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Chapter 5: Classical Greece

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1 Chapter 5: Classical Greece
World History Chapter 5: Classical Greece Section One: Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Section Two: Warring City-States Section Three: Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Section Four: Alexander’s Empire Section Five: The Spread of Hellenistic Culture

2 Standard 3 SSWH3: The student will examine the political, philosophical, and cultural interaction of Classical Mediterranean societies from 700 BCE to 400 CE. A.) Compare the origins and structure of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire. B.) Identify the ideas and impact of important individuals; include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle and describe the diffusion of Greek culture by Aristotle’s pupil Alexander the Great and the impact of Julius and Augustus Caesar. C.) Analyze the contributions of Hellenistic and Roman culture; include law, gender, and science.

3 Standard 3 (Con’t) D.) Describe polytheism in the Greek and Roman world and the origins and diffusion of Christianity in the Roman world. E.) Analyze the factors that led to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.

4 Let’s Preview the Chapter…..
What are some things that you already know about Ancient Greece? The Olympics Greek fables such as the Tortoise and Hare Greek Mystical Figures such as the Cyclops Greek words such as polis and demos that form root words for English words. The Hippocratic Oath taken by physicians.

5 Let’s Preview the Chapter….
Use pages 120 and 121. In the Greek city-state of Athens, a new form of government developed – democracy – in which citizens exercised power. What geographic factors might have confined democracy largely in Athens? Factors may have included separation by sea and mountainous terrain.

6 Let’s Preview the Chapter…..
Alexander the Great spread Greek culture throughout much of Asia, Greek, Egyptian, and Asian cultures then blended to create Hellenistic culture. Why might the sea have been important to the spread of Greek culture? It provided a means of transportation, communication, and trade among the city-states and with foreign lands.

7 Let’s Preview the Chapter…
Athens assumed control of a defense league and eventually built it into an empire. Later, Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire and beyond to create a vast new empire of his own. What geographic features might have strengthened the Macedonian desire to build an empire to the south and east? Macedonia had rugged terrain, so a desire for more fertile land may have driven the Macedonians to build an empire. Also, the lands to the south and east were vulnerable to invasion from both land and sea.

8 Timeline Review Use the timeline at the bottom of pages 120 & 121 to answer the following questions. This timeline covers Greek civilization from its earliest influences to its widespread diffusion. Identify two major conflicts on the timeline. The Trojan War in about 1200 BC The Persian War in 479 BC

9 Timeline Review How long after the Trojan War did it take for Greece to become a major military power? 721 years How many years did Greece’s military power last before Alexander entered the region? 145 years

10 What is the importance of the geography and climate of Greece?
The sea shaped Greek civilization. The Greeks did not live on a land but around a sea. Greeks rarely had to travel more than 85 miles to reach the coastline. Sea travel connected Greece with other societies. Mountains divided Greek land into a number of different regions which significantly influenced political life. Greece had a varied climate with temperatures averaging 48 degrees in the winter and 80 degrees in the summer.

11 Geography of Greece What geographic features played especially significant roles in the development of Greek history?

12 Who are the Mycenaeans? People who were part of the migration wave of the Indo-Europeans. These people were from Mycenae which was located in southern Greece. Mycenae was a fortified city with a protective wall of 20 feet thick. This fortified city could withstand almost any attack.

13 Mycenae Describe the typical Mycenaean palace center.
Ans: Typical palace centers were built on a hill and surrounded by gigantic stone walls.

14 What influence did the Minoans have on the Mycenaeans?
From their contact with the Minoans, the Mycenaeans saw the value of seaborne trade. Mycenaeans also adapted the Minoan writing system to the Greek language and decorated vases with Minoan designs. Mycenae religious practices, art, politics, and literature were also influenced by Minoans.

15 What is the Trojan War? Why might this legendary event have been real?
This may have been a raid that occurred around 1180 B.C. Over time the raid was transformed into an epic tale of gods and goddess, love and betrayal, revenge and honor that still captivates readers more than 2,700 years after its creation by Homer.

16 Why might the Trojan War have been real?
Excavations conducted in northwestern Turkey during the 1870’s by German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann suggested that the stories of the Trojan War might have been based on real cities, people and events. The exact nature of the war remains unclear.

17 Who are the Dorians? Sea raiders who attacked and burned many Mycenaean cities. These people spoke a dialect of Greek and may have been distant relatives of the Bronze Age Greeks. They were far less advanced than the Mycenaeans.

18 Who is Homer? Why are his epics important?
The greatest storyteller of Greek times. Homer was blind. Little is known about his personal life. He is thought to have created Greek history and wrote it down in his epics, which were narrative poems that celebrated heroic deeds.

19 What is an epic? A narrative poem that celebrates heroic deeds.
Most epics of ancient Greek times were written by Homer between 750 and 700 BC.

20 What are Greek myths? Rich traditional stories about Greek gods.
Homer wrote Greek myths. Through the myths, the Greeks sought to understand the mysteries of nature and the power of human passions. In these myths, Greeks attributed human qualities, such as love, hate, and jealousy, to their gods.

21 Greek Myths The gods quarreled and connected with each other regularly. Unlike humans, gods lived forever. The gods lived on Mount Olympus which reached far above the peninsula of Greece so that the gods could look down on the Athenians before passing judgement.

22 Greek Gods Zeus – Ruler of the gods. Hera – Zeus’ wife.
Some of the most note worthy Greek Gods: Zeus – Ruler of the gods. Hera – Zeus’ wife. Athena – goddess of wisdom. (Zeus’ daughter) Aphrodite – goddess of love.

23 Greek gods Apollo – god of many things. Just to name a few (knowledge, light, music, art) Ares – god of war. Hades – god of the underworld.

24 What is a city-state? City – state is another name for polis.
A polis was the fundamental political unit in ancient Greece. A polis was made up of a city and its surrounding countryside, which included numerous villages. Most city-states controlled between 50 and 500 square miles of territory, with fewer than 10, 000 residents.

25 What is a polis? **The polis was above all, a community of people who shared a common identity and common goals. * The polis consisted of citizens with political rights (adult males), citizens with no political rights (women and children), and noncitizens (including agricultural laborers, slaves and resident aliens).

26 What is the difference between a city-state and an acropolis?
An acropolis is an area that is within a city-state that sits on a fortified hilltop. This is normally where citizens gather to discuss city government.

27 What is an acropolis & agora?
At the top of a hill or the “polis” was a fortified area called an acropolis. **The acropolis served as a place of refuge during an attack and sometimes came to be a religious center on which temples and public buildings were built. Below the acropolis was an agora or an open area that served as a place where people could assemble and as a market.

28 What were four main forms of government in Greek city-states? (128)
Monarchy – single person ruler, usually called a king. Aristocracy – government ruled by a small group of nobles from land owning families. Oligarchy – government ruled by a few powerful people. Direct Democracy – government ruled by the people.

29 Assignment Directions: Use the chart on page 128 in your book to summarize the four main types of governments in the Greek city – states. Use the example of the Tree Map or Organizer on the board. After summarizing choose one of the four that you would use to govern your own kingdom or empire and tell why based on the facts that you presented.

30 What is a tyrant? When city-states began to have repeated clashes between rulers and common people, powerful individuals, usually nobles or other wealthy citizens, sometimes seized control of the government by appealing to the common people for support. These rulers were called tyrants. Unlike today, tyrants generally were not considered harsh and cruel, but rather looked at as leaders who would work for the interests of the ordinary people.

31 Why would tyrants set up building programs?
Tyrants would set up building programs to provide jobs and housing for their supporters. They would also set up building programs to reward supporters and secure loyalty of ordinary people.

32 City-states were small Easy to control Located in a central location
What were the advantages and disadvantages of the city-state as a form of government? Advantages City-states were small Easy to control Located in a central location Disadvantages City-states controlled little territory Had many rivals nearby Greater chance for conflict

33 Explain Athenian Democracy.
In Athens participation in the political process was limited to adult males who were property owners. The political process involved voting on issues that concerned the entire Athens city-state. Athenian democracy was allowed the citizens to govern freely, and not have representatives to speak for large groups of citizens.

34 Who are Draco, Solon, and Cleisthenes?
Draco – made the first step toward democracy when he came into power. In 621 BC he developed a legal code based on the idea that all Athenians, rich and poor, were equal under the law. His code dealt harshly with criminals by making punishment for almost every crime death. His democratic policy upheld debt slavery in which debtors worked as slaves to pay off debts.

35 Who is Solon? Developed more far-reaching democratic reforms than Draco when he came to power in 594 BC. He felt no citizen should be owned by another citizen and therefore outlawed debt slavery. He organized Athens citizens into four social classes according to wealth. Only members of three classes could hold political offices. All citizens could participate in the Athenian assembly. He also introduced the legal concept that any citizen could bring charges against wrong doers.

36 Who is Cleisthenes? He broke up power of nobility by organizing citizens into ten groups based on where they lived rather than their wealth. He increased power of the assembly by allowing citizens to submit laws for debate and passage. He created the Council of Five Hundred which was a body that proposed laws and counseled the assembly. Council members were chosen randomly.

37 Which Athenian leader’s reforms most resemble aspects of US democracy?
Cleisthenes’ because he organized citizens geographically and created a “second legislative branch”- the Council of Five Hundred.

38 How is Athenian democracy different from modern American democracy?
In Athens, participation in political processes was limited to adult male property owners. In the United States, participation is open to all. Elected representatives, not citizens themselves, govern.

39 How was Athenian education distributed among Athenian children?
Athenian girls did not go to school, but were educated at home by their mothe or other female family members. How was Athenian education distributed among Athenian children? For the most part only sons of wealthy families received formal educations. Schooling began at about age seven and largely prepared boys to be good citizens. They studied reading, grammar, poetry, history, mathematics, and music. When boys got older, they went to military school to prepare them to become defenders of Athens.

40 How was Athenian education distributed among Athenian children?
Athenian girls did not go to school, but were educated at home by their mothers or other female family members. They learned about child-rearing, weaving cloth, preparing meals, managing the household, and other skills that helped them become good wives and mothers. Some women did learn to read and write.

41 Who was considered a citizen?
Citizenship was restricted to a relatively small number of Athenians. Only free adult male property owners born in Athens were considered citizens. Women, slaves and foreigners were excluded from citizenship and had few rights.

42 Daily life for Athenians
Most residents of Athens were not citizens. Adult male foreigners were protected by Athenian laws. They were also subject to responsibilities of citizens, military service and the funding of festivals. Slavery was also common in Athens. Family was important in ancient Athens. It was composed of a husband, a wife and children.

43 Daily Life for Athenians…..
Sometimes dependent relatives and even slaves were considered a part of Athenian families. Athenian women could take part in religious festivals, but otherwise were excluded from public life. If they left the house, they had to have a male companion. The primary duty of these women was to bare children. Women could not own property and they always had to have a male guardian. Unmarried women by their father, married women by their husbands, and widows by their sons or other male relative.

44 Who were the Spartans? Where was Sparta located?
A group of people who lived in southern Greece in an area called Peloponnesus. Sparta was located here and nearly cut off from the rest of Greece by the Gulf of Corinth.

45 Explain the branches of Sparta’s government.
Spartan government had several branches. The assembly which was composed of all Spartan citizens, elected officials who voted on major issues. The Council of Elders which is made up of 30 older citizens who proposed laws on which the assembly voted. Five elected officials carried out the laws passed by the assembly. These men also controlled education and prosecuted court cases.

46 Additional Spartan Notes…..
Sparta’s Social Order consists of several groups: Citizens who descended from the original inhabitants of the region. (Ruling families who owned land) Non-citizens who were free and worked in commerce and industry. The helots who were at the bottom of Spartan society, but a little better than slaves. They worked in the fields or as house servants.

47 Daily Life for Spartans…..
Sparta had the most powerful army in Greece. Spartans did not value arts, literature or other artistic and intellectual pursuits. Spartans valued duty, strength, and discipline over freedom, individuality, beauty, and learning. Spartan men were expected serve in the army until age 60, their daily life centered on military training.

48 Daily Life for Spartans…..
Spartan boys left home at age 7 and moved into army barracks where they stayed until they reached age 30. They learned military tactics. Spartan girls also led hardy lives by receiving some military training They also ran, wrestled, and played sports. They like the boys were taught to put service above all else. Legend says that Spartan women were so tough that they told their sons and husbands who were going to war to “come back with their swords or on them”.

49 How do the ideals of Spartan and Athenian society compare?
Spartans valued duty, physical and military strength, and discipline. Athenians valued their political freedom, family life, and intellectual pursuits.

50 What was the cause of the Persian Wars?
Persia was expanding by conquering small Greek city states of which Athens was aiding to fight against the Persians. This resulted in Persia directly attacking Athens.

51 What type of army was developed to prepare for the Persian Wars?
The army was composed of rich people, merchants, artisans and small landowners. There were foot soldiers which were called hoplites. These soldiers usually lined up side by side holding a spear in one hand and a shield in the other. This formation was called a phalanx.

52 Armies of Greece

53 Who played a major role in the Persian War battles?
Pheidippides was important because he was the young runner who ran 26 miles (from Marathon to Athens) to warn Athenians not to give up their city but to fight for it. After running this distance, he collapsed and died.

54 What were the consequences of the Persian Wars?
The Persians were defeated by the Greeks. Athens emerged as the leader of the Delian League; the alliance of Greek city-states which had grown to over 200 city-states that took its name from the island of Delos in the Aegean Sea.

55 Who is Pericles? He is a wise and able statesman who led Athens through much of it golden age. He was honest, fair and held onto popular support for 32 years. He was a skillful politician, and aspiring speaker and a respected general. He dominated the life of Athens from 461 to 429 BC. This time period is often referred to as the “Age of Pericles”.

56 Who is Pericles? His father had led the Athenian Assembly.
His mother was the niece of Cleisthenes. Pericles had three goals during his rule of Athens: 1) To strengthen Athenian democracy 2) To hold and strengthen the empire 3) To glorify Athens.

57 How did Pericles strengthen democracy?
He increased the number of public officials who were paid salaries. Before his reign, most positions in public office were unpaid which only allowed wealthy Athenians to afford to hold public office. Under Pericles rule, even the poorest citizens could serve if elected or chosen.

58 How did Pericles strengthen democracy?
Athens had more citizens engaged in self-government than any of the other city-states in Greece. This reform made Athens one of the most democratic governments in history.

59 What is direct democracy?
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives. This was an important legacy of Periclian Athens. In Athens, male citizens who served in the assembly established all the important government policies that affected the polis.

60 How did Pericles strengthen Athenian military?
After the defeat of the Persians, Athens took over the leadership of the Delian League. Pericles used the money from the Delian League treasury to make the Athenian navy the strongest in the Mediterranean.

61 How did Pericles strengthen Athenian military?
A strong navy was important because it helped Athens strengthen the safety of its empire. Prosperity depended on gaining access to the surrounding waterways. Athenian military might allowed Pericles to treat other members of the Delian League as part of the empire.

62 How was the Delian League used to build and beautify Athens?
Pericles also used money from the Delian League to build and beautify Athens. Without the approval of the League, he persuaded the Athenian assembly to vote huge sums of the league’s money to buy gold, ivory, and marble. Still more money went to pay the artists, architects, and workers who used these materials.

63 How was the Delian League used to build and beautify Athens?
His goal was to have the greatest Greek artists and architects create magnificent sculptures and buildings to glorify Athens. At the center of his plan was – The Parthenon. The Parthenon was a 23,000 square foot building used as a temple to Athena, the goddess of wisdom and the protector of Athens.

64 What is Classical Art? The portraying of ideal beauty and not realism.
The values of harmony, balance, order, and proportion were the standards of this artist style.

65 What were two main types of dramas invented by the Greeks?
Tragedy – a serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal. These dramas featured a main character, or tragic hero. The hero was usually an important person and often gifted with extraordinary abilities. A tragic flaw usually caused the hero’s downfall and the flaw was usually hubris or exhibited excessive pride.

66 What were two main types of dramas invented by the Greeks?
In contrast to Greek tragedies, were comedies. A comedy contained scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude honor. Playwrights often made fun of politics and respected people and ideas of the time. The fact that Athenians could make fun of themselves showed the freedom and openness of public discussion that existed in democratic Athens.

67 Three notable dramatists
Aeschylus – he wrote more than 80 plays. His most famous work is the trilogy – a three play series- Oresteia. Sophocles – he wrote more than 100 plays including Oedipus the King and Antigone. Euripides – author of the play Medea. He often featured strong women in his works.

68 Notable comedy writers
Aristophanes – wrote first great comedies for the stage like The Birds and Lysistrata. Lysistrata portrayed the women of Athens forcing their husbands to end the Peloponnesian War.

69 What was the difference between a Greek tragedy and comedy?
Tragedies were serious dramas about common themes such as love, hate, war and betrayal. Comedies were slapstick situations and crude humor.

70 Why did Athens and Sparta go to war?
As Athens grew in wealth, prestige, and power, other city-states began to view it with hostility. Ill will was especially strong between Sparta and Athens. Many people thought the war was inevitable between the two. Instead of them trying to avoid conflict, leaders of Athens and Sparta pressed for a war because both believed their own city had the advantage. Eventually Sparta declared war on Athens in 431BC.

71 What was the Peloponnesian War?
The war between the two city-states Athens and Sparta. Athens had the stronger navy. Sparta had the stronger army and its inland location made it difficult to be attacked by sea. Pericles strategy was to avoid land battles and wait for opportunities to strike Sparta at sea.

72 Advantages and disadvantages for Athens
Stronger navy. Bought residents from surrounding region inside city walls to avoid people starving. Used ships to supply food when food supply was burned by Sparta. In the second year, a frightful plague swept through the city killing perhaps 1/3 of population, including Pericles. After a truce in 421BC, the peace did not last long, the Athenians had a failed attempt to destroy the city-state of Syracuse.

73 Advantages and disadvantages for Spartans
Swept over Athenian country side and burned the Athenian food supply. Strong Army. Inland location protected them from Athenian navy attacks. Defeated the Athenians in the final attack in 413 BC. Navy not as strong as Athens.

74 What were the consequences of the war for each city-state?
The Athenians were defeated. They surrendered to the Spartans in 404 BC. The Athenians lost their empire, power and wealth. The SPARTANS WERE VICTORIOUS!!

75 What are philosophers? Great thinkers who began to appear after the war. They were determined to seek the truth, no matter where the search led them. Philosopher means “lovers of wisdom.” These great thinkers based their philosophy on two assumptions.

76 Two Assumptions of Philosophers
The universe (land, sky, and sea) is put together in an orderly way, and subject to absolute and unchanging laws. People can understand these laws through logic and reason. One group of philosophers called the Sophists questioned people’s unexamined beliefs and ideas about justice and other traditional values.

77 Famous Sophist Protagoras – questioned the existence of the traditional Greek gods. He also argued that there was no universal standard of truth, saying “Man is the measure of all things”.

78 Who are Socrates, Plato and Aristotle?
Socrates was one of the most revered of Greek philosophers. Unlike sophists, he believed that absolute standards exist for truth and justice. He encouraged Greeks to go farther and question themselves and their moral character. In 399 BC, when Socrates was 70 years old, he was brought to trial for “corrupting the youth of Athens” and “neglecting the city’s gods.” He was found guilty and sentenced to death by drinking poison.

79 Who are Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle?
He was a student of Socrates. He was in his late 20’s when Socrates died. He was a wealthy Athenian who had careers as a wrestler and poet. He founded a school called the Academy in 387 BC. The school lasted for approximately 900 years. He wrote the Republic, in which he set forth his vision of a perfectly governed society.

80 Who is Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle?
Philosopher who questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge. He was a student who attended Plato’s Academy for 20 years until Plato’s death. He then opened his own school in Athens called the Lyceum. He created a method for arguing according to rules of logic. He later applied his method to problems in the fields of psychology, physics, and biology. His work provides the basis of the scientific method used today.

81 Aristotle One of Aristotle’s most famous pupils was Alexander the Great, son of King Philip II of Macedonia. He tutored the king’s 13 year old son.

82 Alexander the Great and Hellenistic Culture
SSWH3b: Identify the ideas and impact of important individuals; include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle and describe the diffusion of Greek culture by Aristotle’s pupil Alexander the Great and the impact of Julius and Augustus Caesar.

83 Who was Philip II? Became king of Macedonia in 359 BC and dreamed of taking control of Greece and later conquering Persia and its wealth. He was only 23 years old when he became king and quickly became a brilliant general and ruthless politician. He transformed the peasants under his command into a well-trained professional army. With heavy phalanx formations and fast moving calvaries, he disorganized his opponents.

84 Who was Philip II?

85 What type of people were the Macedonians?
These were hardy people who lived in mountain villages rather than city-states. Most Macedonian nobles thought of themselves as Greeks. However, the Greeks looked down on them as uncivilized foreigners. The Macedonians most important resource was their shrewd and fearless kings.

86 How did a lack of unity aid Philip’s conquest of Greece?
When the Greeks were made aware of Philip’s intentions to conquer, they could not agree on anything which made them vulnerable to outside attacks.

87 Who was Alexander the Great?
Alexander was Philip’s son who became king of Macedonia when he was only 20 years old when his father was killed at his daughter’s wedding in 336 BC. Alexander was a student of Aristotle where he learned geography, science, and literature. As a young boy (8 yrs. Old) he learned to tame a wild horse (Bucephalus), use weapons and command troops.

88 Who was Alexander the Great?

89 How did Alexander conquer the Persian Empire?
In 334 BC, he led 35,000 Macedonian and Greek soldiers into Anatolia. Messengers rushed along the Royal Road to warn of the invasion. An army of 40,000 rushed to defend Persia. The two forces met at the Granicus River and Alexander ordered his army to attack and smashed the Persians.

90 Who is Darius III? King of Persia who vowed to crush Alexander and his army after the defeat at the Granicus River. Darius raised and army of 50,000 to 75,000 to faced the Macedonians. Alexander again defeated the Persians and forced Darius to flee, and later negotiate a peace treaty with Alexander and offered all of the lands west of the Euphrates. Alexander rejected and vowed to conquer the entire Persian Empire.

91 Who is Darius III?

92 How did Alexander conquer the Persian Empire?
To conquer the entire empire, Alexander marched his army to Egypt (Persian territory) in 332BC. The Egyptians welcomed him and crowned him a god-king. Alexander founded the city of Alexandria at the mouth of the Nile. Alexander moved to the Mesopotamian region to face Darius who had assembled an army of 250,000.

93 How did Alexander conquer the Persian Empire?
The two armies met at Gaugamela (small village near ruins of Ninevah). Alexander launched a massive phalanx attack. The Persians were again crushed and Darius again fled ending Persia’s power. Within a short time Alexander had conquered Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis.

94 Why did Alexander adopt Persian customs and include Persians in his army?
He did this to make the Persians feel less threatened and thereby make them easier to rule.

95 Why did Alexander continue his conquests after the death of Darius?
He believed it was his destiny to conquer and rule men. The defeat of the Persians only fueled his dreams of further world conquest.

96 What happened to Alexander’s empire after his death?
Alexander’s Macedonian generals fought among themselves for control of his empire. Eventually three ambitious generals won. Antigonus became king of Macedonia. Ptolemy seized Egypt and took the title of pharaoh. Seleucus took most of the old Persian Empire.

97 What was Alexander’s legacy?
His conquests had an interesting cultural impact. As his empire grew, he sought to unite Macedonians and Persians. He adopted a Persian style of dress, married a Persian princess and presided over a mass marriage of 80 men to Persian women. He also brought Persian troops and people from other lands into his army and made young Persian nobles a part of his calvary.

98 How did Hellenistic culture begin?
Alexander’s ambitions were cultural as well as military and political. During his years of conquest, he actively sought to meld the conquered culture with that of the Greeks. He started new cities as administrative centers of Greek culture. These cities adopted many Greek patterns and customs. As a result of Alexander’s policies, a vibrant new culture emerged.

99 Hellenistic Culture The Greeks were known as Hellenic which is a culture blended with Egyptian, Persian and Indian customs and traditions. This blending became known as Hellenistic Culture. Koine was the popular spoken language used in Hellenistic cities which came as a direct result of cultural blending. The word koine comes from the Greek, meaning “common”.

100 Alexandria Named after Alexander the Great, located at the mouth of the Nile River. It became the foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization.

101 Alexandria Egypt

102 Why did Alexandria, Egypt become the center of Hellenistic culture and trade?
It occupied a strategic location on the western edge of the Nile River harbor. It’s location made it a thriving center of international trade and commerce with a rich mixture of customs and traditions.

103 What attracted people to Alexandria?
Both residents and visitors admired Alexandria’s great beauty. It had broad avenues (streets). Lined with Greek god statues that divided the city into blocks. There are magnificent royal palaces. Alexander’s glass coffin is a tourist attraction. Famous museum and library.

104 Alexandria’s Attractions

105 What is the role of astronomy in Alexander’s history?
Alexandrian scholars provided most of the scientific knowledge available to the Western Hemisphere. Alexandria’s museum contained a small observatory in which astronomers could study the planets and stars. Aristarchus was an astronomer who estimated the Sun to be at least 300 times larger than the Earth. He greatly underestimated the Sun’s true size.

106 Alexandrian Astronomers
He also proposed that Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun. Eratosthenes tried to calculate Earth’s true size by using geometry. He computed Earth’s circumference at between 28,000 to 29,000 miles. Modern calculations say it is 24,860 miles.

107 Who are Euclid and Archimedes?
Euclid was a highly regarded mathematician who composed a Geometry text book called the Elements which contained 465 geometry propositions and proofs that both Eratosthenes and Aristarchus used. Archimedes was a Hellenistic scientist who accurately estimated the value of pi – the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. He was gifted in both geometry and physics.

108 What is Stoicism? Epicureanism?
A Greek philosopher named Zeno founded a school of philosophy called Stoicism. Stoics proposed that people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of God or the natural laws that God established to run the universe. They preached that human desires, power, and wealth were dangerous distractions that should be checked. This philosophy promoted social unity and encouraged its followers to focus on what they could control.

109 Epicureanism Epicurus founded the school of thought called Epicureanism. He taught that gods who had no interest in humans ruled the universe. He believed that the only real objects were those that the five senses perceived. He taught that the greatest good and the highest pleasure came from virtuous conduct and the absence of pain. He proposed that the main goal for humans to achieve was harmony of body and mind. Epicurus promoted moderation in all things.

110 What is the significance of the Colossus of Rhodes?
The Colossus of Rhodes is a bronze statue that stood more than 100 feet high. It is one of seven ancient wonders of the world that was toppled in an earthquake. Its significance was to commemorate heroes and portray ordinary people in everyday situations.

111 Colossus of Rhodes

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