Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 7 Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness Part I Reading Comprehension and Language ActivitiesPart II Extended Activities
2Part I Reading Comprehension and Language Activities Pre-reading TasksNotesTranslationComprehension workLanguage work (A, B, C)
3Part I Reading Comprehension and Language Activities Pre-reading TasksDiscussionWhy is punctuality a necessity in all public affairs in a civilized society?The importance of punctuality: unifalicize, respect, competition, orderHave you ever noticed the difference in people’s attitudes toward the keeping of time in the rural and urban areas?Urban/ rural differences: a. Urban: more punctualb. Rural: less punctual
4Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness by Hari Bedi Turn to p. 121There are always a couple of people in every office who are habitually late for work. How should a manager handle the problem in a multicultural environment? Should he be patient because different cultures have their own concepts of time? Or should he take disciplinary action?Scholars tell us that Westerners and Asians approach time differently. Culturally, Westerners live more in the present and the near future. Asians live more in the ancient past or in the distant future.Asians try to avoid a neurotic slavery to time, viewing life as a passing moment in eternity. They enjoy the sense of "zero gravity" that comes from travelling without an immediate goal or an urgent objective.To many Asians, life is a long journey and happiness is simply not a matter of time. Instead of rushing, they prefer to maintain a steady pace. Quietly watching the seasons change or children grow is certainly not considered a waste of time.
5Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness Westerners believe that happiness is just over the next hill. A little more time, money or struggle will get them there. Americans, in particular, live by time –pressing schedules and deadlines.But how does this insight, so studiously compiled by academics, relate to the need for punctuality in the office? Should we extrapolate from this difference in cultural outlook that it's justified for some employees to be tardy in today's office life? Does it mean that a manager should disregard punctuality as an office discipline?On the surface, it might seem that a manager may have to be more tolerant about punctuality with some cultural groups than others. But this is unwarranted in an urban civilization. It would give credence to the academic literature that implies the time orientation in such a culture is inferior to that in the West.This confuses two entirely different things: observance of punctuality and the philosophical perception of time.
6Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness A person's belief that time is measured in centuries rather than in seconds has nothing to do with his ability to show up on time at the office every day. No Asian employee would ever use a cultural excuse for being late. He may certainly employ more modern excuses such as a traffic jam, a slow watch, or a parking problem. These excuses are the same as those used by office workers in the West. Why is it considered acceptable to be consistently late for these reasons in Asia, while in the West such a person would be considered undependable and untrustworthy?The problem, perhaps, is that in our social life in Asia we tend to be more tolerant of friends and relatives who make us wait for half an hour at a downtown rendezvous. We do not think they are taking our friendship or affection for granted. We do not consider them guilty of disrespect. What is worse, we let them exonerate themselves with dubious excuses.But how we react to latecomers in our social lives is a matter of individual choice. In the world of modern business we cannot afford that flexibility.
7Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness Nobody minds if a person is late to work once in a blue moon. Punctuality should not be allowed to become a fad. But in an office environment, there has to be a climate of discipline in which people respect the keeping of time.Even in those companies which maintain flexible time, there are set hours when employees must be present in the office. Otherwise it is impossible to call a meeting of people from different departments.Some companies may choose to stagger the opening and closing time of their offices to enable employees to avoid the rush hour. But that does not mean there is no longer a need for punctuality.Being late is, generally, a problem relating to only a small number of employees. A manager should try to break their bad habits through counselling, repeatedly if required. It's not an easy task and in some cases requires fair amount of patience.But it's about time we got rid of the academic notion that an expectation of punctuality is an intolerance of culture. It's a cliché and should be discarded forthwith.
8handle the problem: here, deal with lateness approach time differently: have different understanding of time.a neurotic slavery to time: an attitude in life which makes one bound to busy schedules, rush to meet the deadlines all the time so that one has no leisure or freedom to enjoy lifezero gravity: a concept from physics. It means a situation in which an object is not subject to the pull of a mass, such as the earth, like the experience of the space-man walking in the space.a matter of:a question of …的问题e.g. This is just a matter of opinion.这只是看法不同的问题。a little more or less than 左右, 大约e.g. We only had to wait a matter of ten minutes.我们只要等10分钟左右。
9over the next hill: a metaphor that means achievable with one effort. so studiously compiled by academics: (The theory) is worked out painstakingly by scholars.extrapolate: obtain a conclusion, make an inferencebe tardy: here, be undisciplinedunwarranted: groundlessIt would give credence to the academic literature: It would show that the academics’ theory( that the Asian time orientation is inferior to that of the West ) is true
10has nothing to do with: has no connection with 与…无关 e.g. His job has nothing to do with his ability.他的工作与他的能力无关。show up：[I] to arrive as expected or arranged （按预期或安排）到达e.g. Did everyone you invited show up?你邀请的人都出席了吗?at a downtown rendezvous: at a pre-arranged meeting downtown.cannot afford that flexibility: this means that in the business world everyone must observe punctuality.
11flexible time: a work system in which the staff of a company are allowed to work at different time schedules.stagger the opening and closing time: arrange the opening and closing time differently for staff so that they don’t need to come to work or leave the company all at the same time.break their bad habits through counselling: make them give up their bad habits by taking to the latecomers until they understand the importance of punctuality in the modern business worlde.g. He can not buy it because of his lack of money.他因缺钱买不起这个。
15Comprehension work （P 123) (Discuss the following questions.) 1. According to the scholars, what is the Asian concept of time?2. How do Westerners view time?3. What figure of speech does the writer use to illustrate the cultural difference regarding the concept of time?4. Does the writer agree to the claim that unpunctuality is related to a certain cultural outlook? Why?
16Comprehension work (Discuss the following questions) 5. How do Asians and Westerners react to unpunctuality?6. What is the writer's view on punctuality in the business world?7. Should a manager ignore unpunctuality in his/her office? What, in the writer's view, should the manager do?
17Language work (A, p. 124)1. He said on the eve of the New Year that he wanted to make a list of New Year resolutions. But, his sister sneered and said that she was dubious about his decision.2. Movies that are nothing but cliché of sentimental love have little appeal to today’s audience.3. Some editors of newspapers and magazines often go to extremes to provide unwarranted details of famous people’s private life.4. The Prime Minister delivered a speech to justify the government’s decision to participate in the UN peace keeping action.
18Language work (A, p.124)5. Years of experience as a salesman gave him a/an insight into the toughness of the business world.6. Mrs. Jones always finds her cleaning maids untrustworthy and she hires and dismisses them with such a frequency that she has never got a chance to remember their names.7. Language students should, first of all, discard the misconception that they can learn a language with clear and ultimate success.8. Traveling to remote areas, or even to unhabitated regions has become a/an fad among city dwellers.
19Language work (B, p.124)1. Many people tried their luck in the lottery, although they knew the probability of winning the first prize was once in a blue moon.2. Those who recklessly destroy rainforests should feel guilty for their stupid act.3. The earth has offered all it has to nourish human beings, but they take the generosity of the planet for granted.4. Goods on sale are not necessarily inferior in quality to those sold at normal prices.
20Language work (B, p.124)5. On the surface, primates are the suitable candidate for xenotransplants, but the same viruses that infect monkeys and apes are very likely to infect humans.6. The host had expected thirty guests but finally more than forty showed up at the party.7. Bad habits are easier to make than break.8. Experts in education disregard boys’ assertiveness as the only reason for classroom sexism.
21Language work (C, p.125)1. a. To many people, skating is just a matter ofpractice.b. Dealing with these problems is all a matter ofexperience.c. Success in business is simply a matter of knowing when to grab a chance.
22Language work (C, p.125)2. a. There’s a general feeling that the president has been too tolerant of corruption.b. It seems that people in this town are more tolerant of children in public places.c. It is said that her own mistakes made her very tolerant about the faults of others.
23Language work (C, p.125)3. a. The company director claimed such criticismwas unwarranted and unjust.b. Such fears are completely unwarranted now.c. The white, male supremacy in the West istotally unwarranted in today’s civilized world.
24Language work (C, p.125)4. a. Many young people take their parents’ love for granted.b. We take it for granted that students should be punctual for class.c. Their relationship had become boring and they started to take each other for granted.
25Language work (C, p.126) 5. a. He was guilty of a serious misjudgment. b. Their parents are guilty of gross neglect, abuse and cruelty.c. I saw that I had been guilty of irreparable blunder.
26Language work (C, p.126)6. a. They made it a habit to lunch together twice a week.b. I’m trying to get him to break the habit of switching on the TV when he comes home at night.c. Some children like to bite fingers nails—a bad habit very difficult to break.
27Part III Extended Activities DictationRead moreGrammar workWork with wordsTranslation
28Dictation Script of the Dictation I used to work for a moving company. One day, after we had packed a truckload of furniture, our customer instructed us to go on ahead and meet her at the new house. We waited there but then concluded that we had the wrong address. So we drove to a corner, hoping to catch her as she went by.“That’s her car!” my boss yelled. He jumped from the truck, dashed across the parking lot, stopping the car, and said, “Why don’t you let me follow you home? ” As he quickly rolled up her window and hurried off, he realize that he had the wrong woman.
29Read moreExercise for wordsAnswers: 1.b2.a3.c4.a5.d6.b7.a8. c
30Grammar workAnswersa. 1. My mother burnt her fingers while/when/as she was lifting the kettle off the stove.2. When the dog saw the burglar, it barked and barked until its master woke up.3. The pupils pretended to be hard at work when/as they saw their teacher coming down the corridor.4. When all the guests had left, Mr. and Mrs. Wilson started to clean up the house.5. While/When Mr. and Mrs. Smith were out to attend an evening party, Mr. Smith’s sister looked after their children.6. Mary was cooking the lunch while we were playing chess.While Mary was cooking the lunch, we were playing chess.7. The divers quickly swam to their boat when/as they saw some sharks approaching them menacingly.b c 2.d 3.a 4.b 5.a/c 6.b 7.d 8.a 9.c
31Work with words Answers 1. job vacancy 2.advertisement 3. job title 4. job description 5. salary working conditions7. career prospects 8. application 9. curriculum vitae10. personal details experience short list13. interview candidate appointment
32Translation1. An opportunity as good as this arises/ occurs only in a blue moon.2. The boy felt guilty for taking money from his mother’s handbag without permission.3. She did not give credence to a single word of his story.4. Generally speaking, teachers are tolerant of their students’ mistakes.5. I took it for granted you’d want to come with us, so I bought you a ticket.6. Thanks to the manager’s repeated counseling, the staff soon broke the bad habit of coming late to work.7. He’s furious with her now, but he’ll forgive her soon. It’s just/only a matter of a few hours, that’s all.