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BULLYING Prevention: Getting on the Right Track

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1 BULLYING Prevention: Getting on the Right Track
Iredell-Statesville Schools

2 Consensogram How much do you know about bullying and what to do about it? Do a Pre-Training Inventory with audience

3 Without safe schools, it is difficult, if not impossible
for learning to take place… Ronald D. Stephens, Ed.D. Executive Director National School Safety Center

4 Bullying Prevention Agenda
Review/Identify requirements of Senate Bill 526 Define what bullying and cite age appropriate examples for each type Discuss strategies to prevent bullying behavior within your school Discuss Intervention Strategies when bullying occurs Review contents of the ISS Bullying Policy Define how, when, why staff will communicate bullying issues to parents Define School-Wide plan for educating all students on Bullying Policy Provide activities/instructional ideas for teaching students

5 Senate Bill 526 States schools “shall develop and implement methods and strategies for promoting school environments that are free of bullying or harassing behavior.” Defines bullying and harassment Mandates schools to have a policy against bullying or harassing behavior Mandates information regarding this policy shall be incorporated into a school’s employee training program.

6 Activity #1: Bullying Quiz
Answer the following bullying quiz questions with your Team Exploring the Nature and Prevention of Bullying Bullying Quiz (http://www.k12coordinator.org/onlinece/onlineevents/bullying/bullying_quiz.htm)

7 Bullying Quiz Bullying is just a part of growing up. The effects of bullying on victims are short-term and minor. a) True b) False 2. Bullying is not a serious problem for the bullies; they eventually grow out of this behavior. a) True 3. Most bullying occurs in high school because older students are more confident and willing to pick on others. a) True 4. Bullying is usually verbal, not physical, in nature.

8 Bullying Quiz 5. Bullies are usually insecure loners with low self-esteem. a) True b) False 6. Bullying is almost exclusively male behavior. a) True 7. Bullies don’t usually pick on passive students; instead, they bully in response to some sort of provocation from their victims. a) True 8. A bully usually attacks when no one else is watching. a) True

9 Bullying Quiz 9. Most bullying happens at school. a) True b) False
10. Targets of bullies tend to be children with physical differences. a) True 11. If students would just fight back, then bullies would leave them alone. a) True 12. Hanging out with other students increases the risks of being bullied since there are more people for bullies to target. a) True

10 Why Educators Should be Concerned
State of North Carolina is concerned: Center for the Prevention of School Violence defines school violence as “any behavior that violates a school’s educational mission or climate of respect or jeopardizes the intent of the school to be free of aggression against persons or property, drugs, weapons, disruptions, and disorder.” NC Safe Schools Initiative recognizes that bullying prevention is crime prevention.

11 Bullying and ISS

12 Healthy, Safe, Orderly and Caring
State Goals: Learning environments inviting and supportive of high student performance Schools free of controlled and illegal substances and all harmful behavior Adequate, safe education facilities that support high student performance

13 Bullying Prevention

14 Bullying: Some Disturbing Data
Of 41 school shooters studies by the Secret Service and the U.S. Department of Education, two-thirds felt persecuted, bullied, threatened, attacked, or injured before the school shooting, with many having been the victims of “longstanding and severe bullying and harassment.” (www.gothamgazette.com/pring/1416)

15 Bullying: Some Disturbing Data
A 2001 study of students in 8th through 11th grades by the American Association of University Women Educational Foundation found that “four of five students – boys and girls – report that they have experienced some type of sexual harassment at school” (www.gothamgazette.com/pring/1416)

16 Bullying: Some Disturbing Data
A Los Angeles study of 192 sixth-graders concluded that almost half had been bullied at least once during a five-day period. (www.gothamgazette.com/pring/1416)

17 Bullying and the Workplace
Workplace bullying - in any form - is bad for business. It destroys teamwork, commitment and morale." Tony Morgan, Chief Executive, The Industrial Society Consider the effect of bullying in group-centered work at school.

18 Bullying Defined Double I-R Criteria: Intentional Imbalanced Repeated

19 Bullying Defined Bullying is INTENTIONAL: deliberate hurtful
purposeful instrumental goal-directed

20 Bullying Defined Bullying is IMBALANCED: physical vs. psychological
actual vs. perceived

21 (Centre for Children and Families in the Justice System)
Power Imbalance “A power imbalance is found at the heart of the bullying dynamic. A student who is stronger, more aggressive, bolder, and more confident than average typically bullies other students who are weaker, more timid, and who tend not to retaliate or act in an assertive manner.” (Centre for Children and Families in the Justice System)

22 Bullying Defined Bullying is REPEATED:
one-time aggression vs. bullying

23 Bullying Defined Bullying involves a desire to hurt + hurtful action + a power imbalance + (typically) repetition + an unjust use of power + evident enjoyment by the aggressor and a sense of being oppressed on the part of the victim.

24 Bullying Defined “A student is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other students… It is a negative action when someone intentionally inflicts, or attempts to inflict injury or discomfort on another.” Olweus, 1994, p. 1173

25 Bullying Behavior: 4 Categories
Physical Verbal Social/Relational Sexual Harassment

26 Bullying Behavior: 4 Categories
1. PHYSICAL BULLYING Can leave marks on the body

27 Bullying Behavior: 4 Categories
2. VERBAL BULLYING Can be heard by the target

28 Bullying Behavior: 4 Categories
3. SOCIAL/RELATIONAL BULLYING Indirect, covert attempts to affect the target’s reputation or social standing The old-fashioned way

29 Bullying Behavior: 4 Categories
3. SOCIAL/RELATIONAL BULLYING Indirect, covert attempts to affect the target’s reputation or social standing The newest, most advanced way to bully Cyberbullying

30 Cyberbullying “Cyberbullying involves the use of information and communication technologies such as , cell phone and pager text messages, instant messaging, defamatory personal Web sites, and defamatory online personal polling Web sites, to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group, that is intended to harm others.” -- Bill Belsey (www.cyberbullying.ca/main_frame.html)

31 Cyberbullying: An ethical Impact
Why is this so dangerous? “The anonymity of online communications means kids feel freer to do things online they would never do in the real world. Even if they can be identified online, young people can accuse someone else of using their screen name. They don’t have to own their actions, and if a person can’t be identified with and action, fear of punishment is diminished.” (www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/special_initiatives/wa_resources/wa_shar)

32 Bullying Behavior: 4 Categories
4. SEXUAL HARASSMENT (SH) - Any repeated, unwanted behavior of a sexual nature perpetrated upon one individual by another. Sexual harassment may be verbal, visual, written, or physical. It can occur between people of different genders or those of the same sex. Harassing behaviors may occur in a variety of relationships including those among peers, and those where there is an imbalance of power between two individuals. The law is primarily concerned with the impact of the behavior, not the intent. In other words, the law is concerned with how the person on the receiving end is affected by the behavior, not with what the other person means by the behavior.

33 Bias Incidents/Hate Crimes
Bias incidents are any acts directed against people or property that are motivated by prejudice based on race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, social affiliation, ability or appearance. Responding to Hate at School Tolerance Magazine, 1999

34 Gender Differences and Bullying
GIRLS: Bully within social group Covert Emphasis on verbal and social/relational bullying

35 Gender Differences and Bullying
BOYS: Bully outside social group Direct More likely to use physical aggression

36 Activity #2: Scenario Review
With your Teacher-training Team, read the scenario at your table and determine: Is this an example of bullying? If so, answer the following: Determine how you know the act was intentional. What is/are the imbalance(s)? What clues indicate this is repetitive behavior?

37 Bullying is… Peer Abuse An Act of Violence
Precursor to Escalated Acts of Violence and Crime Serial Abuse

38 Activity #3: A Continuum
Rank the bullying behaviors contained in the packet on a continuum from low to high severity OPTIONAL ACTIVITY. Cut apart each act of violence with scissors. Divide them up between each group. Have groups rank the severity of the behavior on the continuum. Facilitate a group discussion. {POINT}- Everyone has different opinions about bullying therefore it is important to be clear across staff and student body. Continuum Scale                                                                                                              

39 Statistics 285,000 students are physically attacked each month
160,000 children miss school each day because of fear 70% of students have been bullied during their academic career 14% of students believe that bullying has a severe impact on their lives

40 (Centre for Children and Families in the Justice System)
Prevalence 15% of students in schools involved 9% are targets 7% bully others repeatedly More victims in younger grades are victimized Boys are more likely to bully than girls (Centre for Children and Families in the Justice System)

41 List of Facts 80% of adolescents reported being bullied during their school years 90% of 4th through 8th graders report being targets of bullying 15% of students bully regularly or are targets of bullying Up to 7% of 8th grade students stay home at least once a month because of bullies

42 List of Facts Bullies identified by age eight are six times more likely to be convicted of a crime by age twenty-four and five times more likely than non-bullies to end up with serious criminal records by the age of thirty. Students reported that 71% of the teachers or other adults in the classroom ignored bullying incidents.

43 List of Facts When asked students uniformly expressed the desire that teachers intervene rather than ignore teasing and bullying. Aggressive behavior is learned early and becomes resistant to change if it persists beyond age eight. Bullying most often occurs at school where there is minimal or no supervision.

44 List of Facts Most bullying is verbal.
Bullying begins in elementary school, peaks in middle school, diminishes but does not disappear in high school. Both boys and girls bully, usually same sex classmates, with female bullying taking indirect, manipulative forms. Bullying can have devastating long term effects on the targets.

45

46 Long-Term Effects of New York Study
Little Bullies grow up to be Adult Bullies: Males: More likely to become spousal abusers Females: More likely to abuse their own children Increased prevalence of workplace bullying

47 Did You Know? By 6 weeks into the school year, the bully-target patterns have been established. Physical bullying increases through the elementary years and peaks in middle school. Thereafter, incidents decrease with age. Verbal bullying occurs throughout school years. Children do not tell on bullies because they are afraid it will get worse. They feel no one can help them if they do. (From Bullying Behaviors: A Systemic Perspective Powerpoint Presentation Dr. Andy Horne, University of Georgia, April 2005)

48 Reality Matters: Cruel Schools: Bullying and Violence
Movie: Reality Matters: Cruel Schools: Bullying and Violence

49 What Can Schools Do to Help?
“While approaches that simply crack down on individual bullies are seldom effective, when there is school-wide commitment to end bullying, it can be reduced up to 50%.” (www.safeyouth.org/scripts/teens/bullying.asp)

50 Prevention Basics Solution-focused approach
Define the problem and develop strategies to solve the problem – strength, ownership, competency, empowerment, coaching Develop Positive School Climate: Increase rapport with students Establish positive, respectful climate

51 Family/School Risk Factors
Lack of supervision Lack of attachment Negative relationship Lack of discipline/consequence Support for violence School Lack of supervision Lack of attachment Negative relationship Lack of discipline/consequence Support for violence Lack of alternatives to violence (From Bullying Behaviors: A Systemic Perspective Powerpoint Presentation Dr. Andy Horne, University of Georgia, April 2005)

52 Teacher Beliefs that Reduce Bullying
“Students are situational learners and adapt to learning at home and school differently.” “If I provide the opportunity to learn positive behaviors, they can learn and maybe transfer those to home.” “Bullying really is more likely to happen at school.” “Not all bullies use physical force.” “Being mean, teasing, and shunning behaviors are alternate forms of bullying.” (From Bullying Behaviors: A Systemic Perspective Powerpoint Presentation Dr. Andy Horne, University of Georgia, April 2005)

53 Teacher Activities that Maintain or Reduce Victimization
Many ignore victimization Don’t intervene unless problem is significant Blame the victim Focus only on extinguishing Support victim only the immediate aftermath Reduce Demonstrate awareness Take action at all levels Teach how not to be good targets Provide follow-up support (From Bullying Behaviors: A Systemic Perspective Powerpoint Presentation Dr. Andy Horne, University of Georgia, April 2005)

54 When we notice it happening…
Senate Bill 526 states a school employee, student, or volunteer who has witnessed or has reliable information that a student or employee has been subject to any act of bullying or harassing behavior shall report the incident to the appropriate school official. (ISS defines school official as an Administrator)

55 Bullying Consequence Matrix
Review Consequences Matrix Elementary Middle High

56 Commitment Neutrality helps the oppressor, never the victim.
“Take sides. Neutrality helps the oppressor, never the victim. Silence encourages the tormentor, never the tormented.” -Elie Wiesel (http://www.eliewieselfoundation.org/)

57 Procedures for Reporting-
REVIEW Policy Code: 4021 OPTIONAL ACTIVITY:

58 Develop a District & School-wide Agenda
Training Assessment – bullying survey/map Data Analysis: Healthy, Safe, Orderly & Caring Committee Proactive Prevention basics Teach expectations Model positive, consistent behavior Visual displays (posters, criteria, etc) Enforce policy Intervention Strategies

59 Identify Scope of the Problem
School-wide assessment Bullying survey to all students after training Anonymous but color-coded for grade level identification 3 components (true/false, map/bus, open-ended) You may choose to stagger the training by grade level so that analysis is more manageable Empty map for students to identify places where bullying takes place in your school

60 Assessment 3 days of training (30 minutes each day)
Scripted lessons for teachers Day 1: Definitions and Clarification Day 2: Scenario Review: Double I-R in practice Day 3: Tattling/Reporting, Long-term effects of bullying, Role of the bystander, Reporting information Day 4: Give Assessment/Map DATA TO BE GIVEN TO HEALTHY, SAFE, ORDERLY & CARING COMMITTEE

61 Day 1: Bullying Agenda Highlights: Students’ definitions of bullying
Textbook definitions of bullying Differentiation between bullying and horseplay/teasing Double I-R Criteria 4 Categories of bullying behavior

62 Day 2: Bullying Agenda Review of Double I-R Criteria
Review of 4 Categories of Bullying Behavior Double I-R Criteria in practice (scenarios)

63 Day 3: Bullying Agenda Difference between Tattling & Reporting Information Discussion of long-term effects of bullying behavior on: Bully Target Witnesses Role of the bystander (85% caring majority) How to report information

64 Day 4: Bullying Survey: Component 1
Answer the following True/False statements. Select either T or F. I can easily tell the difference between bullying and horseplay-teasing. I feel safe at our school. I believe that there are clear and consistent consequences for physical bullying at our school. I believe that there are clear and consistent consequences for verbal bullying at our school. I believe that there are clear and consistent consequences for social/relational bullying at our school. I believe that there are clear and consistent consequences for sexual harassment at our school. I understand the difference between telling/tattling and reporting information to an adult. I believe bystanders have a lot of power to reduce bullying behavior at our school by reporting incidents to an appropriate adult. I believe I can help reduce bullying behavior at our school. I believe teachers, counselors, SAP, and administration react appropriately to information that I report about bullying.

65 Day 4: Bullying Survey: Component 2
See the attached map of our school. Please identify where bullying behavior most frequently occurs by marking an “x” in the locations on the map. If bullying occurs frequently on your school bus, please write the bus number on the picture of the bus.

66 Day 4: Bullying Survey: Component 3
Who consistently displays bullying behavior at our school? Identify these people by first and last name. Do you know of any students who are specifically being targeted/victimized by bullying behavior? Name them: What is the most common form of bullying behavior at our school? Rate them from highest/most common (1) to lowest/least common (4): Physical: _____ Verbal: _____ Social/Relational: _____ Sexual Harassment: _____ What ideas/strategies/activities should be used to combat bullying at our school? Be specific. What can the adults at our school do better to reduce bullying behavior? Provide solutions.

67 Analysis of Assessment Data: Safe, Healthy, Caring Committee
What did the data reveal? What relevant data might be missing? Are there unanswered questions?

68 You’ve got the tools to act!

69 For Additional Information
Safeguarding our Children: An Action Guide 2000 Annual Report on School Safety & Indicators of School Crime and Safety 2000 Newman-Carlson, D., Horne, A.M, Bartolomucci, C.L. (2000). Bully Busters: A Teacher’s manual for helping bullies, victims, and bystanders. Champaign, IL: Research Press.


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