Presentation on theme: "A View of Mountains Jonathan Schell. Arrangement(1) Warm-up questions and exercises 1. In the world, what’s the most horrible thing to you? -----translation."— Presentation transcript:
Arrangement(1) Warm-up questions and exercises 1. In the world, what’s the most horrible thing to you? -----translation p55 2. When it comes to WWII, what will occur to you? Listening exercises p57 Background introduction to the author and the two cities
The most horrible thing in the world 救援人员没能靠近他们。摄影师没能拍下他们 的脸。然而，正如在遥远的天边陷入险境的人 们在黑匣子里留下的信息一样，他们的遗言不 仅让人们感受令人不寒而栗的灾难场景，还让 人们了解到在这样一个残酷的时刻，仍然存在 着勇敢、体面和风度。
The two A-bomb cities The Nagasaki is a city which is the seaport in southwest Japan( 长崎 ) and is one of the two cities that got nuclear bombing in the War II. The Hiroshima is a city which is the seaport in southwest Japan( 广岛 ) and is the first city that got nuclear bombing in the War II.
Special Mission In 1945, Yosuke Yamahata was a 28-year- old-photographer on assignment with the Western Army Corps near Nagasaki. On August 9, three days after the bombing of Hiroshima, news of a second "New-Style Bombing" was received by the Corps and Yamahata was sent immediately to photograph its aftereffects.
..\Remembering Nagasaki Background.htm He arrived before dawn on August 10, 1945. As the sun rose he began to photograph the city, in which nearly half the population had been killed or injured by the single, plutonium triggered bomb. By nightfall he had completed the most extensive photographic record of the immediate aftermath of the bombings of either Hiroshima or Nagasaki, taking approximately 119 images during that single day. He died of cancer in 1966. He was 48 years old.
The atomic bomb mushroom cloud over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945 Photograph by Hiromichi Matsuda
Q1 Human injuries caused by the atomic bomb Deaths: about 74000 Injuries: about 75000(estimates up to the end of December 1945) Heat rays, blast and radiation of the atomic bomb caused damage to the human body. Heat rays was tremendous and caused severe burns which couldn‘t be imagined by the ordinary burn. When the symptom became serious, the patients skin turned into a running sore and subcutaneous （皮下的） tissues and bones were exposed.
Q2 The shape of the atomic bomb Plutonium 239 was used in the Nagasaki atomic bomb. It was 3.2m in length and 1.5m in diameter and 4.5ton in weight. It was nicknamed "Fatman"because of its shape, which is more roundish than the Hiroshima-type bomb( a little boy). (a full-size model of the bomb is displayed at Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum).
Q3 The development expense of the atomic bomb The development of the atomic bomb was called "Manhattan Project" and then value of two billion dollars were put in to the project. It was delivered by then president Roosevelt before the attack of pearl harbor.
Q4 The B-29 bomber that carried the atomic bomb The B-29 bomber that carried the atomic bomb was called "Bockscar". It left a base on Tinian Island, which is one of the Mariana Islands near Guam. The B-29 that released the bomb over Hiroshima City was called Enola Gay. It also started from Tinian Island.
Statue of Peace The statue is a work by Nagasaki born sculptor Seibo Kitamura. It was completed in 1955. It is a bronze statue of approximately 9.7 meters in height and 30 ton in weight. The sculptor's words that goes "The right hand implies the atomic bombing, the left hand suggests desire for the world peace and the face prays the bombing victims ﾕ soul may rest in peace.“ is engraved on the back of the pedestal.
Q6 Nagasaki before the bombing and now Nagasaki thrived as the port for European trade and cultural exchange during the period of national isolation of Japan. Shipbuilding industry prospered in Nagasaki as the marine transportation business developed. During a war there were major shipyard and armament factories. After the atomic bombing inhabitants in Nagasaki City devoted their effort to give aid to the survivors and to reconstruct the city. Now, Nagasaki City is known as a city of marine products industry and tourism as well as shipbuilding.
About atom bomb "A single nuclear weapon contains almost ten times the explosive force delivered by all of the allied air forces in the Second World War". – President John F. Kennedy "A bomb can now be manufactured which will be 25.000 times as powerful as that which destroyed Hiroshima." - Betrand Russell
Jonathan Schell This text is the epilogue( last part) from his book The Gift of Time: The Case for Abolishing Nuclear Weapons Now 《时代礼物：废止核武案例》 in 1998. He was a writer for the New Yorker from 1967 to 1987 and a columnist for Newsday from 1900 to 1996. He teaches at Wesleyan University and the New school. His works involves The Village of Ben Sue and The Fate of the Earth 《地球的命运》. His latest book The unconquerable world :power, nonviolence, and The will of The people 《不可征 服的世界：力量，非暴力和人民的意志》
Text structure This argumentative essay compromises three parts. 1st part( para 1) the writer put forward his thesis: a view of mountains in the background suggests the real extent to which the city was destroyed by the atomic bombing.
Text structure 2nd part (para2-3) the author argues that the bombing of Nagasaki is more representative of nuclear peril threatening the world than that of Hiroshima and that we need to take actions to dispel nuclear threat from the Earth.
Text structure 3rd part (para 4) he restates his main idea, i.e. we should not just worry about the nuclear peril but take actions to eliminate it to create a safer world.
Paragraph one It describes what Yamahata’s pictures display: the effects of a nuclear weapon on human being. Key sentence Why does the author thinks that Y’s pictures composes the fullest record of nuclear destruction in existence?
Q&A Because there are few pictures of the destructive consequences of the first atomic bomb. In contrast, Y’s photo systematically and timely record the effects of the second bomb on Nagasaki. Why were the bodies often branded with the patterns of their clothes?
Q&A Because the different colors of the patterns absorb light in different degrees. That is, they permitted the body to be heated by the thermal pulse in different degrees in accordance with the colors of the patterns. The lighter the color, the less burned the part of the body. Why does he mention “ a view of mountains”?
Because the view of mountains reminds the viewers of the city that had been erased from earth. It is in the vanished city rather than in the wreckage that the significance of the event lies.
Dispatch/despatch to send someone or something somewhere for a particular purpose; to deal with sb. or to finish a job quickly and effectively She dispatched (beat) her opponent 6-2, 6-2. dispatch a messenger 派遣使者 / a telegram 拍电报 dispatch a business 速办公务 / a criminal 处决罪犯 He dispatched his breakfast and left.
Dispatch n. [countable] a message sent between military or government officials a dispatch from headquarters with dispatch formal if you do something with dispatch, you do it well and quickly
constitute [linking verb, not in progressive] to be considered to be something Failing to complete the work constitutes a breach of the employment contract. /The rise in crime constitutes a threat to society. if several people or things constitute something, they are the parts that form it We must redefine what constitutes a family.
Char (charred, charring) to burn something so that its outside becomes black Roast the peppers until the skin begins to char and blister. something that is charred has been burned until it is black the charred remains of a body to work as a cleaner in a house, office, public building etc 打杂工
…their bodies are often branded with the patterns of their clothes… … their bodies are often marked with the patterns of their clothes… Brand: label or mark with or as if with a brand, to describe someone or something as a very bad type of person or thing, often unfairly brand somebody (as) something They branded the cattle one by one. The US administration recently branded him as a war criminal. You can't brand all football supporters as hooligans.
Dot: cover or sprinkle with or as if with dots if an area is dotted with things, there are a lot of them there but they are spread far apart be dotted with something The lake was dotted with sailboats. be dotted about/around etc something The company has over 20 stores dotted around the country. The countryside is dotted with beautiful ancient churches. We have offices dotted all over the region.
Part 2 In this part, the writer first claims that the bombing of Nagasaki is the fitter symbol of the nuclear danger menacing the world; then he argues that we should not just apprehend the nuclear peril but try to dispel it from the earth. For this purpose, he maintains that picture taking is not enough and action is called for.
Para 2-3 The following questions can be considered: 1. Why is the meaning of Yamahata’s picture universal? Because they express an apprehension of the nuclear peril that hangs over us. What happened to Nagasaki could happen to any other city in the world. In a flash: quick as a flash (light), instantly Just wait here. I'll be back in a flash. a flash in the pan
Nagasaki comes into its own. In this photographs, Nagasaki regain its own status. Come into one’s own: acquire, enter into possession of 获得, 占有 to become very good, useful, or important in a particular situation On icy roads, a four-wheel drive vehicle really comes into its own.
2. Why has Nagasaki always been in the shadow of Hiroshima? Because Hiroshima was the city on which the first atomic bomb was dropped and it has drawn almost all the attention of the world. By contrast, Nagasaki has nearly been forgotten as an atomically devastated city.
In the shadow of the bad effect or influence that something has, which makes other things seem less enjoyable, attractive, or impressive cast a shadow over/on something (=make something seem less enjoyable, attractive, or impressive) The events of September 11th cast a shadow over the celebrations.
Stumble: to hit your foot against something or put your foot down awkwardly while you are walking or running, so that you almost fall In her hurry she stumbled and spilled the milk all over the floor. to walk in an unsteady way and often almost fall/ stagger He stumbled upstairs and into bed.
ruin to spoil or destroy something completely This illness has ruined my life. His career would be ruined. All this mud’s going to ruin my shoes. a ruined building has been almost completely destroyed a ruined castle
Do you agree with the author when he says the bombing of Nagasaki is the fitter symbol of the nuclear peril? Why or why not? If yes, first it is the evidence of the danger that nuclear weapons can be used again; second it shows the unpredictability of nuclear attacks. If no, what’s your reason?
Hang over/overshadow if something bad is hanging over you, you are worried or anxious about it The threat of redundancy was still hanging over us./ It's not very nice to have huge debts hanging over your head. hang out /hang out with I don't really know who she hangs out with. Where do the youngsters hang out?
The second bomb was originally planned to be dropped on Kokura instead of Nagasaki. But because of its bad weather which made the city out of sight from the sky, American authority changed their plan to drop the bomb on Nagasaki, which indicated the unpredictability and open-ended character of the nuclear war… 这表明这个系列的不确定性和不 可预知性
spare spare somebody the trouble/difficulty/pain etc (of doing something) to prevent someone from having to experience something difficult or unpleasant I wanted to spare them the trouble of buying me a present. Thankfully she had been spared the ordeal( 可怕的考验 ) of surgery. spare no expense/effort to do something No expense was spared in developing the necessary technology.
Not so much A as B used to say that one description of someone or something is less suitable or correct than another The details are not so much wrong as they are incomplete. He is not so much a film star as an artist.
intact not broken, damaged, or spoiled Only the medieval tower had remained intact. His reputation survived intact. Entire, unimpaired 完整无缺, 尚未被人碰过的 He lived on the interest and kept his capital intact. Despite his misfortune, his faith and optimism remained intact… 他的信心和乐观丝毫未减.
A glimpse of a quick look at someone or something that does not allow you to see them clearly They caught a glimpse of a dark green car. brief/fleeting/quick glimpse (=a very short look) We only had a fleeting (quick) glimpse of the river. a short experience of something that helps you begin to understand it glimpse of/into/at a glimpse of his life a glimpse of what life might be like in the future
Para 3 What should we do in addition to apprehending the nuclear peril? We should try to dispel it completely from the earth. Dispel: to make something go away, especially a belief, idea, or feeling We want to dispel the myth that you cannot eat well in Britain. / Light poured into the hall, dispelling the shadows.
apprehend Expect with fear, anxiety, suspicion ~ danger in every sound 风声鹤唳, 草木皆兵 if the police apprehend a criminal, they catch him or her =arrest to understand something They were slow to apprehend the danger. apprehension/apprehensive
peril great danger, especially of being harmed or killed in peril They put their own lives in peril to rescue their friends. The economy is now in grave peril. All is not lost that's in peril. 危险不等于完蛋。 peril one's life 冒生命的危险
Counter poise to put or hold something in a carefully balanced position, especially above something else poise something over/above something He poised the bottle over her glass. 'More wine?‘ Counterbalance, keep queal
Part 3 (para 4) The writer calls on us to take the responsibility of creating a safer world for new generations. 1.What should we do to ensure a safer world for the future generations? According to the text, one of the things we should do is to make efforts to banish nuclear peril from the Earth forever. However there are other things to be considered.
The last paragraph can be put into: Once, people were brought to this world which was safe to live in, but now they (or every member of human race) can live only if, out of our faith and will, we make them. This is the greatest responsibility of us who are alive now. The biggest gift of time is life if we know how to receive it -- i.e., whether to cherish it or ruin it.
…we ensure their right to exist… …we guarantee a safe living environment for them. Ensure: make (something) certain to happen Eg: Following the plane crash, the airline is taking further steps to ensure public safety on its aircraft.