YOU MUSTN’T eat in class YOU MUSTN’T chew gum in class YOU MUSTN’T write on the walls YOU MUSTN’T sleep in class YOU MUSTN’T kick the vending machines YOU MUSTN’T talk to classmates in class YOU MUSTN’T fight YOU MUSTN’T run in the corridors YOU MUSTN’T use your mobile phone YOU MUSTN’T cheat in tests YOU MUSTN’T sing in class YOU MUSTN’T throw objects out of the window YOU MUSTN’T break the windows YOU MUSTN’T arrive late YOU MUSTN’T bring pets into school YOU MUST be quiet in class YOU MUST be on time YOU MUST keep the classroom clean
must I must must You must must He / She / It must must We must must You must must They must Modal verbs: 1) Have only ONE form 2) They are followed by a verb in the base form drive
Modal verbs: 3) Don’t need an auxiliary for the negative form must not I must not drive must not You must not drive must not He / She / It must not drive must not We must not drive must not You must not drive must not They must not drive Must Must I drive? Must Must you drive? Must Must he / she / it drive? Must Must we drive? Must Must you drive? Must Must they drive? and questions mustn’t I mustn’t drive mustn’t You mustn’t drive mustn’t He / She / It mustn’t drive mustn’t We mustn’t drive mustn’t You mustn’t drive mustn’t They mustn’t drive
Have to is not a modal verb. It’s an ordinary verb. I, youhave to go He, she, ithas to We, you, theyhave to DoI, you have to go? Doeshe, she, it Dowe, you, they I, youdon’t have to go He, she, itdoesn’t have to We, you, theydon’t have to
You can also use Have got to I, youhave got to go He, she, ithas got to We, you, theyhave got to HaveI, you got to go? Hashe, she, it Havewe, you, they I, youhaven’t got to go He, she, ithasn’t got to We, you, theyhaven’t got to
Both must and have to (have got to) express: an OBLIGATION It’s a fantastic film. You MUST see it. It’s a fantastic film. You HAVE TO see it. BUT I must go to Jane’s party. It is going to be good fun. Internal obligation. I can’t go out tonight. I have (got) to finish my homework. External obligation. It’s a fantastic film. You HAVE GOT TO see it.
Have a look at these sentences Non si deve fumare a scuola. Non devi alzarti presto la domenica. Non devi bere alcolici e guidare. Lavora, quindi non deve chiedere soldi ai genitori. It’s forbidden It’s not necessary
To express a prohibition..... MUSTN’T Non si deve fumare a scuola. You MUSTN’T smoke at school. Non devi bere alcolici e guidare. You MUSTN’T drink alcohol and drive. To express lack of obligation.. DON’T HAVE TO Non devi alzarti presto la domenica. Lavora, quindi non deve chiedere soldi ai genitori. You DON’T HAVE TO get up early on Sundays. He has got a job, so he DOESN’T HAVE TO ask his parents for money.
OBLIGATIONS IN THE PAST must There is no past form of must We use the past form of have to Ieri sono dovuto andare dal dentista. Yesterday I had to go to the dentist. Non c’erano autobus. Siamo dovuti andare a casa a piedi. There were no buses. We had to walk home. HAD TO Examples:
LACK OF OBLIGATION IN THE PAST Examples: I got up late last Saturday because I didn’t have to go to work. Mi sono alzato tardi sabato perché non dovevo andare a lavorare. Ieri non ho dovuto studiare perché oggi è vacanza. Yesterday I didn’t have to study because today is a holiday. DIDN’T HAVE TO
PROHIBITIONS IN THE PAST mustn’t There is no past form of mustn’t Examples: Quando avevi 14 anni non dovevi (o non potevi) uscire la sera. When you were 14 you couldn’t go out in the evening. Quando ero a scuola non dovevo (o non potevo) arrivare in ritardo. When I was at school I couldn’t arrive late. COULDN’T WASN’T / WEREN’T ALLOWED TO When I was at school I wasn’t allowed to arrive late. When you were 14 you weren’t allowed to go out in the evening.