Bellringer Take the next 3 minutes to list some behaviors you associate with the word intelligence. –Sternberg’s research discovered that lay people (us) with no expertise in psychology generally think of intelligence as a mix of practical problem-solving ability, verbal ability, and social competence
Questions to Ponder How do you define the term intelligence? How do psychologists define the term intelligence? What is IQ and how is it measured? Why does intelligence matter?
Take a few minutes…. Describe the difference between laziness and idleness. Which direction would you have to face so your right hand would be facing north? What does obliterate mean? In what way are hour and week alike?
What do you think? What do you think when you hear the following words: –Aptitude? Potential ability, predicts an individual’s future achievement –Ability? Refers to a skill that people already have
Theories of Intelligence Charles Spearman: early 20 th century British psychologist –Defined intelligence as a well, or spring, of mental energy that flows through every action –People who were bright in one area were typically bright in others (Is this always true?) –Intelligent person understands things quickly, makes sound decisions, carries on interesting conversations, and tends to behave intelligently in different situations
Theories of Intelligence L. L. Thurstone : American psychologist –Argued that intelligence was comprised of seven distinct mental abilities: S – Spatial Ability (perceive distance & shapes) P – Perceptual speed N – Numerical ability V – Verbal Learning M – Memory W – Word fluency R – Reasoning –Seven mental abilities were relatively independent of one another –Seven abilities make up general intelligence
Theories of Intelligence R. B. Cattell (1971) –Identified two clusters of mental abilities: Crystallized Intelligence: reasoning, verbal, & numerical skills –Abilities stressed in school; therefore, affected by formal education Fluid Intelligence: spatial skills, visual imagery, noticing visual details, & rote memory –Abilities gained from informal education (experience)
Theories of Intelligence Robert Sternberg: (1985) American psychologist (on the video) –Argues that intelligence encompasses a wide variety of skills –Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: intelligence involves: Componential Intelligence: mental skills Experiential Intelligence: creative adaptability Contextual Intelligence: environmental responsiveness http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Sternberg
Sternberg’s Theory of Intelligence Triarchic theory Analytical Creative Practical The ability to solve problems Finding new ways to solve problems and deal with situations To help adjust to and cope with one’s environment
Applying Sternberg’s Theory Turn to page 309 to see examples of questions that evaluate experiential & contextual intelligences. Take a few minutes and answer 1, 4, 8, & 9 on a sheet of paper.
Theories of Intelligence Howard Gardner: (1993) Professor at Harvard University: Multiple Intelligences –Gardner’s BiographyGardner’s Biography –Project Zero @ HarvardProject Zero –Argues that intelligence is made up of many separate abilities or multiple intelligences, each of which is relatively independent of the others (What theory does this sound like?)
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Ability to process and compute logical problems and equations Examples include: –Solving Algebra problems, balance your checkbook, solve logic problems
Linguistic Intelligence Ability to utilize language –Skill at learning, using, and understanding languages
Spatial Intelligence Ability to comprehend shapes and images in three dimension – Putting puzzles together or molding sculptures
Musical Intelligence Ability to perform and compose music –Performing and comprehending music –Mozart, Beethoven 3:31
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Ability to perceive and control movement, balance, agility, grace –Sense of how body should act and react in a physically demanding situation
Interpersonal intelligence Ability to interact with and understand others and to interpret their behavior –Gauging other’s moods and motivations
Intrapersonal Intelligence Ability to understand and sense oneself –Skill at using self-esteem, self-enhancement, and strength of character to solve internal problems.
Naturalist Intelligence Ability to identify and classify patterns and relationships in natural surroundings –Skill at distinguishing differences amount large numbers of similar objects
Emotional Intelligence Related to Gardner’s inter- and intrapersonal intelligences Four Major Aspects: –Ability to perceive and express emotions accurately and appropriately –Ability to use emotions while thinking –Ability to understand emotions and use the knowledge effectively –Ability to regulate one’s emotions to promote personal growth Linked emotional intelligence with success in the workplace
Intelligence Tests 1904, Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon - Parisian school wanted a way to pick out the “slow learners” in order to place them I special classes. –Mental Age v. Chronological Age
Intelligence Quotient Originally computed by dividing mental age by chronological age and multiply by 100 –(mental age/chronological age) x 100 = IQ
Mental Level v. Mental Age Why do we think IQ is relatively permanent? Alfred Binet originally used the term mental level rather than mental age –He thought mental age to be fixed and unchangeable, but mental level as an ordered progression of development –Binet also disliked IQ because he felt it was misleading to represent human intelligence in a single number
Levels of Mental Retardation Mild Retardation (low 50s-70s) –The individual may be able to function adequately in society. The individual is “educable”: S/he can learn academic skills comparable to those of a sixth-grader and can be minimally self-supporting, although requiring special help at times of unusual distress. Moderate Retardation (Mid 30s-low 50s) –These people profit from vocational training and may be able to travel alone. They can learn on a second-grade level and perform skilled work in a sheltered workshop if provided with supervision and guidance.
Levels of Mental Retardation Severe Retardation (low 20s - mid 30s) –Such people do not learn to talk or practice basic hygiene until after age six. Although they cannot learn vocational skills, simple tasks can be carried out with supervision. Profound Retardation (Below 25) –Constant care is needed. Usually people in this group have a diagnosed neurological disorder.
Wechsler Tests Wechser-Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (age 6-16), and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligences (4-6.5) Gives a more detailed picture of the individual’s strengths and weaknesses than a single IQ score does.
Nature v. Nurture Researchers have found a high degree of heritability (the degree to which a characteristic is related to inherited genetic factors) Studying identical twins How do you think environment can effect intelligence? Genetics?
More about…. Family size and IQ: –The classical study of family size and IQ was conducted in the Netherlands. It was based on the military examinations of more than 386,000 Dutch people. Researchers found that the brightest children came from the smallest families and had few, if any, brothers and sisters when they were born. Thus, the first-born child in a family of two was usually brighter than the last child in a family of 10.
How does Family size affect IQ? Home environment Larger families spend less parental time with children, spend more time with other children –Interpersonal skills improve, but (general) intelligence suffers
Cultural Bias How does your culture effect your IQ score? Criticisms of the wording used on tests may be more familiar to people of one social group than to another group Example: –“What would you do if you were sent to buy a loaf of bread and the grocer said he did not have any more?” Correct answer: “Go to another store.” Minority students answered: “Go home.” Why?
Larry P. v Riles (1979) P.A.S.E. v Hannon (1980) –Parents of African-American children placed in classes for the mentally retarded based solely on culturally biased IQ tests One judge ruled IQ tests were biased One judge ruled IQ tests were valid and nondiscriminatory
Cultural Bias Henry H. Goddard administered psychological tests to immigrants coming into Ellis Island in 1917. Found the following groups feebleminded: –80% of the Hungarians –79% of the Italians –87% of the Russians –Questions were “What is Crisco?” “Who is Christy Mathewson?” (NY Yankee’s pitcher) –Congress based the restrictive immigration laws of 1924 on the statistics from these culturally biased tests.
Dove Counterbalance Intelligence Test “T-Bone Walker” got famous for playing what? –Trombone –Guitar –Piano –“T-flute” –“Hambone” Who did “Stagger Lee” kill (in the famous blues legend)? –His mother –Frankie –Johnny –His girlfriend –Billy What characteristics would a test without cultural bias have?
Measuring Intelligence Aptitude Tests: attempt to discover talents and predict how well a person will be able to learn a new skill –General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) –SAT & ACT, LSAT, MCAT, GRE, MAT Achievement Tests: measure how much a person has already learned –Final Exams, Comprehensive Exams, AHSGE Intelligence Tests: measures IQ