Presentation on theme: "Road to Revolution and Independence 5.1 North Carolina’s Role in the new nation."— Presentation transcript:
Road to Revolution and Independence 5.1 North Carolina’s Role in the new nation
British tighten their control 1760s and 1770s England’s governing body, Parliament passed new laws American colonies had to pay more taxes Laws were passed without consulting the American colonies –“Taxation without ___________”
Proclamation of 1763 Forbade settlement west of Appalachian Mountains –Wanted to stop fighting between colonists and natives –Daniel Boone and Regulators ignored and moved west NC wanted to expand. Felt England was inhibiting their ability to grow.
Stamp Act Passed to help fund French & Indian War Required stamps on all types of documents –Required on newspapers, playing cards, checks, deeds, contracts, insurance policies, permits and wills Ship’s records had to be stamped Stamps purchased from customs officials –Failure to buy, ship seized, captain tried by judge –Punishment violated rights of Englishmen
The colonies respond Widely protested in every colonial port –Stamp agents were threatened NC’s General Assembly protested –To punish Gov. Tryon sent them home 2 ships seized in NC port, local leaders destroyed evidence against captains –Near open rebellion in Cape Fear but British cancelled. NC felt that England was not doing enough to help the colony’s economic development
NC in the War for Independence Vocabulary Provincial Congress – legislative body set up to govern NC after General Assembly was disbanded Committees of Safety- set up in each county to keep order and provide government Tories – men who sided with the British Whigs – members of Committees, opposed the Tories Mecklenburg Resolves – statements declaring the King’s acts “null and void.” Meant freedom and independence from England Halifax Resolves – authorized delegates to join colonies in seeking independence
More Vocabulary Declaration of Rights – set out rights and protections citizens had Amendments – additions or changes to the state constitution Confiscation Act – Allowed land of Tories to be seized Declaration of Independence Constitution – a set of rules and procedures for government Bicameral – having two houses House of Commons – old English term for people who were not aristocrats
NC in the War for Independence 5.2 NC Governor Josiah Martin also makes attempts to shut down the G.A. Refuses to call Assembly to elect representatives. Provincial Congress, convened and chose delegates anyway
The war begins NC learns of battles in Lexington & Concord Harvey orders Committees of Safety –Set up in each county –Keep order and provide government –Members called themselves Whigs, opponents of the Tories in England Tories – those siding with the British –Suspected Tories had to sign a loyalty oath
Mecklenburg Resolves Committee of Safety in Mecklenburg County met at Queen’s Academy Produced a series of statements about the events. Document was called the Mecklenburg Resolves –King’s commissions were “null and void.” –Advised to elect new leaders –Date of signing May 20, 1775 is included on the NC’s state flag.
North Carolina takes up arms Provincial Congress sets up defenses – everyone took a loyalty oath –Two regiments (groups of soldiers) were enlisted and were sent to fight for General George Washington –Issued paper money to pay for everything
Battle of Moore’s Creek Bridge Governor Martin encouraged Highland Scots to march on Wilmington to join British troops in an invasion of two colonies Whigs and Tories met at Moore’s Creek Bridge, 20 miles north of Wilmington Whigs removed planks from the bridge and greased support beams Tories (Highland Scots) tried to slip and slide across the bridge, making them easy targets, more than 50 were shot. Tories retreated, Whigs chased, caught and seized their arms and money Celebrated victory in the southern colonies.
Halifax Resolves NC is convinced there will be no peaceful solution to the conflict 1776 the Provincial Congress decided the colony needed to declare independence April 12, 1776 passed the Halifax Resolves –Authorized delegates to Philadelphia –First of 13 colonies to endorse the independence movement
Independence Three North Carolina delegates signed the Declaration of Independence United States was created and North Carolina became a state NC wrote a state constitution providing rules for self-government Legislature made of representatives of the people was the strongest part of government General Assembly was maintained, but made bicameral (having two houses)
General Assembly House of Commons An old English term for people who were not aristocrats. Senate An old term that went back to ancient Rome, referring to older, wiser leadership Each county was to send two delegates to the house and one to the senate. Every county had equal representation no matter the size or population Had to own a certain amount of land to ensure members were able to leave their homes to govern.
Constitution cont’d All eligible MEN could elect a house member Men owning more than 50 acres could vote for Senators All General Assembly members ran for office EVERY year Governor chosen by legislature, had little power, could only act with advise of a council and the consent of the legislature 1 st governor, Richard Caswell from Kinston, was a unanimous choice and served for 3 years
Cont’d NC’s constitution included a Declaration of Rights –List of rights and protections each citizen had –Legacy of the Regulation, when so many of their rights as Englishmen were violated No rule was included about amendments – additions or changes to the document. –Left unanswered questions later about how to make alterations
Governing a new state Had to provide protection –From Tories and Cherokee Had to find money to pay for the war –Passed Confiscation Act Tories who refused to take the oath of allegiance to the new state could have their property taken away. Thousands of acres were seized and resold Quakers and Moravians, who would not take oaths had to pay more taxes than others
Finding Troops to Fight NC sent several regiments to fight in the Continental Army General Francis Nash of Hillsborough was killed (Nashville, NC and Nashville, TN named after him) By the end of the war, more than 7,000 soldiers from NC had fought. NC stayed safe for the 3 years then the British invade the southern states and NC is almost destroyed.
British Invade the Carolinas 5.3 South Carolina fell under control of the British, leaving NC open for invasion Cornwallis marched into North Carolina Entered Charlotte Farmers burnt their farms before allowing the British to use them. Residents hid in the woods and shot at soldiers. One was hit in the shoulder, causing him to stagger around and knock over a bee hive. The bees chased the troops out of town. Since then Charlotte has been known as the “hornet’s nest” of the Revolution
Brits in the mountains Troops were destroyed Rather than fight for the British, settlers became Overmountain men. They crossed over the Blue Ridge and trapped the Tories at the Battle of Kings Mountain. This loss forced Cornwallis to retreat to South Carolina
Brits chase the Americans American troops in Charlotte split in two, one controlled by Greene the other by Morgan. British followed Morgan, not knowing he had been joined by more militia-men. Morgan stopped and fought at Hannah’s Cowpens, giving the British one of their worst defeats American captured many British soldiers then retreated toward Salisbury to join other troops. Cornwallis gave chase but the weather slowed him. To speed up he burned his extra baggage and pushed his troops to move faster.
Guilford Courthouse General Greene returned to NC, outnumbering the Brits 2 to 1. Chose a battle site similar to Cowpens: Guilford Courthouse Fought for one and one-half hours General Cornwallis, near defeat, made a shocking decision Ordered his troops to fire grapeshot (small metal balls about the size of grapes) to be fired into a crowd where both British and American troops were fighting. He fired on his OWN troops The plan worked, with great human cost. General Greene pulled back and the Brits held the field. Each General lost about one-fourth of their troops Cornwallis eventually moved on to other battles and then out of the state. General Greene had Greenville, Greensboro and Greene County named for him, along with Greenville, SC and Greenville, TN The first NBA team in Charlotte were known as???????
NC fighting itself 5.4 Neutral – not taking sides in a conflict Pacifism – belief that no one should fight or resort to violence for any reason other than self protection Pardon – act of forgiving for a past act
Taking Sides Whigs and Tories were each found in NC Coastal residents sided with the Whigs –Early on they participated in rebellion against the British Western Whigs were generally Presbyterian residents of Scots-Irish descent –They resented British control over their lives
Tories Concentrated in the Central part of the State Resented what coastal people had done to their homes and communities after the Regulators War Did not “side” with the King (they hated him), but “sided” against the leaders of the coastal area (they hated them MORE) Highland Scots, strongest Tories Recent immigrants to the State Afraid if Whigs were defeated they would be punished more severely as they were back in Scotland
No fighting for me Some North Carolinians decided to remain neutral Some did not care what the government did with their lives Others were bound by religious beliefs that forbade fighting Moravians did not fight and had to pay TRIPLE taxes Quakers did not fight (pacifists) also had to pay the triple tax
Neighbor Killing Neighbor Men were in the Army or had been captured British behaving badly Burned down homes Stormed a college, burned and ruined all of the school’s books Looted (take goods illegally) houses and farms Whigs who tried to save their possessions were tortured or murdered Whigs were no saints Tricked British soldiers into thinking they were Brits as well, killed 90 before they could flee
The War Ends When the Brits left Wilmington the war between Tories and Whigs subsided Whigs tried to bring peace to the State County courts continued to try Tories charged with crimes but those who ONLY fought for the king in battle were allowed to return home 1784 legislature pardoned Tories for their actions in the War NC had no money, farms were ruined, no permanent capital and no national influence.