10Consumption = 1-2 drinks per day Safe Limits of Alcohol =210g in men per & week g in womenArrack : Liquor distilled from - palm, rice, sugar or jaggery etc. (40-50%) and may be mixed with Chloral hydrate and KBr for greater kick.
11ABSORPTION Requires no digestion Immediately by Simple diffusion 20% from Stomach , 80% from Small intestine.60% absorbed in min, 90% in min.Detected in blood within 2-3min.Max.conc.in blood within 45-90min. (mainly1hr).
12Factors Increasing Absorption Carbonated drinksWarmConc. = 10-20%Absence of congenersWithout foodGastrectomyDrugs (which increase gastric emptying )eg. Cimetidine, ranitidine, etc.
14Food (Fat and Protein)- Fatty meal - delays by many hours Mixed meal -reduces max conc. by ½Diseases : Achlorhydria , Chronic gastritisDrugs: (which reduce gastric emptying)eg. Aspirin, Atropine, etc.
15Distribution More : Alveolar air (diffusion) : Water content Less : RBC: Fat (Adipose tissue, Obese, Females): Venous (10% less than Arterial)Equilibrium :- Capillary = Arterial =Brain (1-3min)- Venous ( 1 hr)
16Females have 25% higher blood alcohol conc Females have 25% higher blood alcohol conc. for the same amount consumed d/t :-- small volume of distribution- small aqueous compartment- more variable absorption from gut- lower activity of gastric ADH enzyme- faster hepatic clearance- higher conc. of acetaldehyde- poor solubility in body fat
17EXCRETION All routes. 10% is excreted. 5% - Breath 5% - Urine Traces- Sweat , saliva, milk, tear and feaces.Skin glands Odour
18METABOLISM 90% is Metabolised - 90% of which is oxidised in Liver. - 10% is metabolised by Cytochrome P4502E1 .Alcohol Acetaldehydedehydrogenase (ADH) dehydrogenaseAlcohol Acetaldehyde Acetic acid (or NAD Acetyl CoA)By- Fructose Kreb’s Enzymes (Chronic alcoholic) cycleBy – Liver damage CO2 + H2OAcetate can form – glycogen , protein ,fats and cholesterol.A Diabetic who is Ketogenic will produce fat .
19Disappears from blood at 10-15 ml/hr (15mg/100ml/hr) Elimination varies: 12-27mg/100ml/hr (Av=18mg)Fast - With large dose- Chronic alcoholics (30-40mg/100ml/hr)Slow - Liver damage10% of metabolized is deposited in tissues as lipids (cholesterol and neutral fat)
20ACTIONS Endogenous (Metabolism or bacterial activity in GIT) Stimulant and selective depressant (Primarily RASEffects - Frontal lobes (mood changes)- Occipital lobes (visual disturbances)- Cerebellum (loss of coordination)Like hypoxia on neural cells ( reduces activity)Depresses cells of Conduct , Judgement &Self – criticism with release of inhibitory tone (unrestrained behavior).↓Brain function ↓Vitals
21Generalized vasodilatation (Skin) Hemorrhage Hypnotic.Diaphoretic Sensation of warmth Heat loss.Tachycardia Bradycardia(at lower conc.) (at higher conc. ›300mg%)Toxic to every organ, d/t acetaldehyde or change in redox potential.Blocks metabolism and increases levels of some drugs.Moderate consumption → HDL & LDL
23Causes of Death CNS Depression (respiratory centre) Aspiration of vomitChronic effects of Alcohol.
24ACUTE POISONING 1) STAGE OF EXCITEMENT (50-100mg%) : Feeling of well being & slight excitation.Action , emotion & speech are less restrained.Lowering of inhibitions.Inc. confidence and lack of self control.Forgets good manners and is careless.At 30mg% - impaired cognitive function , motor coordination & sensory perception.At 50mg% - slurring of speech, unsteadiness, drowsiness, impaired reasoning & memory,decreased perception & concentration .
25↓Visual acuity at conc. 20mg% in abstainers 20-33mg% in moderate drinkers40-70mg% in heavy drinkers.Judgment & motor control :affected at 25-50mg%.Altered time & space perception.Pupils = Dilated.40-100mg% = “ALCOHOL GAZE NYSTAGMUS”.50-100mg% = loss of inhibitions & laughter.mg% = slurred speech, unsteadiness & nausea.
26Mental concentration is poor & judgment is impaired. ↓ Attention & Recall memory.↓ Sensitivity to pain (at 80mg%).↑ Reaction time (at 50mg%).↑ Sexual desire & impaired performance(prolonged intercourse without ejaculation).
272)STAGE OF INCOORDINATION (150-250MG%) Sense perception & skilled movements are affected.Alteration in conduct.Carefree, cheerful, ill-tempered, irritable, excitable, quarrelsome , sleepy, etc.In coordination in fine & skilled movements( altered speech and fine finger movements)Nausea and Vomiting.Alcoholic smell (in breath).Face = flushed , Pulse = rapid, Temp = Subnormal.↓ Sense of touch, taste, smell & hearing.
283) STAGE OF COMA Motor & sensory cells affected deeply Speech = thick and slurringCoordination is affected – giddy, stagger & falls.Pulse = rapid,Temp =SubnormalPupils = contracted, Dilate on pinching or slapping, with slow return (Mc Ewan Sign).
29Micturition Syncope :At nightLoses consciousness d/t upright postureMunich Beer Heart :Cardiac dilation and hypertrophyHang over :Recovers from deep sleep in 8 – 10 hrsWakes with acute depression nausea,abd. discomfort, irritability, lethargy and headache.
30Death - at 400mg%- below 400mg% inchr. debilitating diseasesevere arteriosclerotic heart diseasepulmonary emphysemachronic lung disease with hypoxia.Low blood alc. levels seen in –- Prolong coma causing hypoxic brain damage- Prolong survival after heavy drinking.
31Fatal Dose :150 – 250 ml of Absolute alc. consumed in 1 hrFatal period :12-24 hrsTolerance :is acquired, lost by out of practiced/t- tissue sensitivity or rate of absorptionrestricted by liver damage
32Treatment Evacuation of stomach & bowel with Gastric Lavage. Keep warm 1 ltr. N.S. with 10% Glucose, 100 mg Thiamine and 15 units of insulinNerve stimulants (Caffeine and Strychnine)OxygenDialysis – Hemo or Peritoneal
33Post mortem appearance Alcoholic odour in cavitiesStomach - Acute inflammation with coating of mucusBrain, Liver & Lungs = congested with smell of alc.Blood= fluid and darkBrain & Meninges = Oedematous & congestedCloudy swelling in parenchymatous organs
34Chronic poisoningAddicts are the people who cannot stop drinking for long or develops withdrawal symptoms if they stop drinking.It results in impaired social or occupational functioning.They suffer from nausea, vomiting, anorexia , diarrhoea , jaundice, tremors of the tongue and hands, loss of memory, impairment of judgment, coma, death.
35Post mortem appearance Sign of malnutrition present.The GI mucosa is reddish brown and congested.Liver is congested and enlarged with weight approximately 2kg . The surface is pale and greasy .Later cirrhosis develops and liver becomes smaller and contracted with weight gm.Kidneys show granular degenerationHeart shows fatty degeneration and patchy fibrosis.
36Treatment 1. Disulfiram 250mg OD . It inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase. It causes accumulation of aldehyde in blood and tissues .Aldehyde causes unpleasant symptoms such as flushing , palpitation , anxiety ,sweating , nausea , vomiting ,abdominal cramps ,due to which patient dislikes alcohol.Disulfiram like reaction is caused by metronidazole.
38DrunkennessThe state of an individual whose mind is affected by the consumption of alcohol.Drunkenness is a consequence of drinking intoxicating liquors to such an extent as to alter the normal condition of an individual and significantly reduce his capacity for rational action and conduct. It can be asserted as a defence in civil and criminal actions in which the state of mind of the defendant is an essential element to be established in order to obtain legal relief.
39Medical examination of Drunkenness Exclusion of injuries and pathological state1.Severe head injury2.Metabolic disorder3.Neurological condition4.Drugs like insulin, barbiturate, morphine5.Pre-existing psychological disorder like hypomania6.High fever7.Exposure to CO
40Medical examination of Drunkenness B. HistoryC. General behaviour-1.general manner2.state of dress3.speech4.self controlD. Memory and mental alertnessE. Hand writingF. Pulse - usually rapid, full and bounding
41G. Temperature-raisedH. Skin-dryI. MouthJ. Eyes-1.General appearance-lid swollen and red2.Visual activity-reduced3.Intrinsic muscle-pupil (equal or unequal dilate or contracted, reaction to light (may be unequal, brisk slow and absent)4.Extrinsic muscle- test for convergence, strabismus, and nystagmus.
42K. Ears - examine for any impairment L. Gait-examine for manner of walking, reaction time to a direction to turn, manner of turning,M. Stance-whether the examinee can understand with his eye closed and heel together (Romberg's sign)N. Muscle incordination-finger nose testO. Reflexes-test for knee and ankle reflexP. Pulmonary, cardiac and alimentary system-general examinations for presence or absence of any disease.
43Laboratory Investigation- A. Urine Conc. of alcohol is 25% higher than in blood collected in same time.First sample should be taken as soon as possible while second sample should be taken 25 to 30 minutes later.Multiplication of alcohol concentration in the second urine specimen by 0.75 gives an approximate value of blood alcohol level, during the time that this specimen was being secreted.
44B. Collection of bloodSpirit must not be used for cleaning the skin, and syringe must be free from any traces of alcohol.Skin should be cleaned with a solution of 1:1000 mercuric chloride or washed with soap and water.Blood sample should be preserved by addition of 100 mg. of sodium fluoride and 30 mg. potassium oxalate for 10ml.followed by shaking. this prevent loss of alcohol by glycolysis and bacterial action.Collection of post-mortem sample-the best place to obtain blood is from femoral or iliac veins or axillary veins.In embalmed bodies alcohol can be estimated either in muscle or vitreous.
45Widmark’s formula a = prc a=weight of alcohol in gm.in the body p=body wt in kgr=constant (0.68 for men and 0.55 for women)c= concentration of alcohol in blood (in mg. per kg.)For urine analysis the formula is –a = 3/4 prqq is alcohol concentration ( mg. per kg.) in urine
46Methods of determining blood alcohol Kozelka and Hine – Macro-methodCavett test – Micro testOther techniques :Direct injection gas chromatographyEnzyme- spectrophotometric assayOxidation techniques
47C.BreathBreath analyser machines operate on the principle that alcohol absorbs radiation in the infrared region.Concentration of alcohol in deep lung air dependent on concentration in arterial blood ml of alveolar air contains same amount of alcohol as one ml. of blood (Henry’s law)
4860 – 100 ml of breathDrunkotester, drunkometer, intoximeter,alcometer, alcotest, or breathalyser.Residual alcohol disappears from mouth in 20 minutes.Test should be repeated after 20 minutes.
49D.SalivaMouth should be thoroughly washed with water and about 5 ml of saliva collected in a test tube containing 10 mg. of sodium fluoride.
50E. VitreousAt equilibrium for every unit of alcohol in blood there are 1.2 unit of alcohol in vitreous, as it has high water content
51Medical terminology Below 10 mg : Sober 10 to 70 mg % : Drinking 80 to 150 mg %:Under the influence150 to 300 mg %:Drunk or intoxicated300 to 400 mg%: Stupor400mg% and above :Coma and death
52Hazards of alcoholAlcohol is associated with domestic violence, child abuse and suicide.Personal risk are:1.He may die of exposure2.On inhalation may cause pneumonia3.Inhale his vomit or dentures4.May fall and sustain a head injury5.May fall into water and drowned
53Alcohol palimpsests (alcoholic blackout) it is a condition seen among alcoholics, and rarely in non addictive drinker, after drinking a moderate amount of alcohols. this behaviour resembles the blackouts in anoxaemia. this may results in loss of memory of a period of drinking spell, or in some cases, the inability to recall what happened over a period of days.
54Alcohol and traffic accident Safe driving is interfere due to:1.increase in reaction time2.creates false confidenceImpairs concentration, dulls judgement and degrades muscle coordinationIt decreases visual and auditory acuityBelow 50mg%-in majority driving not affectedAt 60 mg%-risk of accident double in compare to sober driver80-100mg%-risk of accident increase 12 foldOver 150mg%-risk become 20 times]
55Statutory limit in India is 30 mg% (S. 185, MOTOR VEHICLE ACT,1988) Statutory limit in India is 30 mg% (S.185, MOTOR VEHICLE ACT,1988).the punishment for offences fine up to 2000rs or 6 month imprisonment or both, and for subsequent offence fine up to 3000 or imprisonment up to 2 years or both.
56Alcohol withdrawalSymptoms appear 12 to 48 hrs after reduction in alcohols intake. most common symptoms is tremor and shakes. the essential feature is coarse tremors in hand tongue and eyelid in association with at least one of the following-a)nausea and vomitingb)malaise and weaknessc)hypertension ,tachycardia and sweatingd)anxiety, depressed mood and irritabilitye)transient hallucination and illusionf)headache and insomnia.Withdrawal seizures are typically single and generalised and usually develop 6 to 48 hrs after last drink. About 1/3 rd of these patient will develop delirium tremens unless preventive measures are taken.
57Pathology- Delirium Tremens Results from long continued action of poison on the brain. it occurs in chronic alcoholics due to 1)temporary excess 2)sudden withdrawal of alcohol3)Shock after receiving an injury such as fracture of a bone4)Acute infection, such as pneumonia, influenza, erysipelas,etc.Typically begin 72 to 96 hour the last drink.
58Main symptomsare coarse muscular tremors,insomnia,restlessness,loss ofmemory,psychomotoragitation,confusion,disorientation,fear,tendency to commit suicide. other symptoms are diarrhoea, dilated pupil,tachypnoea and hypertension.Death occurs in 5 to 15% cases due to cerebral oedema, cardiac failure and shock.Treatment-20 mg of chlordiazepoxide, or 100 mg of diazepam are given 4 times a day.anticraving agent like acamprostate,naltrexone and fluoxetine.
59Alcoholic polyneuritis and korsakoff’s syndrome Symptoms are weakness and pain in the extremities, wrist and foot drop, loss of deep reflex, tenderness of muscle.
60Alcoholic Paranoia-there are fixed delusion but not hallucinations. Acute alcoholic hallucinosis -persistent hallucination develop with in 48 hrs after cessation of alcoholsAlcoholic epilepsy -seizures occurs after a day or more after termination of drinking session.
61Wernicke’s encephalopathy Results from a hypothalamus, cerebellum & midbrain lesion due to heavy drinking.Vit-B1 deficiency occurs
62Cardiac dysrhythmias- tachyarrhythmia's are common because of high adrenergic activity. Marchiafava’s syndrome -degeneration of corpus callosum may occur.Mallory-Weiss syndrome -ruptured oesophagus with mediastinitis
63MalnutritionGastric and Peptic UlcerCirrhosisMyocarditisPancreatitisMental illnessDisturbance in tryptophan metabolism
64Holiday Heart Syndrome Wet Berri-berri- Inc. H.R. ,Raised JVP, Vasodilation, peripheral edema & PND.Boer Haeve Syndrome – Spontneous transmural rupture of esophagus (typically in forceful emesis).Zieve Syndrome :-Occurs after withdrawl of alcohol from prolong alcohol abuse.-Hemolytic anemia, spur cells and acanthocytes, hyperlypoproteinemia jaundice.
65Alcohol and Criminal behaviour: S.510,IPC:Misconduct in public by a drunken person is punishable with imprisonment up to 24 hrs.
66Alcohol and Sudden death Sudden death may occur due to cardiac dysarrhythmias and cardiopulmonary arrest.
67Alcohol after death1. If death occur due to trauma- A post-mortem alcohol estimation in Subdural blood clot will give true picture. 2.No appreciable loss by evaporation or any other means 3. With advance putrefaction, the entire content of the vascular system including alcohol is destroyed. Analysis of brain gives best results.
684.Ethanol and other alcohol can be produced during putrefaction by fermentation of carbohydrate and proteins of the body (usually 20 to 30 mg/100ml).this may occur due to enzyme, bacteria, yeast, fungiThe commonest organism is E. coli.
695.The longer the interval after death and higher the temperature, the more is produced. 6.Alcohol conc. in excess of 0.2% would indicate alcohol consumption prior to death.
70Methyl alcohol Also known as wood alcohol It is present in antifreeze , paint removers , dyes, adhesives and varnish .Absorption : absorbed from stomach, intestine , lungs and skin.Rate of oxidation is 1/5th of that of ethanol.Accumulates in blood with repeated small doses and remains in blood for 3 -4 days.80mg/100ml of blood is dangerous level.
71Methanol → Formaldehyde → Formic acid Liver (x 33 ) ( x 6 )Metabolic AcidosisRetinal ToxicityFormate may inhibit cytrochrome oxidase, inc lactate.It is distributed according to water content, and conc in vitreous body & optic nerve.
72Signs and symptoms :Same as ethyl alcohol but inebriation is not prominent.Symptoms are N/V , severe cramps in abdomen, headache , dizziness , neck stiffness ,The effect on CNS is more intense and prolonged – Delirium and Coma (for 2-3 days)Toxic effect on liver and kidney (acute tubular necrosis).
73Metabolic acidosis (d/t lactic & other acids ) Anionic acidosisPupils are dilated and fixedVisual disturbances like photophobia , blurred or misty vision (snowfield vision), central and peripheral scotoma , decreased light perception , concentric diminution of visual field for color and form.Sudden failure of vision or complete blindness is due to optic neuritis and atrophy.
74Fatal dose : mlFatal period : hrsElimination :3-5% through lungs12% through kidneysCause of death : Acidosis
75Treatment 1. G.Lavage. with 5% bicarbonate soln. 2. Activated charcoal 3. Antidote – Ethanol , 10% 100 ml as iv infusion , level of mg% is maintained at all times.4. Alternatively 60ml Ethyl alcohol in 200 ml fruit juice is given per orally.5.Haemodialysis is treatment of choice in severe poisoning.
766. Methyl pyrazole (4MP or fomepizole) : It is competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase. 15mg/kg f/b 10mg/kg after 12 hours for 4 doses7. Folinic or folic acid : 50-75mg every 4 hourly8. Sodabicarb to treat the metabolic acidosis9. Place the patient in left lateral position and head down to avoid aspiration of vomitus
77PM appearances : Cyanosis is marked Absence of PM clotting of bloodPyridine may give the skin a purple colourThe mucous membrane of stomach and duodenum is congested and inflamedSmall or large intestine or both are contracted and resemble thick pipe with narrow lumenLungs brain bladder are congested.Liver shows fatty changesKidneys show tubular degenerationMLI: poisoning is mostly accidental
78Questions 1.Widmark’s formula are used for estimation of Cyanides AlcoholD.D.TTeeth
792.Optic atrophy can be caused by.....poisoning PhosphrousEthyl alcoholMethyl alcoholLead
803.Fetal dose of methanol15ml30-60 ml60-250ml500ml
814.Morbid jealousy is diagnostic of CocaineCannabisAlcoholismBarbiturate
825.Macewan sign is seen inAlcoholOrganophosphorusDhaturaBarbiturate
836.Best method of treatment of methyl alcohol Calcium gluconateEthyl alcoholAmphetamine1% ammonia
847.In chronic alcoholism which of the following is seen Delirium tremensWernike’s syndromeKorsakoff psychosisAll of the above
858.The fatal dose of absolute alcohol 30 ml60 ml90 ml150 ml
869.Which of the following is not useful in methyl alcohol poisoning Gastric lavageDialysisEthyl alcoholHigh dose of Vit. B12
8710. Wernicke’s encephalopathy is due to- Vitamin B1 deficiencyVitamin B2 deficiencyVitamin B6 deficiencyVitamin B12 deficiency