the day’s lesson. She introduced the words with pictures and examples of their use. She gave a fill-in-the-blank prompt for students and asked them to turn to their neighbor and give a sentence with the word.Example: purchase: to buy something with moneyI purchased a ____ at the _____.(Note: pictures or realia could be used here)
42 During Lesson:When the word came up in decoding, she stopped and asked one student to define it, one to use it in a sentence, and one to use it in a different sentence. She then showed students how it could have different endings (-s, -ed, or -ing)During passage reading, she stopped and pointed out how the word was used in the story.Follow up: Focus words were listed on a chart and frequently reviewed. Often, she praised students for using the words in spontaneous speech.
44 High Quality Intervention Instruction Tiers 2 and 3
45 What are the components of high quality intervention instruction? Focus on essential skillsAppropriate pacing of instructionSetting high expectationsMaximizing time on taskSmall group sizeSufficient time
46 FOCUS ON ESSENTIAL SKILLS What does each student know and need to know?
47 Focus on Essential Skills Typical reading needs for struggling readersVery specific needs in phonemic awareness, decoding, fluencyFor ELLs, contextualized vocabulary and comprehensionOne-size-fits-all does not optimize learning for all; generally, it optimizes learning for noneDiagnostic assessment and data analysis are critical!
48 PACING INSTRUCTION FOR ALL How can I accelerate student learning?
49 Pacing of Instruction Three Bears approach: Not too fast Not too slow Just right!Discussion: How can we get the pacing right for all students?
50 SETTING HIGH EXPECTATIONS How can I make sure each student reaches full potential?
51 Setting High Expectations: Ambitious but Realistic Goals Teachers use CBM to:Describe students’ academic competence at a single point in timeQuantify the rate at which students develop academic competence over timeBuild more effective programs to increase student achievement
52 “The greatest danger for most of us is not that our aim is too high and we miss it, but that it is too low and we reach it.”Michelangelo
53 MAXIMIZING TIME ON TASK Given my setting and my students, how can I increase students’ engaged reading time?
54 Ensuring AccessAll students should have access to the core program in addition to supplemental intervention supportStruggling readers: strategically plan intervention time so they do not miss essential components of coreStudents with disabilities: IDEA requires, to the extent possible, that students have access to the general education curriculum, work toward grade level standards, and be educated alongside their nondisabled peers.Sitting in the room is not access. Students with disabilities must be meaningfully engaged, with support from both GE and SE teachers.Teachers’ attitudes, demeanor, and words influence students dramatically and can make-or-break successful access.Diane Haager, 2010
55 Scheduling Intervention If it is not scheduled, it may not happenSchedule at times when you can maximize use of support personnelSchedule models:Share time across classrooms; students move to intervention groupsStagger time across classrooms; support personnel rotateEach teacher on her own; administrator/ support personnel always knows when intervention occurs and comes in to support
56 Maximizing Time On Task Within-Class InterventionForm small groups, max of 2, to fully implement core and interventionTarget needed skills, aligned with core programInclusion/ Blended with Special EdForm groups within GE classroom for intensive instructionCoordinate SpEd and intervention groupsBuild in supports during whole group, independent timePull-Out InterventionKeep group size 3-6Co-plan with classroom tchrsAlign pull-out and coreTarget skills identified in assessment
57 MANAGING GROUP SIZEWhat can I do to ensure that students receive intensive, small-group reading instruction every day?
58 Why small groups? Length Instruction at individual level Homogeneus Groups3-5 studentsInstruction at individual levelStudents to learn from each otherMore attention from the teacher than if whole class-Elbaum et al., 1999Length30 minutes5 times per week
59 SUFFICIENT INSTRUCTIONAL TIME How much time is enough for my students to reach optimal achievement?
60 What is sufficient duration? Students with reading difficulties need:More time, not less, in high quality reading instructionSufficient opportunities for practiceMinimum of 60 minutes suggested for access to coreMinimum of 30 minutes for Tier 2Minimum of 60 minutes per day for Tier 3Research shows: 100 sessions of minutes for significant gain in reading(Vaughn, et al.)
61 Where does intervention fit into your schedule? Greatest challenge is finding time20-30 minutes per day devoted to interventionUse time when students work in groups or complete seatworkConsistency is important. Intervention time must be planned into the routine and occur regularly.Find minute blocks of time
62 Efficiency Aids Intervention Conduct swift and seamless transitionsBe well prepared for activitiesAverage amount of time spent in transition30 minutes a day in transition2.5 hours per week10 hours per month15 days per year
63 Explicit Instruction State the objective for the activity. Give clear directions. (For EL define words that may not know-copy, compare-to assist with academic language)Model each activityBreak activities down into steps for students.Provide corrective feedbackProvide verbal praise for correct responses.Give students many opportunities to respond.
67 Spelling Three Sound Words Teacher Steps Word: fanPut down a letter for every sound you say.fanBlend the sounds.fan
68 Adding an Initial Consonant Sound Teacher Steps Word: itPut down a letter for every sound you say.sitBlend the sounds.itNew Word: sitAdd the letter representing the initial sound.Tell students the sound you added to make the new word.Remove and add the tile as you say each word.
69 Deleting an Initial Consonant Sound Teacher Steps Word: matPut down a letter for every sound you say.matBlend the sounds.mat
70 Deleting an Initial Consonant Sound Teacher Steps New Word: atPoint to the letters as you say the sounds.mmatRemove the letter that represents the deleted sound.Tell the students the sound you deleted to make the new word.Add and remove the tiles as you say each word.
71 Substituting an Initial Consonant Sound Teacher Steps Word: sitPut down a letter for every sound you say.sitBlend the sounds.sit
72 Substituting an Initial Consonant Sound Teacher Steps New Word: hitSubstitute the letter representing the new initial soundTell students the sound you used make the new word.hssitChange the tiles as you say each word.
73 Spelling Words with the Long A Sound Teacher Steps Word: gamePut down a letter for every sound you say.Tell students the silent E rule.Before putting down the E, remind studentsof the rule.gameBlend the sounds.game
74 Spelling Words with the Long E Sound Teacher Steps Word: meatTell students the double vowel rule.Put down a letter for every sound you say.Before putting down the A, remind studentsof the rule.meatBlend the sounds.meat
75 Spelling AR Words Teacher Steps Word: cardTell students that AR says /ar/.Put down a letter for each sound you say.Before putting down the letters AR, remind students that the sound is /ar/.cardBlend the sounds.card
76 Spelling OI Words Teacher Steps Word: boilTell students that oi says /oi/.Put down a letter for each sound you say.Before putting down the letters OI, remind students that the sound is /oi/.boilBlend the sounds.boil
77 Blending: Teaching Tips Teach words with a continuous sound at the beginning for ease in blending.Continuous: a sound that can be pronounced for several seconds without distorting the sound (f, l, m, n, r, s, v, w, y, z)Teach words that end with a stop sound next (as in mat or map).Stop: a sound that can be pronounced for only an instant (b, d, g, h, j, k, p, qu, x)Then add words beginning with stop sounds.Using tiles to push sounds, using the dry erase boards, tapping, etc. are all useful materials for blending activities.7777
78 Blending: Minimal Pairs When words differ by only one speech sound or phoneme, they are called minimal pairs.Examples: Sit and sat; tan and ran; rod and rotMinimal pairs instruction can help students understand that changing just one sound changes the meaning and pronunciation of a word.Minimal pairs instruction can improve rapid, letter- by-letter decoding with older students (Beck & Hamilton, 2000)ExampleInstruction that focuses on blending letter sounds to pronounce words and then changing just one letter and blending again helps students to decode words and attend to all letters of a word in sequence-including the medial letter(s).Teachers can probably get a good idea of what minimal pairs instruction looks like with the example in the book. Remind them that the teacher always works with letter sounds that the students know well. The instruction focuses on manipulating medial letters to make new words. Error correction includes showing the word the child pronounced above or below the correct word and saying, “The word is “pot”, you made “pat”. What letter do you change? What’s the word?”7878
79 Blending & Segmenting activity: Segment-to-spell Teacher says: 1. (Provide students with letter tiles and a tile box.) We are going to make some words with these letters tiles. 2. Tell me the sounds you hear in sit? 3. What is the first sound you hear in sit? 4. Do you know a letter that makes that sound? Put the s in the first box. 5. What is the middle sound in sit? 6. Do you know a letter that makes that sound? Put the i in the box. 7. Sound out what you have so far. 8. What is the last sound you hear in sit? 9. Do you know a letter that makes that sound? Put the t in the last box. 10. Now, sound out what you have. Blend the sounds back together. 11. What word did you make?Segment to Spell is a great activity to work on PA skills paired with decoding.Segment to Spell is powerful because 1) students are asked to consciously identify each sound within a word; 2) use their knowledge of segmenting and the alphabet to spell the word, and 3) examine the word and blend those sounds back together.The box is also called an Elkonin box – which is an activity that we have in the resource section of the handbook.(Read slide). This is a great activity for students who are struggling with medial sounds and vowel sounds.The repetition– going back to repeat the sounds that have been made gives students more chances to make those phonological connections to text.
82 Pairing Reading Partners 1. Rank order students according to reading fluency.2. Split the list in half to form pairs.3. Pair the top-ranked student in the top-half (TH) with the top-ranked student in the bottom-half (BH); do the same for the two students who are second from the top in each half; continue this process until all have partners.Top-Half Bottom-Half PairsTop-ranked TH Top-ranked BH Pair ASecond-ranked TH Second-ranked BH Pair BThird-ranked TH Third-ranked BH Pair C
83 Selecting Reading Materials For word-level paired reading activities, select word lists that are slightly challenging for the less able partner.For connected-text activities, select passages at the instructional reading level of the less able partner.* Note: Paired reading activities improve the speed and accuracy of both partners.
84 Implementing Partner Reading First reader reads.2. Second reader corrects errors.3. After ___ minutes, switch jobs.4. Second reader rereads the same material.5. First reader corrects errors.
85 Echo Reading The teacher or partner reads a sentence or phase. The student repeats it. (Be sure the student points to the words as they are read.)Switch jobs.
86 Collaborative Problem-Solving Teams: Sharing the Responsibility Use grade-level planning meetings for examining, interpreting and sharing dataCreate a culture of sharing data, thinking objectively about struggling students; discussing quality of instruction in each tierCreate a problem-solving perspective: These students are not problems, they are responsibilitiesFacilitate sharing of research-based strategies and materialsKeep the focus on students- revisit student cases regularly to discuss progress and options for further actioRole of site administrator is critical for supporting teamwork!
87 Administrator Support: The Make-or-Break Factor Active involvement in designing the school’s RTI model and selecting practicesActive involvement in providing logistical support (organization, materials, time, data collection, professional development, collaboration)Frequent communication with teachers, students and parents about student progressActive involvement in sharing data, addressing needs, and celebrating successesHaving a “can-do” attitude and problem-solving approach“Let’s not complain that we can’t do something, let’s figure out how to make it happen.”
88 Lessons Learned from Successful RTI-Focused Schools Ford ElementaryMiller Elementary- principal’s perspectivePleasant Hills Elementary- district-wide effort
89 Collaborative Teams: Examples from Successful Schools RTI Planning TeamOversee schedule, planning, materials, assessmentCollect data and annually evaluate the modelLead discussions in grade level team meetings or PLCsAssessment TeamRotate through classrooms and conduct assessmentsTeachers represented on teamsConsult with classroom teachersGather and report data in meetings and small groups
90 The Benefits of Collaboration Increased support for studentsMore options for intervention when working togetherProfessional support for teachersCollaboration in lesson planning and assessmentFlexibility to try new things one teacher could not do alone: increase in teaching methodologiesAnother set of eyes to observe and help with problem solving
92 School-Wide Commitment: Defining Roles and Responsibilities What is the role of:Site administratorStudent Study TeamSchool psychologistSpecial education teacherESL teacherOther support personnelWho has primary responsibility for student success?
93 Keeping the Momentum Going Use data to revisit and refocus your effortsKeep learning…Research on RTIResearch on ELLsResearch on reading interventionEstablish opportunities for sharing and learning togetherShare what you are doing. Present your school’s model to parents, other schools, and district personnel. The more you talk about it, the more you “own” it.
94 Fostering a School-Wide Commitment Keep the focus on student successUse data objectively and wiselyMaintain open and constructive lines of communicationTake a problem-solving approachSolutions, not complaints!