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THE AGE OF DISCOVERY VOYAGES OF EXPLORATION. INTRODUCTION The writings of Marco Polo had increased European interest in trade with Asia Spices and silks.

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Presentation on theme: "THE AGE OF DISCOVERY VOYAGES OF EXPLORATION. INTRODUCTION The writings of Marco Polo had increased European interest in trade with Asia Spices and silks."— Presentation transcript:


2 INTRODUCTION The writings of Marco Polo had increased European interest in trade with Asia Spices and silks were carried overland to Constantinople and shipped across the Mediterranean to Italy The conquest of the Byzantine Empire temporarily cut off overland trade Europeans began seeking alternate trade routes At the same time, the spirit of inquiry of the Renaissance was leading Europeans to explore the oceans They adapted technology from other cultures to improve navigation Compass, lateen (triangular) sails, astrolabe

3 THE BIG QUESTION How did the voyages of Columbus forever change the world?

4 SPAIN AND PORTUGAL LEAD THE WAY Located at the western end of Europe with coasts on the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean Wanted their fair share of trade with Asia Had economic resources to finance exploration Developed new navigational tools and used new technology

5 KEY PEOPLE IN THE START OF EXPLORATION Prince Henry of Portugal (Henry the Navigator) developed a new, lighter sailing ship and sponsored expedition along the African coast Started a school for sailors Ferdinand and Isabella Had just completed the Reconquista (took Spain back from the Muslims) to reunite the country under Christian rule (1492) Expelled Spain’s Jewish community Hoped to further the spread of the Christian faith and glorify their country

6 THE VOYAGES OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS ( ) From Genoa, Italy Convinced that he could reach Asia by sailing west Persuaded Spanish rulers to support his voyage (provided 3 ships) in 1492 Accidentally landed in the Americas Provided a new source of wealth and raw materials that forever changed the economy of Europe

7 THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE The exchange of products and ideas between Europe and the Americas Improved the European diet with the introduction of new foods (tomatoes, corn, potatoes, peppers, squash, chocolate and turkey and other animal products) Tobacco was also brought to Europe From Europe, new products were introduced to the Americas (wheat and other grains, sugar, cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, chickens)




11 EXPLORERS (check your chart) Vasco da Gama ( ): Portuguese – Discovered an all-water route from Europe to India by sailing around the southern tip of Africa in 1497 Made it possible for Europeans to obtain Asian goods without relying on overland routes Ferdinand Magellan ( ): Portuguese Led the first expedition of ships to circumnavigate (circle) the world (around S. America and across the Pacific) Proved conclusively that the world was round

12 Magellan’s route

13 EXPLORERS CONTINUED… England: John Cabot – claimed territories in North America France: Jacques Cartier, Samuel Champlain, and Robert de la Salle - explored the St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi River Dutch: Henry Hudson – tried to find a shortcut from Europe to the Far East (Northwest Passage). He explored Hudson Bay in Canada, and the Hudson River in America.

14 Colonial America in 1600s

15 CONQUEST OF THE AMERICAS Spanish conquistadors (conquerors) and priests arrived soon after the first explorers Came to conquer native peoples, seize gold and silver, obtain natural resources, and convert the natives to Christianity (Gold, Glory, and God) Soon after Columbus’ first voyage, the Spanish conquered the main Caribbean island Small numbers of Spanish soldiers, using horses and firearms, and acting with local allies, were able to quickly overcome large numbers of Native Americans

16 MEXICO (put in your notes) Hernando Cortez Sailed from Cuba to Mexico in search of gold and silver (1519) Met the Aztec Emperor Montezuma (believed the Spanish were gods and showered them with gifts) Cortez returned in 1521 and attacked Tenochtitlan Spaniard had superior weapons Had allied themselves with enemies of the Aztecs (increased their numbers) Aztecs were worn down by smallpox (accidentally introduced by the Europeans and the Native Americans had no immunity to the disease)

17 PERU (Check your chart) Francisco Pizarro Set sail from Panama to conquer the Inca of Peru (1530) Inca had just recovered from a brutal civil war Again, Spaniards had superior technology Pizarro invited Inca emperor to visit him, then ambushed the Inca and murdered the emperor Conquest was complete by 1533 Spanish treated the conquered Indians harshly, they were forced to accept Christianity and became slaves

18 COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA COLONIAL GOVERNMENT Viceroys (royal governors) were sent to rule the colonies that had been established in the Spanish king’s name Spanish officials filled the most important positions in colonial government and Church leaders shared political power Gold and silver were shipped to Spain making it the strongest country in Europe (16 th century) Land was divided among soldiers who used Native Americans to work the land and mines (the encomienda system) – This system was ruled by the central government (not local)

19 COLONIAL SOCIETY Priests and the Jesuit missionaries sought to convert Native Americans to Catholicism and built schools, hospitals, etc. Social classes Peninsulares – officials and landowners born in Spain Creoles – people with a Spanish background but were born in the Americas Mestizos – mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry Native Americans – performed most of the hard labor

20 OTHER EUROPEAN COLONIAL EMPIRES FRANCE: Canada, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River Never as populous as Spanish or English (even though it covered almost ¾ of trading N. America) Mainly trappers for fur NEW NETHERLAND Controlled region around New York Controlled by the merchants of the Dutch West India Company Colony of New Amsterdam (New York) became a leading center for trade

21 COLONIES CONTINUE… ENGLAND First permanent settlement was Jamestown (1607) First came looking for gold, but became profitable by growing tobacco to sell in Europe Second colony was Plymouth Rock (Mass.), established by the Pilgrims Eventually established 13 colonies along the Atlantic coast of North America

22 IMPACT OF COLONIZATION Native American populations declined, because they had no immunity to diseases from the Eastern Hemisphere (smallpox, typhus, and measles) Because of the sharp decline, Spanish landowners needed a source of labor able to survive harsh working conditions Began importing African slaves

23 ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE Had existed long before European intervention Expanded on a scale unparalleled in human history Usually captured by African tribes in raids on villages Brought to the West Coast to trade/sell to European and American slave traders for guns and other goods As many as 15 million Africans were taken over a 300 year period (more than 11 million to Spanish colonies) Many died during the “Middle Passage” because of horrible conditions on board the ships Most worked in sugar fields (Caribbean and Brazil) or raising cotton or tobacco (N. America) The population of many African communities declined greatly.

24 The Atlantic Slave Trade

25 The Middle Passage

26 THE COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION Aspects of the Commercial Revolution Global Trade Production of more goods for sale rather than own use Mercantilism (economic theory of the time) Wealth and power based on amassing gold and silver Total wealth of the world is limited, so had to be gained through war or trade Promoted the removal of trade barriers

27 GLOBAL TRADE Americas MERCANTILISM Sugar, rice, tobacco, precious metals Americas Ming China and India East Indies and Africa Silks, porcelain Tea Spices Slaves Europe Woolen cloth, lumber, finished goods MERCANTILISM EUROPEAN TRADE WITH THEIR COLONIES Mother Country Colonies LOW PRICES HIGH PRICES Manufactured goods Gold, Silver, Fur, Lumber, Foodstuffs

28 Continued… Free Enterprise or Capitalism Business owners risk capital (money) in business in order to make a profit Joint-stock companies were formed (privately owned companies that sold stock to investors) Financial revolution and rise of banking Impact – more products from which to choose, more books and new forms of learning and entertainment, more choices in occupations, and a higher standard of living


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