2 BackgroundOSHA estimates 239,000 general industry establishments employing over 12 million workers have confined spacesMore than 4.8 million Permit Required Confined Spaces and millions more non-permit confined spacesOver 30 different industries are affected by the hazards of confined space entryBLS(2002) reports an average of 20 fatalities per year from confined space hazards
3 What kills people in confined spaces? They _________ from lack of oxygen.They are exposed to _________ chemicals.They are killed by ______ or ________.They are __________ by cave-ins.They are __________ by unstable material.They sustain _______ injuries from falls.They are ______ __ objects or equipment.
4 What kills people in confined spaces? They suffocate from lack of oxygen.They are exposed to toxic chemicals.They are killed by fire or explosions.They are crushed by cave-ins.They are engulfed by unstable material.They sustain fatal injuries from falls.They are struck by objects or equipment.
5 Why? Why do we have a confined space standard? 122 confined space accidents each year lead to 173 fatalities60% of the fatalities occurred during rescue attempts
6 Why? (continued) Intended to protect workers from toxic, flammable, explosive, or asphyxiating atmospherespossible engulfmentany other recognized serious hazard (example - hazardous energy)The standard focuses on areas with immediate health or safety risks, denoting them as “Permit Required Confined Space”
7 Chronology of 29 CFRAdvanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) for General Industry July 24, 1975 and Oct 19, 1979ANPR for Construction Industry March 25, 1980Public Meetings held May, 1980 in Houston, Denver and Washington, D.C.General Industry Proposed Standard June 5, 1989Hearings held Nov 14 & 15, 1989 in Washington, D.C., Dec 5 & 6, 1989 in Houston and Jan 30 - Feb 1, 1990 in ChicagoPublic Record closed November 9, 1990Final Rule published Jan 14, 1993; effective April 15, 1993Final Rule changes published December 1, 1998; effective February 1, 1999
8 General Industry Standard 29 CFR(a) Scope(b) Definitions(c) General Requirements(d) Permit-Required confined space program(e) Permit system(f) Entry permit(g) Training
9 General Industry Standard 29 CFR(h) Duties of authorized entrants(i) Duties of attendants(j) Duties of entry supervisors(k) Rescue and emergency services(l) Employee participation
10 General Industry Standard 29 CFR AppendicesAppendix A – Permit-required confined space decision flow chartAppendix B – Procedures for atmospheric testingAppendix C – Examples of permit-required confined space programsAppendix D – Confined space pre-entry checklist
11 General Industry Standard 29 CFR AppendicesAppendix E – Sewer system entryAppendix F – Rescue team or rescue service evaluation criteria (non-mandatory)
12 December 1, 1998 Changes Authorized representatives Observation of testingClarified paragraph (k)Added paragraph (l)Added Appendix F
13 Scope and application - (a) 29 CFR does not apply to:AgricultureConstructionShipyards
15 How to Identify Confined Spaces Limited Openings for Entry and Exit; andIs large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; andNot Designed for Continuous Worker Occupancy
16 Confined Space Triangle NOT DESIGNED FORCONTINUOUS OCCUPANCYRESTRICTEDENTRY/EXITCONFINEDSPACELARGE ENOUGH TO ENTERAND PERFORM WORK
17 Federal Register Jan 14, 1993 (p. 4477) “While OSHA is concerned that spaces that are too small for complete bodily entry may pose hazards for employees, the Agency did not intend to cover such spaces under the permit space standard.”
18 Federal Register Nov. 4, 1994 (p. 55208) “Limited - when an employee would be forced to enter or exit in a posture that might slow self-rescue or make rescue more difficult.”Standard Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces (ANSI Z )“Restricted entry and exit means physical impediment of the body, e.g., use of the hands or a contortion of the body to enter into or exit from the confined space”.
21 Take class to CPL (p.22)Question #1 “Ladders and temporary, movable, spiral, or articulated stairs will usually be considered a limited or restricted means of egress. Fixed industrial stairs that meet OSHA standards will be considered….when conditions or physical characteristics of the space…would interfere with the entrant’s ability to exit or be rescued in a hazardous situation.”Fixed industrial stairsStair strength (min. of 1,000 lbs); stair width (min of 22”); angle of stairway rise (angles to the horizontal between 30 and 50 degrees - Table D-1 gives Rise/Tread dimensions that meet this requirement); tread (reasonably slip-resistant); railings and handrails (at least one side - refer to ); vertical clearance (at least 7 ft)
22 Federal Register Nov. 4, 1994 (p. 55208) “For example, even if the door or portal of a space is of sufficient size, obstructions could make entry into or exit from the space difficult. The Agency intended that spaces which otherwise meet the definition of confined spaces, and which have obstructed entry or exits even though the portal is a standard size doorway, be classified as confined spaces.”Take class to CPL (p.22)Question #1 “Ladders and temporary, movable, spiral, or articulated stairs will usually be considered a limited or restricted means of egress. Fixed industrial stairs that meet OSHA standards will be considered….when conditions or physical characteristics of the space…would interfere with the entrant’s ability to exit or be rescued in a hazardous situation.”Fixed industrial stairsStair strength (min. of 1,000 lbs); stair width (min of 22”); angle of stairway rise (angles to the horizontal between 30 and 50 degrees - Table D-1 gives Rise/Tread dimensions that meet this requirement); tread (reasonably slip-resistant); railings and handrails (at least one side - refer to ); vertical clearance (at least 7 ft)
23 Questions to AskDoes the person have to use their hands to enter or exit the space?Is the person in an awkward posture when entering or exiting the space?Is a person’s entry into or exit from the space slowed down or impeded by physical obstructions (such as pipes, ductwork, walls, holes in the floor, flanges, etc.)?Would an employee be forced to enter or exit in a posture that might slow self-rescue or make rescue more difficult?
24 Federal Register Jan 14, 1993 (p. 4478) OSHA believes that the final rule’s definition properly places the focus on the design of the space, which is the key to whether a human can occupy the space under normal operating conditions.
27 Does not meet the definition of limited/restricted because you back up to a loading dock; if not, usually they have pull out “ramps” that are used.
28 Dust CollectorDust collectors have to be entered to change out the bags. Are these confined spaces? Yes
29 Water tank with numerous baffles Water tank with numerous baffles. Enter to repair a leak/hole in the tank. Welding was accomplished inside the tank.Mechanical ventilation was accomplished.Enter only when repair or cleaning is needed.Yes – is a confined space
30 Standard stairs – does not meet the def of limited/restricted Standard stairs – does not meet the def of limited/restricted. Is not a confined space.
31 To Underground TunnelThought to be the entrance to an underground tunnel that runs between two facilities – so is designed for people to be there. Some electrical conduit, etc. is thought to be present in the tunnel.Would not meet the limited/restricted def of confined space. Doesn’t mean that it’s perfectly safe and that no one could get hurt, but other standards would apply - like we talked about earlier.
32 Dangerous Combinations Presence of all three confined space characteristics can complicate the situation.Working in and around the space.Rescue operations during emergencies.Worsened conditions due to work activities:Welding and cutting, use of bonding agentsCleaning with solvents, use of other chemicalsUse of gas-powered equipment
33 Permit Required Confined Space Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by an inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section; orContains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.
34 Permit Required Confined Space Confined Space VS Limited Openings for Entry & EgressLarge enough to bodily enter and perform workNot designed for continuous worker occupancyHazardous atmospheresEngulfmenttrapped or asphyxiated by an inwardly converging walls or by a floorContains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard
35 Hazardous AtmosphereMeans an atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (escape from a permit space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:
36 Hazardous AtmosphereFlammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10% of its lower flammable limit (LFL);Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL;Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5% or above 23.5%;Atmospheric concentrations of any substance for which a dose or PEL is published in Subpart G or Z of this Part and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or PEL;Any other atmospheric condition that is IDLH
37 Rusted pipes in pitChlorine pit for the swimming pool - enter to repair rusted lines; annual or semi to check the conditions of the pit area.Chlorine gas is main hazard.Yes – confined spaceYes - PRCS
38 Evaluation – (c)(1)Employers are required to evaluate workplaces to determine if any spaces are PRCS* Proper application of the decision flow chart in Appendix A would facilitate compliance with this requirement
39 Categorizing Work Space * Space large enough to enter &;* Limited or Restricted entry or exit &;* Not designed for continuous workeroccupancy.NONot a confined SpaceYESConfined SpacePermit-RequiredConfinedSpaceHazardous AtmosphereNonPermitRequiredSpaceOrEngulfment HazardYESNOOrConfiguration HazardOrAny other recognizedserious hazard
40 Signs - (c)(2) UNAUTHORIZED ENTRY MUST BE PREVENTED Employees must be informed of the existence of confined spaces through the use of signs, etc.UNAUTHORIZED ENTRYMUST BE PREVENTED
41 PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE Signs – (c)(2)A sign reading:- DANGER -PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE“DO NOT ENTER”or other similar language would satisfy the requirement for a sign.
42 Ensure No Entry – (c)(3)If employees will not enter permit spaces, the employer will take effective measures to prevent them from enteringRequired to Still comply with paragraphs (c)(1), (c)(2), (c (6), and (c)(8)CPL p. 28, Q #5 - “measures could include permanently closing the space and physical barriers, as well as bolting and locking the space, supplemented by training -ees & posting danger signs. The steps taken by the -er must be capable of preventing -ees from entering permit spaces.”So, if employers definitely keep everybody out of permit spaces, is that it? No more worry about complying with this standard?(c)(3) - does this mean the employer doesn’t have to worry about complying with .146 any more? Have them read through the paragraph, then explain (c)(1), (c)(2), (c)(6) and (c)(8)
43 Entering Permit Spaces – (c)(4) If employees will enter permit spaces, the employer shall develop and implement a written permit space programThe written program shall be available for inspection by employee and their authorized representativesCPL p. 28, Q #5 - “measures could include permanently closing the space and physical barriers, as well as bolting and locking the space, supplemented by training -ees & posting danger signs. The steps taken by the -er must be capable of preventing -ees from entering permit spaces.”So, if employers definitely keep everybody out of permit spaces, is that it? No more worry about complying with this standard?(c)(3) - does this mean the employer doesn’t have to worry about complying with .146 any more? Have them read through the paragraph, then explain (c)(1), (c)(2), (c)(6) and (c)(8)
44 “Changes” - (c)(6)When there are changes in the use or configuration of a non-permit confined space that might increase the hazards to entrants, the employer shall reevaluate that space and, if necessary, reclassify it as a permit-required confined space.CPL p Question #11Changes in configuration - physical changes in the space such as shape (adding or removal of inwardly converging floor), volume, equipment or components (addition or removal of a blender), means of access or egress.Changes in “use” include changes in the function of he space, the contents or atmosphere created with it, the temperature and humidity and the work practices being performed or anticipated in the space.
45 Host Employers – (c)(8)(i) Inform contractor workplace contains permit spaces and that entry is only allowed through compliance with a permit system(ii) Appraise the contractor of the elements, including hazards identified and employer’s experience with the space(iii) Appraise the contractor of any precautions or procedures that have been implemented for the protection of employees in or near the spaces where the contractor will be workingCPL p. 28, Q #5 - “measures could include permanently closing the space and physical barriers, as well as bolting and locking the space, supplemented by training -ees & posting danger signs. The steps taken by the -er must be capable of preventing -ees from entering permit spaces.”So, if employers definitely keep everybody out of permit spaces, is that it? No more worry about complying with this standard?(c)(3) - does this mean the employer doesn’t have to worry about complying with .146 any more? Have them read through the paragraph, then explain (c)(1), (c)(2), (c)(6) and (c)(8)
46 Host Employers – (c)(8)(iv) Coordinate entry operations with contractor, when both host employer personnel and contract personnel will be working in or near permit spaces(v) Debrief contactor at conclusion of the entry operations regarding the program followed and any hazards confronted or created in the permit spaces during entry operationsCPL p. 28, Q #5 - “measures could include permanently closing the space and physical barriers, as well as bolting and locking the space, supplemented by training -ees & posting danger signs. The steps taken by the -er must be capable of preventing -ees from entering permit spaces.”So, if employers definitely keep everybody out of permit spaces, is that it? No more worry about complying with this standard?(c)(3) - does this mean the employer doesn’t have to worry about complying with .146 any more? Have them read through the paragraph, then explain (c)(1), (c)(2), (c)(6) and (c)(8)
47 Contractor – (c)(9)(i) Obtain any available information regarding permit space hazards and entry operaitons(ii) Coordinate entry operations with host employer(iii) Inform the host employer of any hazards confronted or created in permit spaces, either through debriefing or during entry operationsCPL p. 28, Q #5 - “measures could include permanently closing the space and physical barriers, as well as bolting and locking the space, supplemented by training -ees & posting danger signs. The steps taken by the -er must be capable of preventing -ees from entering permit spaces.”So, if employers definitely keep everybody out of permit spaces, is that it? No more worry about complying with this standard?(c)(3) - does this mean the employer doesn’t have to worry about complying with .146 any more? Have them read through the paragraph, then explain (c)(1), (c)(2), (c)(6) and (c)(8)
49 Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres 19.5 % Minimum acceptable oxygen level.% Decreased ability to work strenuously. Impair coordination. Early symptoms.12-14% Respiration increases. Poor judgment.10-12% Respiration increases. Lips blue.8-10% Mental failure. Fainting. Nausea Unconsciousness. Vomiting.6-8% 8 minutes - fatal, 6 minutes - 50% fatal minutes - possible recovery.4-6% Coma in 40 seconds. Death
50 Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres Exposure to atmospheres containing 12% or less oxygen will bring about unconsciousness without warning and so quickly that individuals cannot help or protect themselves.(Source: Compressed Gas Association Bulletin SB-2)
51 Primary Constituents of Normal Air (Permanent Gases) ChemicalFormulaMolecularWeightPercentby VolumeConstituentNitrogenN22878.1OxygenO23220.9ArgonAr400.9Bridge into hazardous atmospheresFR 1/14/93 - p “OSHA’s review of accident data indicates that most C/S deaths and injuries are caused by atmospheric hazards. OSHA has classified those hazards into three categories: toxic, asphyxiating and flammable or explosive atmosphere in order to account for their differing effects.”we’ll start with axphyxiating, then flammables and then talk about toxicsMwair = 29Water vapor content varies, but is usually the third largest constituent by volume in air.
52 Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres Oxygen level above 23.5%.Causes flammable and combustible materials to burn violently when ignited.Hair, clothing, materials, etc.Oil soaked clothing and materials.Never use pure oxygen to ventilate.Never store or place compressed tanks in a confined space.
53 Flammable Atmospheres The byproducts of work procedures can generate flammable or explosive conditions within a confined space.
54 Flammable Hazards Definitions Lower Flammable LimitMinimum concentration of vapor or gas in air below which propagation of flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition (below the LFL there is too little combustible fuel to sustain a flammable mixture)
55 Flammable Hazards Definitions Upper Flammable LimitMaximum concentration of vapor or gas in air above which propagation of flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition (above the UFL there is too little oxygen to sustain a flammable mixture)
56 Flammable Atmospheres 3 Critical Factors:Presence of a flammable gas, or vaporPresence Oxygen content in the air.of dust (visibility of 5’ or less)Proper air/gas mixture can lead to explosionTypical Ignition Sources:Sparking or electric tool.Welding / cutting operations.Smoking
57 Toxic Atmospheres Product stored in a confined space: Gases released when cleaning.Materials absorbed into walls of confined space.Decomposition of materials in the confined space.Work performed in a confined space:Welding, cutting, brazing, soldering.Painting, scraping, sanding, degreasing.Sealing, bonding, melting.Areas adjacent to a confined space.
58 Simple Asphyxiants- gases that causes suffocation by dilution of oxygen.Nitrogen (N2)Argon (Ar)Methane (CH4) - alsoExplain simple asphyxiantMethane packs a “double whammy” - it’s a simple asphyxiant & it’s FLAMMABLEDoes methane have an odor?Explain about natural gas (odorless) vs gas used in heating homes, etc.-odorizerIs methane lighter or heavier than air?Flammable range %May want to also mention helium, neon etc.Introduce CHEMICAL ASPHYXIANTS, too
59 InertingThe displacement of the atmosphere in a permit space by a noncombustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere is noncombustible.NOTE: This procedure produces anIDLH oxygen-deficient atmosphere
60 Nitrogen (N2) Colorless, odorless inert gas Slightly lighter than air Used for inertingNon flammableNon reactiveSimple asphyxiantNitrogen & Argon are colorless, odorless gases - often used for inerting (defined in the std.; also, use NFPA reference <8% oxygen) confined spaces. Explain inerting. Nitrogen is lighter than air and Argon is heavier than air (explain why this is important to know).
61 Argon (Ar) Colorless, odorless inert gas Heavier than air Used for inertingSimple asphyxiantUsed as a shielding gas in welding
62 Methane (CH4) Natural, marsh, swamp gas Colorless, odorless gas Lighter than airFlammable gas (LEL = 5%; UEL = 15%)Simple asphyxiantProduct of organic decay
63 Chemical Asphyxiants Carbon monoxide Hydrogen sulfide - materials that render the body incapable of utilizing an adequate supply of oxygen.Examples include:Carbon monoxideHydrogen sulfideMention also hydrogen cyanide as a chemical asphyxiant.
64 Hydrogen Sulfide Decomposition of materials. Human waste. Rotten egg odor at low concentrations.Causes olfactory fatigueOdor threshold: ppmPPM Effect Time10 ppm Permissible Exposure Level 8 HoursMild Irritation - eyes, throat 1 HourSignificant Irritation 1 HourUnconsciousness, Death 1/2 - 1 Hour>1000 Unconsciousness, Death MinutesCommon sources:Oil & gas refiningsewers, manure pits, wastewater treatmentPulp & paper millsChemical reaction: sulfur + acidNote: anytime an acid & sulfur compound mix = hydrogen sulfide
65 Carbon Monoxide PPM Effect Time Odorless, Colorless Gas. Combustion By-Product.Quickly collapse at high concentrations.PPM Effect Time50 Permissible Exposure Level 8 Hours200 Slight headache, discomfort 3 Hours600 Headache, discomfort 1 HourConfusion, nausea, headache 2 HoursTendency to stagger 1 1/2 HoursSlight heart palpitation 30 Min.Unconsciousness 30 Min.
67 Testing The Atmosphere Verify presence of safe work atmosphere.Test all areas of a confined space.Top, Middle, BottomMethane is lighter than air.Carbon Monoxide is the same as air.Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air.Oxygen Deficiency.
68 Ventilation First option to correct problems. Must be aware of hazards you are trying to correct in the confined space.Air intake in a safe location to draw fresh air only.Continuous ventilation whenever possible.Retest the confined space before entry.
69 Determination of Purge Time Purge times can be estimated by the following:T = 7.5 V/CT = purge time in minutesV = the volume of the space in ft3C = effective blower capacity CFM
70 Purging Time Example 800/250 x 7.5 = 24 minutes Situation: An estimation of purging time is needed for a 800 ft3 deep neck manhole. The effective blower capacity is 250 CFM800/250 x 7.5 = 24 minutes
71 Respirators Air-Purifying Respirators Air-Supplying Respirators Filter dangerous substances from the air.Must know the type and amount of hazardous substance present in the confined space.NEVER use with oxygen deficiency!Air-Supplying RespiratorsDeliver a safe supply of breathing air from a tank or an uncontaminated area nearby.Must be adequately monitored.
72 Respirators for IDLH Atmospheres Combination Full Facepiece Pressure Demand SAR with Auxiliary Self-Contained Air SupplyFull Facepiece Pressure Demand SCBA
73 Isolation Locking and tagging out electrical sources. Blanking and bleeding pneumatic and hydraulic lines.Disconnecting mechanical drives and shafts.Securing mechanical parts.Blanking sewer and water flow.Locking and tagging out shutoff valves.
74 Temperature Extremes Extremely hot or cold temperatures. Steam cleaning of confined spaces.Humidity factors.Extremely cold liquids.Work processes inside the confined space can increase temperature extremes.Personal protective equipment.
75 Engulfment HazardsLoose, granular materials stored in bins and hoppers - grain, sand, coal, etc.Crusting and bridging below a worker.Flooding of confined space.Water or sewage flow.
76 Other Hazards Noise Amplified due to acoustics within the space. Damaged hearing, affect communication.Slick / Wet SurfacesSlips and falls.Increased chance of electric shock.Falling ObjectsTopside openings expose workers inside confined space to falling objects.
77 Authorized Entrants Entrants must: know the hazards they are facing be able to recognize signs and symptoms of exposureunderstand the consequences of exposure to hazardscommunicate with attendants as necessaryalert attendants to warning signs or existence of a hazardous conditionexit when ordered oar alerted
78 Attendants Attendants must: be aware of behavioral effects of potential exposuresmaintain count and identity of entrantsremain outside the space until relievedcommunicate with entrantsmonitor activities inside and outside the space and order exit if required
79 Attendants (cont) Attendants must: Summon rescuers is necessary prevent unauthorized entryperform non-entry rescueAttendants may NOT perform other dutiesthat interfere with their primary dutyto monitor and protect!
80 Entry Supervisors Entry Supervisors must: issue confined space permits know hazardsverify that all tests have been conductedverify that all procedures and equipment are in place before signing a permitterminate entry if necessary and cancel permits
81 Entry Supervisors (cont) Verify availability of rescue services and means for summoning themremove unauthorized individuals, terminate entry if necessary, and cancel permitscoordinate shift change
82 Permit Entry Systems Written permit signed by entry supervisor. Verifies pre-entry precautions have been taken and the space is safe to enter.Posted at entry to confined space.Specifies apparent hazards and corrective actions taken prior to entry.Requires termination of permit when task is completed or when new conditions exist.
83 Entry Permit Requirements Date, location, and name of confined space.Purpose of entry and known hazards.Duration of entry permit time.Authorized entrants, attendants, supervisors.Air testing results - signature of tester.Protective measures to be taken.Ventilation, Isolation, FlushingLockout / Tagout, Purging
84 Entry Permit Requirements Name and phone numbers of rescue and emergency services.Communication procedures.Special equipment and procedures.Personal protective equipment.Alarm procedures.Rescue equipment.Respirators.
85 Training and Education All workers who must enter confined spacesAll attendants and rescue team members.Prior to initial work assignment.Retraining:Job duties change.Change in permit-space program.New hazards are present.Job performance indicates deficiencies.
86 Training and Education Training and emergency drills should be conducted once a year or whenever the procedure or process changesRecords for training must include:name of employee(s)signature of trainer(s)date(s) of training andmust be retained for 3 years
87 Alternative Protection Procedures OSHA has specified alternative protection procedures that may be used for permit spaces where the only hazard is atmospheric and ventilation alone will control the hazard.
88 Entry Without Permit (continued) When a confined space is openedthe opening must be promptly guarded by a rail or temporary coverthe atmosphere must be tested before entering using only direct reading instrumentsthe atmosphere must be tested (in this order) for oxygen content, flammable gasses/vapors, and toxic air contaminantscontinuous forced air ventilation must be used
89 Entry Without Permit (continued) When a confined space is openedthe atmosphere must be tested periodically during workthe employer must verify alternative procedure applicability and safe entry conditions by a written certification (not a permit) with the following information:datelocationsignatureNOTE: The above certificate must be made available to entrant to review.
90 Entry Without Permit (continued) If you meet the conditions stated in Section (C)(5)(I) of the OSHA standard, you may use the procedures specified in Section (C)(5)(ii) of the standard.This allows you to OMITParagraphs (d) through (f)and (h) through (k) of the standard.NOTE: Paragraph (g) Trainingstill applies to all confinedspace activities
92 The Necessity of Rescue Entrants are in spaces that could quickly render them unconsciousOver 60% of fatalities in confined spaces are would-be rescuersA pre-planned and effectively executed rescue saves livesEntry programs that by-pass safeguards will eventually end up requiring rescue1994 FACE report (66% fatalities were would-be rescuers)FR, p OSHA believes prevention of emergencies is the most effective approach -No rescue should be necessary if the program and procedures are followed, but people don’t always follow procedures or there may be something that was overlooked or not anticipated making a rescue necessary.
93 Types of Rescue Self-Rescue Non-Entry Rescue Entry Rescue (k)(3)(i) - “Each authorized entrant shall use a chest or full body harness, with a retrieval line …..”.Since all entrants are required to be in a full body harness, valuable time is not lost in extracting worker.
94 Self Rescue Initiated by entrant or attendant Worker removes self No rescuer entry requiredEntrant must know reasons for self rescueOr initiated by a command from the attendant or entry supervisor
95 Non-Entry RescueEntrant must wear full body harness and be attached to a retrieval systemUsually initiated by attendantDifficult when equipment entangles linesDifficult when entrant is not directly in line of sight or is around obstacles
96 Entry Rescue Most difficult and risky Requires training, equipment and coordination of efforts
97 Rescue Members are Trained: To perform assigned dutiesAs entrantsIn first aid and CPR (at least one member holds current certification)To be proficient in use of personal protective equipmentTo practice rescue at least once every 12 months(k)(2)(i) - (iii)(k)(2)(iv) - they must practice making rescues at least once every 12 months….
98 Rescue Equipment Components Body SupportConnecting ComponentAnchorage ComponentAnchorageLet’s look at some common types of retrieval systems.
103 Structure Mounted Rope and Pulley System Rose calls this an anchorage connector strap (nylon webbing, 3”; min. tensile strength 5400 lbs)Miller calls it a “cross arm strap” - to wrap around beams. It’s designed to form a secure attachment point for lanyards
104 Horizontal Retrieval Support Refer them to the list of Rescue & Retrieval Manufacturers, page 8-12; they will help -ers with difficult rescue situations.
105 Employer Responsibilities Evaluate prospective rescue team abilities to respond in a timely manner.Ensure the rescue team is trained and equipped to execute a rescueProvide the rescue team access to the permit spacesEnsure rescue is practiced at least once every 12 monthsNon-mandatory Appendix F may be used as a guide to evaluate rescue teamsThis is a staged rescue so that the employer can evaluate the proficiency of this prospective rescue team.Go to pages 8-10 & 8-11 to see different types or confined spaces for rescue training purposes.
106 Rescue Services May be provided by “on-site” employees “off-site” services
107 On-site Teams On-site teams must be properly equipped receive the same training as entrantsreceive additional training in the use of PPE and rescue equipment and in first aid and CPRpractice simulated rescues once each year
108 Off-site Teams Off-site teams must be aware of confined space hazards practice similar rescues in similar spacesImage from:Confined Space Rescue System - Skippyboard 5 Park Drive, Burlington, Ma