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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Keys To Successful 21 st Century Education Leadership Chapter 6 Jazzar and Algozzine This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law: The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Historical Views on Decision-Making The scientific management, the human relations movement, and the behavior science approach established the importance of decision-making Under these theories, centralized decision-making was seen as the best way to enhance productivity and develop human capital
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Keys to Classical Decision-Making Classical decision-making: an approach that is centered on maximizing achievement of the organization by finding the best solutions Employs an optimizing strategy by seeking the best possible alternatives to reach goals and objectives (Guastello, 2002).
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Identify the problem: Often multi-faceted, complex in nature and difficult to gather all pertinent information Establish reasons and rationale for decisions: You should not make a decision in the absence of sound reasons and rationale Generate all possible solutions: All possible options need to be understood. Known commonly as fact finding and problem solving. Equally as important as the act of deciding. Keys to Classical Decision-Making continued
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Keys to Classical Decision-Making continued Consider all possible outcomes : Envision the outcomes of the decision before rendering a final determination. Recognizing all possible outcomes from each viable solution assists in the choosing the best outcome Align all possible solutions to what you value: When clearly established solutions and the values of the decision maker are aligned; the educational leader will be able to live with the results which translates into ownership of the decision. Selecting the solution that maximizes long term gains: Solutions that are far reaching which maximize short and long term gains should be high sought.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Classical Decision-Making: Shortcomings Implementing all five steps is time-consuming and not possible when time is of the essence. Educational leaders are often limited by time constraints, costs, and opportunity to process information
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Behavioral Decision-Making The behavioral decision-making model follows a chronological order of events Leaders make decisions based upon all that is known at the time. The making of a decision is sometimes more important than collecting all the alternatives. Expect the unexpected If it works, don’t try to fix it! Select the first alternative that satisfied minimal standards of acceptability
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Keys to Rational Behavioral Decision-Making Basing decisions on limited information: These decisions are called decisions of bounded rationality. Successful 21 st century educational leaders call upon their prior experiences, intestinal fortitude, intuition and related situations. Maintain your perspective in making decisions. Contextual rationality is used to describe these environmental influences including, but not limited to, internal and external politics, distribution of power and authority, and other environmental influences that impact decision-making
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Keys to Rational Behavioral Decision-Making continued Use established structures as a basis for making your decisions: Structures such as federal mandates, state school codes, and local district policies are what is known as the procedural rationalities of decision making Give it your best shot and go on to your next decision. Another major form of decision-making entitled retrospective rationality, involves justifying the rationality of decisions that have already been made. Successful 21 st century educational leaders make their best decision and let it go and gon on to the next decision.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Keys to Incremental Decision-Making The process used while employing the incremental model of decision-making is often referred to as the method of successive limited comparisons. The incremental model of decision-making analyzes differences between the current state and proposed outcomes
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The incremental approach to decision-making provides the following advantages: Establishes goals and considers different solutions occurs simultaneously Renders the quality of the solution to be determined by the agreement of decision makers Considers only the options similar to the current state of affairs, the number of options and outcomes are significantly reduced. Narrows the analysis of the differences between existing situations and options Deemphasizes theoretical analyses and increase the comparisons of concrete alternatives Educational leaders who focus upon a reasonable set of alternatives on the basis of their experiences are able to make predictions of outcomes with accuracy and confidence. Incremental decision-making has its limitations: it is at times too narrow and specified.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Keys to Mixed Scanning Decision-Making The mixed-scanning model provides a pragmatic approach to complexities and uncertainties while meeting the needs of decision-making under these conditions (Etzioni, 1990; Etzioni, 1967). This approach is actually a synthesis of the behavioral and the incremental models. Educational leaders examine data that is both of slight importance as well as data that is deeply entrenched in their school’s culture.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Seven Keys to Successful Implementation of the Mixed Scanning Model Arrive at your decision through trial and error: Search for reasonable alternatives. Select, implement, and test. Adjust and modify as the outcomes become clear. View each decision you make as tentative: View decisions as part of a continuous process not a terminal end. Respond positively to changing conditions. Remain tentative in making decisions. Change-given a set of unforeseeable circumstances at the time.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Buy more time if you can. Do not make a decision that results in a worse outcome than if a decision were not made in the first place. If additional time is needed explain to others the importance of this additional time. A delay to collect and analyze more information before taking action is crucial. Reveal your decision in stages. Stagger your decisions. By revealing your decision in stages, educational leaders will be able to evaluate the outcomes of each decision before proceeding to the next revelation.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Don’t put all your eggs in one basket: Allow the usage of partial resources until the consequences are satisfactory. Diversity your alternatives, maximize your gains: Treating each alternative as an investment. Make adjustments on the basis of the gains. By diversifying their alternative, educational leaders are able to maximize their gains Keep your options open: Position yourself in the decisions that you make to be able to rescind, reverse and improve your decisions again when additional information is known.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Keys to Garbage Can Decision-Making The Garbage Can Decision-Making approach is unlike other classical decision making models because solutions are developed before problems are determined (Kingdon, 2003). Instead of awaiting a problem to respond to, decision makers may be waiting for an opportunity to implement the decisions that already have been determined
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Limitations of using the Garbage Can Decision Making Approach Decisions often lack consideration of unique circumstances surrounding each situation. This approach relies on the chance that a certain problem will occur Most likely to occur in organizations that experience extremely high uncertainty without established board policies and administrator procedures
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Keys to Shared Decision-Making Educational leaders determine whether to involve others in the decision-making process or make the decision independently. Shared Decision-Making: maximizes participation making decisions whether it involves administrators, teachers, students, parents, and/or community members. The intent is to support and increase student learning.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Five Keys to Sharing a Decision Calling others together to share a decision: Inform others of a decisions, share the rationale of an established decision, give others a chance to ask questions, digest the implications of the decision and prepare for the outcomes of the decision, hope others will accept the decision more readily.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Calling others together to seek input: Facilitation of a more rational and logical decision; The educational leaders will ultimately be making the decision based upon the consensus of information they have attained from others; extend appreciation to others for their input; explain that the thoughts of others will not necessarily be reflected in their decisions.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Calling others together to value their ideas: Demonstrate care for their thoughts, concerns and recommendations Calling others together to obtain a majority rule: Offers the advantage of specifically encouraging opinions and shifting positions in time as ideas and values change; the majority rule technique has the distinct disadvantage of creating winners and losers
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 When calling others together; use consensus to determine decisions: Explain the process for making decisions straight from the onset; consensus may create pressure; it is recommended that consensus building be implemented sparingly Although shared decision-making empowers others it also means increased responsbility on the shoulders of others. Participants need to be willing to risk emotional involvement in situations once perceived as off limits under autocratic paradigms.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 If shared decisions making is to be successful, educational leaders will need to provide the following keys to development successful 21 st century shared decision-making process (Clemen, 1996; Ghahramani, 1996). Educational leaders need to build collaborative cultures: Creating a collaborative culture that value others as capable contributors to the decision-making process will not be an easy undertaking.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Educational leaders need professional development as well to bring this change: Leaders need to be trained to transform educational settings into collegial environments. Educational leaders need to align personal values with organizational values: Leaders must establish congruence between personal values and organizational values when it comes to implementing shared decision-making strategies.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Educational leaders need to sustain shared decision-making practices: Leaders need to establish mechanisms and procedures to initiate and sustain shared decision-making processes. Educational leaders will need to provide meaningful training for others: Provide skill acquisition for all staff members through meaningful, real-life training opportunities.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Educational leaders need to provide reflection and celebration: Provide training that includes opportunities for personal and organizational reflection and celebration. Take time to celebrate successes! Educational leaders will need to provide assessment and awareness opportunities: Ensure that training includes an understanding of the importance of assessment and awareness of the change process and tailored to the different types of decisions that will need to be made.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Advantages of Shared Decision-Making Shared decision-making increases faculty morale. Shared decision-making fosters job satisfaction. Shared decision-making builds faculty support of their educational leaders Shared decision-making increases faculty support of decisions Times for implementing are thoughtfully selected by educational leaders. Shared decision-making positively impact job satisfaction Shared decision-making benefits mental health.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Rusty Keys of Shared Decision-Making Each faculty member’s voice may not be encouraged and respected Some members may not always keep an open mind Sometimes members do not clearly hear and understand what is being said by another If these tendencies are allowed to dominate, the negative consequences of group decision-making erodes the qualities of group decision-making such as innovation, creativity and ownership (Drucker, 2002).
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Risks That Impede Group Decision-Making Risk 1: Shared decision-making members drop their guard! They ignore obvious limitations of their decision, take extreme risks, and are overly optimistic which adversely impacts future thoughts of group decision participation. Risk 2: Shared decision-making members implement hidden agendas Risk 3: Shared decision-making members are on a moral crusade, ignoring all other consequences of their decisions.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Risk 4: Shared decision-making members “we” and “they” groups leads to divisive measures that challenge the unity of the whole faculty. Risk 5: Shared decision-making members cave in to peer pressure. Members may resort to pressuring other group members who express arguments against the group’s collective vision or commitments. Individuality is key to successful shared decision-making.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Risk 6: Shared decision-making members falsely view silence as golden. Members perceive falsely that everyone agrees with the group’s decision; silence is seen as consent. Leaders need to encourage each shared decision-making member to share their thoughts, ask questions, and voice their concerns. Risk 7: Shared decision-making members appoint themselves to superior positions! Leaders need to ensure that shared decision-making members uphold an equal voice, equity, and an equal voice and vote status.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Perspective on Decision-Making Effective decision-making depends on the skills, dispositions, and experiences of the educational leader. Successful 21 st century educational leaders will need to be aware that their decisions will bring conflict from some regardless of their decision and they will need to resolve this conflict if the decision is to be successful.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Problem prevention and solving of conflicts ensure the success of decisions. Student achievement is the most important indicator of successful 21 st century educational leadership. Therefore, understanding the decision- making process and how to improve student learning will greatly benefit those you lead. Knowing and practicing the key concepts, keys to success and even risky keys will support and assist educational leaders in gaining increased student achievement and school improvements.
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