Presentation on theme: "2007 - Gert Jan HOFSTEDE - 1 - Culture in practice Gert Jan Hofstede Nov 2007."— Presentation transcript:
Gert Jan HOFSTEDE Culture in practice Gert Jan Hofstede Nov 2007
Gert Jan HOFSTEDE Niko Tinbergen’s questions Animal behaviour…? 1.cause 2.function 3.learning 4.evolution How about culture?
Gert Jan HOFSTEDE Cause of culture People have Group-wise social structure Moral feelings (good / bad behaviour, reputation) Empathy (laughing!) Education (transferring values and practices for group) Groups differ in environment Climate Substenance (hunt/gather, farm, herd) History → divergence of cultures is expected
Gert Jan HOFSTEDE Function of culture Societies have scarce resources to divide sexual partners power affiliation → rules of the game are called for, to avoid fighting, jealousy, cultural downfall… → most important: Golden Rule, Categorical Imperative → culture enables group to be a ‘virtuous’ reproductive unit (…and identity creates out-groups)
Gert Jan HOFSTEDE Learning culture Children learn from Parents, siblings, playmates about Being a good child, friend,… Team members learn from Leaders, one another about… Being late, mobile phones, saying ‘yes’or ‘no’, … blowing bubbles
Gert Jan HOFSTEDE Culture and the moral circle Culture is the unwritten rules of the social game –divide scarce resources –balance our individual drives –…with our moral group needs Culture is how to be a good member of the moral circle. –if not: outcast –does not apply to non-members!
Gert Jan HOFSTEDE Evolution of culture Time scales: ± years: apes, versatile social mammals ± years: early humans, fire → language → conquering niches, travelling ± years:agriculture → cities → specialization, warfare, empires, multilevel groups ± yearssame ± 100 yearsindustrialization, public / private ± 10 yearsinformation age, ‘global village’
Gert Jan HOFSTEDE Now: Web, EU Is the EU a moral circle?
Gert Jan HOFSTEDE No. I have a better plan. Mikkelsen Here is my plan. What do you think of it? 3. Mikkelsen to Yap and Tan Transpacific trouble Where is our code? Give it now! Lee Do as we all tell you! 2. Lee cc: to many bosses Sequel: Yap and Tan did nothing. Bosses alerted by nr 2. forced Mikkelsen to comply. Mikkelsen bypassed Lee in new work arrangement Result 6 months later: Mikkelsen now satisfied.
Gert Jan HOFSTEDE Scrap Story Kuala Lumpur plant –Chip production Production: Malay women 1 st line supervision: Male Indian and Malay Middle mgmt: Malay and Chinese Upper Mgmt: Chinese Chinese / US: executive New US executive: “reduce scrap!” Scrap halved by end 1 st quarter! Malay woman standing alone 2 nd quarter: inventory losses stagger Toilets clog up
Gert Jan HOFSTEDE Culture as a moral compass These stories are about proper / improper –common rules-of-the-game are lacking –…and nobody knows this Adaptability got us here –It will take us further Enemies to social cohesion –Fear, Ignorance –Irresponsibility of leaders We need to –know ourselves –know our differences –be one moral group