Presentation on theme: "VOYAGES OF EXPLORATION"— Presentation transcript:
1VOYAGES OF EXPLORATION THE AGE OF DISCOVERYVOYAGES OF EXPLORATION
2INTRODUCTIONThe writings of Marco Polo had increased European interest in trade with AsiaSpices and silks were carried overland to Constantinople and shipped across the Mediterranean to ItalyThe conquest of the Byzantine Empire temporarily cut off overland tradeEuropeans began seeking alternate trade routesAt the same time, the spirit of inquiry of the Renaissance was leading Europeans to explore the oceansThey adapted technology from other cultures to improve navigationCompass, lateen (triangular) sails, astrolabe
3THE BIG QUESTIONHow did the voyages of Columbus forever change the world?
4SPAIN AND PORTUGAL LEAD THE WAY Located at the western end of Europe with coasts on the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic OceanWanted their fair share of trade with AsiaHad economic resources to finance explorationDeveloped new navigational tools and used new technology
5KEY PEOPLE IN THE START OF EXPLORATION Prince Henry of Portugal (Henry the Navigator)developed a new, lighter sailing ship and sponsored expedition along the African coastStarted a school for sailorsFerdinand and IsabellaHad just completed the Reconquista (took Spain back from the Muslims) to reunite the country under Christian rule (1492)Expelled Spain’s Jewish communityHoped to further the spread of the Christian faith and glorify their country
6THE VOYAGES OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS (1451-1506) From Genoa, ItalyConvinced that he could reach Asia by sailing westPersuaded Spanish rulers to support his voyage (provided 3 ships) in 1492Accidentally landed in the AmericasProvided a new source of wealth and raw materials that forever changed the economy of Europe
7THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE The exchange of products and ideas between Europe and the AmericasImproved the European diet with the introduction of new foods (tomatoes, corn, potatoes, peppers, squash, chocolate and turkey and other animal products)Tobacco was also brought to EuropeFrom Europe, new products were introduced to the Americas (wheat and other grains, sugar, cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, chickens)
9LEFT SIDE ACTIVITY CREATE A CHART OF THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE EUROPE THE AMERICAS
10HOMEWORK:MAKE SURE TO COMPLETE YOUR “IDENTIFY” CHART FOR UNIT 5
11EXPLORERS (check your chart) Vasco da Gama ( ): Portuguese –Discovered an all-water route from Europe to India by sailing around the southern tip of Africa in 1497Made it possible for Europeans to obtain Asian goods without relying on overland routesFerdinand Magellan ( ): PortugueseLed the first expedition of ships to circumnavigate (circle) the world (around S. America and across the Pacific)Proved conclusively that the world was round
13EXPLORERS CONTINUED… England: John Cabot – claimed territories in North AmericaFrance:Jacques Cartier, Samuel Champlain, and Robert de la Salle - explored the St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi RiverDutch:Henry Hudson – tried to find a shortcut from Europe to the Far East (Northwest Passage). He explored Hudson Bay in Canada, and the Hudson River in America.
15CONQUEST OF THE AMERICAS Spanish conquistadors (conquerors) and priests arrived soon after the first explorersCame to conquer native peoples, seize gold and silver, obtain natural resources, and convert the natives to Christianity (Gold, Glory, and God)Soon after Columbus’ first voyage, the Spanish conquered the main Caribbean islandSmall numbers of Spanish soldiers, using horses and firearms, and acting with local allies, were able to quickly overcome large numbers of Native Americans
16MEXICO (put in your notes) Hernando CortezSailed from Cuba to Mexico in search of gold and silver (1519)Met the Aztec Emperor Montezuma (believed the Spanish were gods and showered them with gifts)Cortez returned in 1521 and attacked TenochtitlanSpaniard had superior weaponsHad allied themselves with enemies of the Aztecs (increased their numbers)Aztecs were worn down by smallpox (accidentally introduced by the Europeans and the Native Americans had no immunity to the disease)
17PERU (Check your chart) Francisco PizarroSet sail from Panama to conquer the Inca of Peru (1530)Inca had just recovered from a brutal civil warAgain, Spaniards had superior technologyPizarro invited Inca emperor to visit him, then ambushed the Inca and murdered the emperorConquest was complete by 1533Spanish treated the conquered Indians harshly, they were forced to accept Christianity and became slaves
18COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA COLONIAL GOVERNMENTViceroys (royal governors) were sent to rule the colonies that had been established in the Spanish king’s nameSpanish officials filled the most important positions in colonial government and Church leaders shared political powerGold and silver were shipped to Spain making it the strongest country in Europe (16th century)Land was divided among soldiers who used Native Americans to work the land and mines (the encomienda system) – This system was ruled by the central government (not local)
19COLONIAL SOCIETYPriests and the Jesuit missionaries sought to convert Native Americans to Catholicism and built schools, hospitals, etc.Social classesPeninsulares – officials and landowners born in SpainCreoles – people with a Spanish background but were born in the AmericasMestizos – mixed Spanish and Native American ancestryNative Americans – performed most of the hard labor
20OTHER EUROPEAN COLONIAL EMPIRES FRANCE:Canada, Great Lakes, and Mississippi RiverNever as populous as Spanish or English (even though it covered almost ¾ of trading N. America)Mainly trappers for furNEW NETHERLANDControlled region around New YorkControlled by the merchants of the Dutch West India CompanyColony of New Amsterdam (New York) became a leading center for trade
21COLONIES CONTINUE… ENGLAND First permanent settlement was Jamestown (1607)First came looking for gold, but became profitable by growing tobacco to sell in EuropeSecond colony was Plymouth Rock (Mass.), established by the PilgrimsEventually established 13 colonies along the Atlantic coast of North America
22IMPACT OF COLONIZATION Native American populations declined, because they had no immunity to diseases from the Eastern Hemisphere (smallpox, typhus, and measles)Because of the sharp decline, Spanish landowners needed a source of labor able to survive harsh working conditionsBegan importing African slaves
23ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE Had existed long before European intervention Expanded on a scale unparalleled in human historyUsually captured by African tribes in raids on villagesBrought to the West Coast to trade/sell to European and American slave traders for guns and other goodsAs many as 15 million Africans were taken over a 300 year period (more than 11 million to Spanish colonies)Many died during the “Middle Passage” because of horrible conditions on board the shipsMost worked in sugar fields (Caribbean and Brazil) or raising cotton or tobacco (N. America)The population of many African communities declined greatly.
26THE COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION Aspects of the Commercial RevolutionGlobal TradeProduction of more goods for sale rather than own useMercantilism (economic theory of the time)Wealth and power based on amassing gold and silverTotal wealth of the world is limited, so had to be gained through war or tradePromoted the removal of trade barriers
27EUROPEAN TRADE WITH THEIR COLONIES GLOBAL TRADEMERCANTILISMMERCANTILISMAmericasEUROPEAN TRADE WITH THEIR COLONIESAmericasSugar, rice, tobacco, precious metalsEuropeGold, Silver, Fur, Lumber, FoodstuffsLOW PRICESWoolen cloth, lumber, finished goodsMing China and IndiaSilks, porcelainTeaMother CountryColoniesEast Indies and AfricaManufactured goodsSpicesSlavesHIGH PRICES
28Continued… Free Enterprise or Capitalism Business owners risk capital (money) in business in order to make a profitJoint-stock companies were formed (privately owned companies that sold stock to investors)Financial revolution and rise of bankingImpact – more products from which to choose, more books and new forms of learning and entertainment, more choices in occupations, and a higher standard of living