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1 transfer rate https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

2 DVD - Transfer rates 1 Read and write speeds for the first DVD drives and players were of 1,385 kB/s (1,353 KiB/s); this speed is usually called "1×". More recent models, at 18× or 20×, have 18 or 20 times that speed. Note that for CD drives, 1× means kB/s (150 KiB/s), about one-ninth as swift. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

3 CD-ROM - Transfer rates 1 If a CD-ROM is read at the same rotational speed as an audio CD, the data transfer rate is 150 KiB/s, commonly referred to as "1×" https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

4 CD-ROM - Transfer rates 1 As of 2004, the fastest transfer rate commonly available is about 52× or 10,400 rpm and 7.62 MiB/s https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

5 CD-ROM - Transfer rates 1 Faster 12× drives were common beginning in early 1997 https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

6 CD-ROM - Transfer rates 1 Problems with vibration, owing to limits on achievable symmetry and strength in mass-produced media, mean that CD- ROM drive speeds have not massively increased since the late 1990s https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

7 CD-ROM - Transfer rates 1 Additionally, with a 700 MB CD-ROM fully readable in under 2½ minutes at 52× CAV, increases in actual data transfer rate are decreasingly influential on overall effective drive speed when taken into consideration with other factors such as loading/unloading, media recognition, spin up/down and random seek times, making for much decreased returns on development investment https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

8 CD-ROM - Transfer rates 1 CD-Recordable drives are often sold with three different speed ratings, one speed for write-once operations, one for re-write operations, and one for read-only operations. The speeds are typically listed in that order; i.e. a 12×/10×/32× CD drive can, CPU and media permitting, write to CD-R discs at 12× speed (1.76 MiB/s), write to CD-RW discs at 10× speed (1.46 MiB/s), and read from CDs at 32× speed (4.69 MiB/s). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

9 CD-ROM - Transfer rates 1 72×6,750–10,800up to up to 10.52,000 (multi-beam) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

10 Hard disk drive - Data transfer rate 1 Transfer rate can be influenced by file system fragmentation and the layout of the files. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

11 Hard disk drive - Data transfer rate 1 Since data transfer rate performance only tracks one of the two components of areal density, its performance improves at a lower rate. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

12 Bit rate - Goodput (data transfer rate) 1 Goodput or data transfer rate refers to the achieved average net bit rate that is delivered to the application layer, exclusive of all protocol overhead, data packets retransmissions, etc. For example, in the case of file transfer, the goodput corresponds to the achieved file transfer rate. The file transfer rate in bit/s can be calculated as the file size (in bytes), divided by the file transfer time (in seconds), and multiplied by eight. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

13 Bit rate - Goodput (data transfer rate) 1 As an example, the goodput or data transfer rate of a V.92 voiceband modem is affected by the modem physical layer and data link layer protocols. It is sometimes higher than the physical layer data rate due to V.44 data compression, and sometimes lower due to bit-errors and automatic repeat request retransmissions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

14 Bit rate - Goodput (data transfer rate) 1 If no data compression is provided by the network equipment or protocols, we have the following relation: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

15 Bit rate - Goodput (data transfer rate) 1 Goodput ≤ Throughput ≤ Maximum throughput ≤ Net bit rate https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

16 Bit rate - Goodput (data transfer rate) 1 for a certain communication path. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

17 Parallel ATA - ATA standards versions, transfer rates, and features 1 Note that the transfer rate for each mode (for example, 66.7 MB/s for UDMA4, commonly called "Ultra-DMA 66", defined by ATA-5) gives its maximum theoretical transfer rate on the cable https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

18 Parallel ATA - ATA standards versions, transfer rates, and features 1 Congestion on the host bus to which the ATA adapter is attached may also limit the maximum burst transfer rate. For example, the maximum data transfer rate for conventional PCI bus is 133 MB/s, and this is shared among all active devices on the bus. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

19 Parallel ATA - ATA standards versions, transfer rates, and features 1 Hard drive performance under most workloads is limited first and second by those two factors; the transfer rate on the bus is a distant third in importance https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

20 Parallel ATA - ATA standards versions, transfer rates, and features 1 As of April 2010 mechanical hard disk drives can transfer data at up to 157 MB/s, which is beyond the capabilities of the PATA/133 specification. High-performance solid state drives can transfer data at up to 308 MB/s. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

21 Parallel ATA - ATA standards versions, transfer rates, and features 1 Only the Ultra DMA modes use CRC to detect errors in data transfer between the controller and drive. This is a 16 bit CRC, and it is used for data blocks only. Transmission of command and status blocks do not use the fast signaling methods that would necessitate CRC. For comparison, in Serial ATA, 32 bit CRC is used for both commands and data. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

22 Hard drive - Data transfer rate 1 Transfer rate can be influenced by file system fragmentation and the layout of the files. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

23 Data transfer rate (disk drive) 1 These performance characteristics can be grouped into two categories: #Access time|access time and #Data transfer rate|data transfer time (or rate). https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

24 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Access time 1 The access time or response time of a rotating drive is a measure of the time it takes before the drive can actually Data transmission|transfer data https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

25 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Seek time 1 With rotating drives, the seek time measures the time it takes the head assembly on the actuator arm to travel to the track of the disk where the data will be read or written https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

26 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Seek time 1 A rotating drive's average seek time is the average of all possible seek times which technically is the time to do all possible seeks divided by the number of all possible seeks, but in practice it is determined by statistical methods or simply approximated as the time of a seek over one-third of the number of tracks https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

27 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Seek time 1 The first HDD had an average seek time of about 600 ms, and by the middle 1970s, HDDs were available with seek times of about 25ms. Some early PC drives used a stepper motor to move the heads, and as a result had seek times as slow as 80–120ms, but this was quickly improved by voice coil type actuation in the 1980s, reducing seek times to around 20ms. Seek time has continued to improve slowly over time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

28 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Seek time 1 The other two less commonly referenced seek measurements are track-to-track and full stroke. The track-to-track measurement is the time required to move from one track to an adjacent track. This is the shortest (fastest) possible seek time. In HDDs this is typically between 0.2 and 0.8ms. The full stroke measurement is the time required to move from the outermost track to the innermost track. This is the longest (slowest) possible seek time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

29 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Seek time 1 With SSDs there are no moving parts, so a measurement of the seek time is only testing electronic circuits preparing a particular location on the memory in the storage device. Typical SSDs will have a seek time between 0.08 and 0.16ms. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

30 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Short stroking 1 Short stroking is a term used in enterprise storage environments to describe an HDD that is purposely restricted in total capacity so that the actuator only has to move the heads across a smaller number of total tracks https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

31 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Effect of audible noise and vibration control 1 Measured in A-weighting|dBA, audible noise is significant for certain applications, such as digital video recorder|DVRs, digital audio recording and quiet PC|quiet computers. Low noise disks typically use fluid bearings, slower rotational speeds (usually 5,400rpm) and reduce the seek speed under load (Automatic Acoustic Management|AAM) to reduce audible clicks and crunching sounds. Drives in smaller form factors (e.g. 2.5inch) are often quieter than larger drives. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

32 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Effect of audible noise and vibration control 1 Some desktop- and laptop-class disk drives allow the user to make a trade-off between seek performance and drive noise https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

33 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Rotational latency 1 Rotational latency (sometimes called rotational delay or just latency) is the delay waiting for the rotation of the disk to bring the required disk sector under the read- write head https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

34 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Rotational latency 1 The spindle motor speed can use one of two types of disk rotation methods: 1) constant linear velocity (CLV), used mainly in optical storage, varies the rotational speed of the optical disc depending upon the position of the head, and 2) constant angular velocity (CAV), used in HDDs, standard FDDs, a few optical disc systems, and Gramophone record|vinyl audio records, spins the media at one constant speed regardless of where the head is positioned. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

35 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Rotational latency 1 In both these schemes contiguous bit transfer rates are constant https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

36 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Effect of reduced power consumption 1 Power consumption has become increasingly important, not only in mobile devices such as laptops but also in server and desktop markets https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

37 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Other 1 The or command overhead is the time it takes for the drive electronics to set up the necessary communication between the various components in the device so it can read or write the data. This is in the range of 0.003Millisecond|ms. With a value this low most people or benchmarks tend to ignore this time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

38 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Other 1 The measures the time it takes the heads to settle on the target track and stop vibrating so it does not read or write off track. This amount is usually very small (typically less than 0.1 ms) or already included in the seek time specifications from the drive manufacturer. In a benchmark test the settle time would be included in the seek time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

39 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Data transfer rate 1 The sustained data transfer rate or sustained throughput of a drive will be the slower of the sustained internal and sustained external rates https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

40 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Data transfer rate 1 ; Media rate: Rate at which the drive can read bits from the surface of the media. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

41 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Data transfer rate 1 ; Sector overhead time: Additional time (bytes between sectors) needed for control structures and other information necessary to manage the drive, locate and validate data and perform other support functions. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

42 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Data transfer rate 1 ; Head switch time: Additional time required to electrically switch from one head to another and begin reading; only applies to multi-head drive and is about 1 to 2 ms. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

43 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Data transfer rate 1 ; Cylinder switch time: Additional time required to move to the first track of the next cylinder and begin reading; the name cylinder is used because typically all the tracks of a drive with more than one head or data surface are read before moving the actuator. This time is typically about twice the track-to-track seek time. As of 2001, it was about 2 to 3 ms. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

44 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Data transfer rate 1 *, a typical 7200RPM desktop HDD has a disk-to-disk buffer|buffer data transfer rate up to 1030Mbit/s. This rate depends on the track location, so it will be higher on the outer zones (where there are more data sectors per track) and lower on the inner zones (where there are fewer data sectors per track); and is generally somewhat higher for 10,000RPM drives. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

45 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Data transfer rate 1 *Floppy disk drives have sustained disk-to- disk buffer|buffer data transfer rates that are one or two orders of magnitude slower than that of HDDs. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

46 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Data transfer rate 1 *The sustained disk-to-disk buffer|buffer data transfer rates varies amongst families of Optical disk drives with the slowest CD- ROM#Transfer rates|1x CDs at 1.23Mbit/s floppy-like while a high performance Blu- ray disc#Recording speed|12x Blu-ray disc drive at 432Mbit/s approaches the performance of HDDs. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

47 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Data transfer rate 1 A current widely used standard for the buffer-to-computer interface is 3.0Gbit/s SATA, which can send about 300megabyte/s (10-bit encoding) from the buffer to the computer, and thus is still comfortably ahead of today's disk-to-buffer transfer rates. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

48 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Effect of file system 1 Transfer rate can be influenced by file system fragmentation and the layout of the files. Defragmentation is a procedure used to minimize delay in retrieving data by moving related items to physically proximate areas on the disk. Some computer operating systems perform defragmentation automatically. Although automatic defragmentation is intended to reduce access delays, the procedure can slow response when performed while the computer is in use. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

49 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Effect of file system 1 Flash memory-based SSDs do not need defragmentation; however because SSDs write pages of data that are much larger than the blocks of data managed by the file system, over time, an SSD's write performance can degrade as the drive becomes full of partial pages and/or pages no longer needed by the file system https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

50 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Effect of areal density 1 Simply increasing the number of tracks on a disk can affect seek times but not gross transfer rates https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

51 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Interleave 1 Sector interleave is a mostly obsolete device characteristic related to data rate, dating back to when computers were too slow to be able to read large continuous streams of data https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

52 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Interleave 1 However, because interleaving introduces intentional physical delays between blocks of data thereby lowering the data rate, setting the interleave to a ratio higher than required causes unnecessary delays for equipment that has the performance needed to read sectors more quickly. The interleaving ratio was therefore usually chosen by the end-user to suit their particular computer system's performance capabilities when the drive was first installed in their system. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

53 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Interleave 1 Modern technology is capable of reading data as fast as it can be obtained from the spinning platters, so hard drives usually have a fixed sector interleave ratio of 1:1, which is effectively no interleaving being used. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

54 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Power consumption 1 Power consumption has become increasingly important, not only in mobile devices such as laptops but also in server and desktop markets https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

55 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Power consumption 1 Drives use more power, briefly, when starting up (spin-up). Although this has little direct effect on total energy consumption, the maximum power demanded from the power supply, and hence its required rating, can be reduced in systems with several drives by controlling when they spin up. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

56 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Power consumption 1 * On SCSI hard disk drives, the SCSI controller can directly control spin up and spin down of the drives. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

57 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Power consumption 1 * Some Parallel ATA (PATA) and Serial ATA (SATA) hard disk drives support power-up in standby or PUIS: each drive does not spin up until the controller or system BIOS issues a specific command to do so. This allows the system to be set up to stagger disk start-up and limit maximum power demand at switch-on. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

58 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Power consumption 1 * Some SATA II and later hard disk drives support Staggered spinup|staggered spin- up, allowing the computer to spin up the drives in sequence to reduce load on the power supply when booting. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

59 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Power consumption 1 Most hard disk drives today support some form of power management which uses a number of specific power modes that save energy by reducing performance. When implemented an HDD will change between a full power mode to one or more power saving modes as a function of drive usage. Recovery from the deepest mode, typically called Sleep, may take as long as several seconds. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

60 Data transfer rate (disk drive) - Shock resistance 1 Shock resistance is especially important for mobile devices. Some laptops now include active hard drive protection that parks the disk heads if the machine is dropped, hopefully before impact, to offer the greatest possible chance of survival in such an event. Maximum shock tolerance to date is 350 Gravitational acceleration|g for operating and 1,000 g for non- operating. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

61 CD-ROM XA - Transfer rates 1 If a CD-ROM is read at the same rotational speed as an Compact Disc Digital Audio|audio CD, the data transfer rate is 150KiB/s, commonly referred to as 1× https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

62 CD-ROM XA - Transfer rates 1 In CAV mode the × number denotes the transfer rate at the outer edge of the disc, where it is a maximum. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

63 CD-ROM XA - Transfer rates 1 As of 2004, the fastest transfer rate commonly available is about 52× or 10,400 rpm and 7.62MiB/s https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

64 CD-ROM XA - Transfer rates 1 Problems with vibration, owing to limits on achievable symmetry and strength in mass-produced media, mean that CD- ROM drive speeds have not massively increased since the late 1990s https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

65 CD-ROM XA - Transfer rates 1 Additionally, with a 700MB CD-ROM fully readable in under 2½ minutes at 52× CAV, increases in actual data transfer rate are decreasingly influential on overall effective drive speed when taken into consideration with other factors such as loading/unloading, media recognition, spin up/down and random seek times, making for much decreased returns on development investment https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

66 Dual layer - Transfer rates 1 Read and write speeds for the first DVD drives and players were of 1,385kilobyte|kB/s (1,353kibibyte|KiB/s); this speed is usually called 1×. More recent models, at 18× or 20×, have 18 or 20 times that speed. Note that for CD drives, 1× means 153.6kB/s (150KiB/s), about one-ninth as swift. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

67 Dual layer - Transfer rates 1 [http://www.loc.gov/preservation/resources /rt/NIST_LC_OpticalDiscLongevity.pdf Final Report: NIST/Library of Congress (LC) Optical Disc Longevity Study], September 2007 (table derived from figure 7) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

68 Hard disk drives - Data transfer rate 1 Since data transfer rate performance only tracks one of the two components of areal density, its performance improves at a lower rate. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

69 AT Attachment - ATA standards versions, transfer rates, and features 1 Note that the transfer rate for each mode (for example, 66.7MB/s for UDMA4, commonly called Ultra-DMA 66, defined by ATA-5) gives its maximum theoretical transfer rate on the cable https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

70 AT Attachment - ATA standards versions, transfer rates, and features 1 Hard drive performance under most workloads is limited first and second by those two factors; the transfer rate on the bus is a distant third in importance https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

71 AT Attachment - ATA standards versions, transfer rates, and features 1 As of April 2010 mechanical hard disk drives can transfer data at up to 157MB/s, which is beyond the capabilities of the PATA/133 specification. High-performance solid state drives can transfer data at up to 308MB/s. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

72 AT Attachment - ATA standards versions, transfer rates, and features 1 Only the Ultra DMA modes use Cyclic redundancy check|CRC to detect errors in data transfer between the controller and drive. This is a 16 bit CRC, and it is used for data blocks only. Transmission of command and status blocks do not use the fast signaling methods that would necessitate CRC. For comparison, in Serial ATA, 32 bit CRC is used for both commands and data. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

73 Front side bus - Transfer rates 1 The Bandwidth (computing)|bandwidth or maximum theoretical throughput of the front-side bus is determined by the product of the width of its data path, its Clock rate|clock frequency (cycles per second) and the number of data transfers it performs per clock cycle. For example, a 64-bit (8-byte) wide FSB operating at a frequency of 100MHz that performs 4 transfers per cycle has a bandwidth of 3200 megabytes per second (MB/s): https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

74 Front side bus - Transfer rates 1 The number of transfers per Cycles per instruction|clock cycle depends on the technology used. For example, GTL+ performs 1 transfer/cycle, EV6 2 transfers/cycle, and AGTL+ 4 transfers/cycle. Intel calls the technique of four transfers per cycle Quad Data Rate|Quad Pumping. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

75 Front side bus - Transfer rates 1 Many manufacturers publish the frequency of the front-side bus in MHz, but marketing materials often list the theoretical effective signaling rate (which is commonly called Transfer (computing)|megatransfers per second or MT/s) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

76 Front side bus - Transfer rates 1 The specifications of several generations of popular processors are indicated below. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

77 Transfer rate 1 In telecommunications and computing, 'bit rate' (sometimes written 'bitrate' or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

78 Transfer rate 1 The bit rate is :wiktionary:quantified|quantified using the Data rate units|bits per second unit (symbol 'bit/s'), often in conjunction with an SI prefix such as kilo- (1 kbit/s = 1000 bit/s), mega- (1 Mbit/s = 1000 kbit/s), giga- (1 Gbit/s = 1000 Mbit/s) or tera- (1 Tbit/s = 1000 Gbit/s). The non-standard abbreviation bps is often used to replace the standard symbol bit/s, so that (for example) 1 Mbps is used to mean one million bits per second. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-transfer-rate-toolkit.html

79 For More Information, Visit: https://store.theartofservice.co m/the-transfer-rate- toolkit.html https://store.theartofservice.co m/the-transfer-rate- toolkit.html The Art of Service https://store.theartofservice.com


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