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1. Plassey. Battle of Plassey Causes And Consequences.

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1 1. Plassey

2 Battle of Plassey Causes And Consequences

3 CAUSES Disputed succession of Siraj ud Daula British help to Siraj ud Daula’s rivals Fortification by the British Misuse of the trade privileges Affair of Krishana Ballabh Occupation of Calcutta and black hole tragedy Reoccupation of Calcutta by the English in 1757 Treaty of Ali Nagar in 1757 Capture of Chander Nagar Immediate cause

4 Siraj Ud Daula

5 1757 June 23 -Battle

6 Significance Political significance British became rulers from traders British became masters of Bengal It opened doors to conquer India End of the rule of Siraj ud Daula British came to know about the negative side of the character of the Indians It helped them to win in the battle of Buxar Grieved and unsatisfied Hindus under Muslim rule joined the British Muslim rule came to an end

7 Military significance Mughals lost Bengal forever Cowardice of the Mughals was exposed British could bring their troops easily in Bengal through sea route and also could use their naval power as Bengal was situated on the sea coast In the Nawab’s army 500 soldiers were killed and about 500 were wounded whereas only 23 British soldiers were killed and 49 were wounded.

8 Economic significance Fertile and prosperous province like Bengal came under British control. With the wealth of Bengal it became easy for the British to conquer other regions of India The British soldiers got much booty or plunder After the battle Mir Jafar who became the Nawab of Bengal gave a lot of wealth to the British Company. He was asked to pay a huge amount to company British company established its own mint in Calcutta It got an estate of 24 districts It got the privilege of right to trade without paying any tax

9 Moral significance They became more greedy and they began to use moral and immoral means to attain wealth They started to tyrannize the common people People came to know the moral degradation of the British

10 2. Buxar

11 Battle Buxar Causes and consequences

12 Causes Battle of Plassey led to the battle of Buxar Misuse of the trade privileges by the British Mir Kasim’s desire to be free from British influences Improper trade was stopped by Mir Kasim Major Ellis’ attack on Patna Skirmish between Mir Kasim and Major Adam Appointment of Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal

13 On 22 October 1764

14 Significances Treaty of Allahabad Mir Jafar became a puppet into the hands of British Company Powers of the Nawab snatched away Mir Jafar who was made as the Nawab of Bengal promised to give compensation of the battle He also promised to re-impose the toll tax on the Indians The troops of Nawab were reduced and in his court the British resident remained permanently The power of Nawab of Audh was dispersed Mir Kasim fled away Mughal emperor Sha Alam was given the right to collect revenue from the states of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. He was given 26 lacs annually and also given the districts of Allahabad and Kara. Thus Mughal emperor became fully under the control of British.

15 3. Robert Clive

16 Robert Clive Dual system

17 Life and carrier Born in England in 1725 and in 1744 became a clerk in the British East India Company.

18 Agreement between Clive and East India Company in 1755

19 In 1757 in the battle of Plassey he defeated Siraj ud Daula and Mir Jafar was made as the new Nawab of Bengal. He got a lot of wealth in the shape of gifts. The credit of the victory of the battle of Plassey goes to Clive. British were firmly established in Bengal with the victory in the battle of Plassey.

20 Clive, marriage photo family and then with family

21 Clive, Real founder of British rule in India

22 Governorship in Bengal First-from Second Dual system- two powers took part in the administration of Bengal i.e. Nawab and company

23 This is dual system

24 Merits of dual system  End of struggle for supremacy between Nawab and British Company  Trick on European powers like French and Dutch  Protection from rebellions by the Indians  Clive could satisfy the directors of the British company  Protection from the opposition by the Marathas  Economic benefits  Unstable system  Managed able and experienced employees

25 Demerits of dual system Separated power and responsibility Evil of individual trade Harm to lndian trade and Indian traders Spoilt administration Anarchy and chaos Bad effect on judicial system Huge income to the company with no responsibilities

26 Statues of Clive established in England

27 4. Warren

28 Reforms of Warren Hastings Administrative reforms

29 Warren Hastings in Different poses

30 Second wife of Hastings, oil canvas

31 A cartoon of Warren Hastings

32 Letter Letter from Warren Hastings to George Bogle, an employ of EAST INDIA COMPANY, who later became P.A. of him.

33 Difficulties of Warren Hastings Dual government Defective revenue system Terrible famine in Bengal( ) Ruined trade Defective judicial system Financial Bankruptcy Hostile council Regulating Act of 1773 Marathas Hostility of Haidar Ali of Mysore American war of Independence

34 Administrative reforms End of dual or double government Appointment of British Collectors The treasure was brought to Calcutta from Murshidabad Suppression of Dacoits and Ascetics

35 Revenue reforms Establishment of Board of revenue and Board Trade Appointment of Rai Rayan The system of lease for one year instead of five years End of free pass system Removal of illegal Octroi posts Reduction of toll tax Trade mission in foreign countries

36 Judicial reforms Abolition of the judicial rights of landlords Establishment of civil and criminal courts Establishment of Sardar Diwani court and Sardar Nizamat court Judicial process was written in the written form Fixed salaries to the judges, who were banned in accepting gifts or presents or fees Establishment of peace and security

37 Other reforms In 1781 a college was established in Calcutta in which Indians were educated With the help of Sir William Jones he established ‘Bengal Native Asiatic Society’ for making researches in history Changes in military system Police reforms in Calcutta Victory over hostile councils

38 Steps to improve financial crises Stripped the administrative powers of the Nawab of Bengal His pension was reduced Pension to the mughal emperor Sha Alam was stopped. He received 90 lakh rupees from the Nawab of Oudh He extracted money from the Beums of Oudh and Raja Chet Singh of Benaras

39 Sha Alam, his eldest son

40 5. REFORMS OF Cornwallis

41 REFORMS OF Cornwallis( ) CARRIER AND ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS

42 JUDICIAL REFORMS  the judicial system set up by Cornwallis was based on the principal of equality and western conception of justice. Religious law or personal law of the ruler or local agent was replaced by codified secular law. The sovereignty of law was proclaimed in unmistakable terms. Even government officials could be tried in the courts.  In 1787 the collectors in charge of districts were made judges of Diwani Adalats, were given more magisterial powers and empowered to try criminal cases with limits.  Changes were made in the field of criminal administration during The District Faujadari Adalats presided over by the Indian judges were abolishedcand in their place four circuit courts were set up. These courts were presided by Europeans. These courts toured the districts twice a year and tried the person committed by city magistrates.  Sadar Nizamat Adalat was replaced by a similar court set up at Calcutta.  There were some undesirable effects in his code. The elaborate code was so complicated that common man could not follow it justice proved very expensive false hood, chicanery and deceit began to yield dividends. Litigation increased greatly. There was great delay in the disposal of justice. European judges were ignorant of the customs and habits of Indians.

43 Cornwallis Code  Cornwallis’ judicial reforms took final shape by The new reforms were based on the principle of separation of powers.  Cornwallis code divested the collector of all judicial and magisterial powers and left him with the duty of administration of revenue. Thus he tried to separate the revenue administration from the administration of justice.  A new class of officer called the district judge was created to preside over the district civil court. He was given magisterial and police functions.  A gradation of civil courts was set up.  The distinction between revenue and civil cases was abolished and the new Diwani courts competent to try all civil cases.  Cornwallis proclaimed the principal of sovereignty of law in India.  Important changes were introduced in the field of criminal administration. The District Faujadari Adalat presided over by Indian officers were abolished.

44 Reform of criminal laws  During Cornwallis introduced certain changes in the criminal law which were regularized by a parliamentary act of  In December 1790 a rule framed for the guidance of Muhammedan law officers.  The usual punishment of amputation of limbs of body was replaced by temporary hard labour or fine and imprisonment according to the circumstances of the case.  Regulation IX 1793 amended the law of evidence.

45 Police reforms  When the police superintendents were found corrupt a regulation was passed in 1791 defining the powers of the police superintendents.  To induce the police officials to act honestly and with promptitude Cornwallis raised the salaries of all police officers offered good rewards for the discovery and arrests of burglars and murderers.  In districts the zamindars were deprived of all police powers and English magistrates were given control of the district police.  police superintendents assisted by police constables were placed in each area of each district.

46 Revenue reforms  Reorganized revenue department.  In 1787 the province of Bengal was divided into fiscal areas and each was placed under a collector.  The number of collectorships was reduced from 36 to 23.  The old committee of revenue was as the as the board of revenue and charged with the duty of superintending the work of collectors.  His great reform was permanent settlement and according to this the zamindars were recognized as the owners of land and a ten years’ settlement was made with them in The state demand was fixed at 89% of the rental, leaving 11% with the zamindars as their share for their trouble and responsibility.

47 Permanent settlement in Orissa

48 Permanent settlement in Bengal

49 Permanent settlement in Bihar

50 Commercial reforms  He tried to put an end to the corruption rampant in the commercial department. He found that the company’s servants were making huge profits while sending goods to England. The members of board were also found accepting bribes and gifts. He took measures to put an end to all these practices.  He forbade the company’s officials and employees the acceptance of bribes and gifts or indulgence in private trade by raising their salaries.

51 Europeanization of administrative machinery  He reserved all higher services for the Europeans and reduced the Indians to the position of hewers of wood drawers of water. The doors of covenanted services were closed to Indians.  In the army the Indians could not rise above the position of Jemadars and Subedars and in civil services not above the status of Munsiffs or Sadar Amins or Deputy Collectors.

52

53 6. REFORMS OF WILLIAM BENTICK

54 REFORMS OF WILLIAM BENTICK( ) Carrier and Achievements

55 As governor general of India  William Cavendish Bentick succeeded Lord Amherst as governor general of India. He took the charge of Indian administration in July a.Began his carrier in army. b.Soon became Lieutenant Colonel. c.Member of Parliament in d.Governor of Madras in e.Governor general of India in 1828.

56 Social reforms  Abolition of sati and other cruel rites a.In India women were forced to burn themselves with the dead body of their husbands. This was known as sati. The widows below 16 and even pregnant women were cruelly burnt. b.Raja Rammohan Roy urged William Bentick to take necessary steps to declare the practice of sati illegal. c.Bentick collected relevant facts regarding sati cases, enquired the views of army officers, judges of Nizamat Adalat, Superintendents of Police of the Lower and Upper Provinces etc. d. Regulation No. XVII of December 1829 declared the practice of sati illegal and punishable by the criminal courts.

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58 Suppression of infanticide and child sacrifices a.Though Bengal Regulation XXI of 1795 and Regulation III of 1804 declared this practice illegal it was still continued. b.Hence William Bentick took vigorous steps to suppress this inhuman crime and even he issued prompt orders to stop the ritual of offering child sacrifices at special occasions in Saugar island in Bengal.

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60 Suppression of Thugi a.The thugs who belonged to both Hindu and Muslim religions were a sect of hereditary assassins and robbers who lived by preying upon innocent defenseless travellers. They offered the heads of their victims as sacrifices to their goddesses. They were active in the entire area from Oudh to Hyderabad and in Rajputana and Budelkhand. Sometimes a dozen men were murdered at the same time. b.Colonel William Sleeman was given the charge of the suppression of the thugs with the co-operation of the rulers of Indian states. About 1500 thugs were arrested and were either sentenced to death or put in imprisonment for life. Thus William Bentick succeeded in this mission.

61 Removal of humiliating distinctions in the recruitment to public service Section 87 of the charter Act of 1833 provided that no Indian subject of the company of India was to be debarred from holding any office under the company by reason of his religion, place of birth, descent and colour. This charter clause was inserted at the instance of William Bentick.

62 Educational Reforms William Bentick’s government defined the aim of education in India. He appointed Macaulay as the president of the committee of Public Instruction. Macaulay had planned to produce a class of persons who would be Indians in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and intellect. He expressed the hope in one of the letters to his father that “ if our plans of our education are followed up, there will not be a single idolater among the respectable classes in Bengal 30 years hence.” He set forth his views in his famous minute dated 2 February 1835 in which he ridiculed Indian literature and the vernacular languages.

63 Other Reforms 1. Financial reforms a.Appointment of two committees i.e. military and civil to reduce the expenditure. b.Reduced bhatta, i.e. extra or additional allowance paid to military officers. c.Reduced the allowance of civil servants. d.Better measures for the collection of land revenue in Bengal and north western provinces. e. Appointment of maximum Indians in place of high paid Europeans. f.Opium trade was regularized and licensed which gave company a share in the profits in the shape of duties. g.Encouraged iron and coal production and also tea and coffee plantations.

64 Other Reforms 2.Liberal policy towards press. 3.Judicial reforms a.Abolition of Provincial Courts of Appeal and Circuit set up by Cornwallis and transferred their duties to magistrates and collectors. b.Separate Sadar Nizamat Adalat and Sadar Diwani Adalat at Allahabad for the convenience of the c. public of upper provinces. d.Qualified Indians were appointed in junior judicial capacities of Munsiffs and could rise to the position of sadar Amins. e.Option of using Persian or vernacular languages in filling the suits.

65 7. Lord Dalhousie

66 Reforms of Lord Dalhousie( ) Life and carrier

67

68

69 Early life Born in 1812 at Scotland Castle in a noble family. Original name James Andrew Brown Ramsay. Came to in India in 1848 as a governor general. He was only 36 years when he was appointed as governor general of India. He is regarded as one of the greatest governor generals of India.

70 Administrative reforms  Bengal was placed under the charge of lieutenant governor.  Set up Non regulation system. Under this system he appointed a commissioner over a newly acquired territory, who was made directly responsible to the governor general. Thus introduced the system of centralized control.

71 Military reforms  Dalhousie’s annexation policy had extended British India from Bengal in the east and Punjab and Sind in the west.  The head quarters the Bengal artillery were shifted from Calcutta to Meerut.  Permanent headquarters of the army were shifted to Shimla. Shimla became the seat of the government of India.  He proposed to reduce the strength of the Indian element in the army.  Three regiments were added to the army.  A new irregular force was created in the Panjab under the direct control Panjab administration.  Gorkha regiments were raised.

72 Educational reforms  The famous educational despatch known Wood’s Despatch was introduced in 1854 by Charles Wood, the president of the board of control.  It introduced a properly articulated scheme of education from the primary school to the university.  It laid the foundation on which the modern education system has been built.  It recommended Anglo-Vernacular schools throughout the districts, government colleges of higher grade in important towns and a university in each of the three presidencies in India.  It decided to appoint a director of public instruction in each province.  On the model of London University three universities were set up at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. Thus first three universities of India were established in  teaching both in vernacular and in English was encouraged.  An Engineering college was established at Roorkee.

73 Development of Railways  The broad outlines of the scheme were laid down by Dalhousie in his famous Railway Minute of 1853 which formed the basis for the future railway extension in India.  The first railway line connecting Bombay with Thane was laid down in The following year a railway line was built from Calcutta to the Raniganj coal fields. Then in Madras and after that various routs were constructed I  Besides encouraging trade and commerce the railways have gone a long way in uniting India.

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75 The introduction of electric telegraph  Dalhousie is regarded as the father of electric telegraph in India. Nearly 4,000 miles of electric telegraph lines were constructed connecting Calcutta with Peshawar, Bombay, Madras and other parts of the country. In Burma a line was laid down from Rangoon to Mandalay. The telegraph department proved of great assistance during the revolt of 1857 to Britishers.

76 Postal reforms  The basis of modern postal system was laid down by Lord Dalhousie.  A new post office act was passed in  Director general was appointed to superintend the work of post offices in all presidencies.  An uniform rate per letter was introduced.  Postage stamps were issued for the first time.  He turned post offices as the source of revenue. Earlier it was a drain on the treasury.

77 Public works  A separate Public Works Department was set up first time.  A large scale works of pubic utility had began.  Irrigational works were undertaken on large scale.  The main stream of the Ganges Canal was completed and declared open on April 8,1854.  Bari Doab Canal work in Punjab was started.  The work on the Grand Trunk Road was started with more enthusiasm.  Many bridges were constructed.

78 Commercial reforms  Ports India were thrown open to the commerce of the world.  The harbours of Karachi, Bombay and Calcutta were developed.  A large number of light houses were constructed.  Indian agriculture received special attention.  Indian resources particularly cotton, flax and tea were developed to supply raw material for the mills in Britain.  Indian trade began to be more dominated by Englishmen.

79 8. The Uprising of 1857

80 The Uprising of 1857 Causes

81 revolt

82 POLITICAL CAUSES Lord Dalhousie’s Doctrine of Lapse The fear of other Kings Despotism and arrogance of the British officers Impartial judicial system The British were considered as foreigners The plan to destroy the Mughal dynasty Provocation of the Muslims Anti-social elements

83 Religious reforms Military reforms Educational reforms Postal reforms Administrative reforms Development of railways and electronic telegraphs Public works Commercial and revenue reforms

84 RELIGIOUS REFORMS Propagation of Christianity in India The Indian civilization was endangered by the British Condemnation of Hindu scriptures Reduction of the influence of the Pandits and Maulanas Social reforms

85 The role of Brahma Samaj and Raja Rammohan Roy Raja Rammohan Roy

86 ECONOMIC CAUSES Absolute control of the trade by the British No development in Indian Industries Pitiable condition of Indian agriculture Impose of land tax on the tax free lands Destruction of High class land lords Deprival of higher posts to the educated Indians Economic disadvantages and losses

87 MILITARY REFORMS Dissatisfaction among the Indians regarding the military administration The law of the recruitment of common servants Indiscipline in the army Differences between the salaries of the Indian soldiers British The excessive number of Indian soldiers in the army The annexation of Oudh to the British empire Ruin of the British in the Afgan war

88 IMMEDIATE CAUSES AND THE MAIN EVENTS Use of Greased Cartridges THE MAIN EVENTS Revolt at Barrackpur on 29 March 1857 Revolt at Meerut on 9 May 1857 Occupation of Delhi on 11 May 1857 Re-occupation of Delhi by the British Revolt at Lucknow Revolt at Kanpur Revolt at Banaras and Allahabad Revolt at Bihar Revolt at Barailly Revolt at Shah Jahanpur Other centers

89 CAUSES OF THE FAILURE Supremacy of the British in many spheres Revolt did not spread in all parts of India All the states did not take part in the revolt The co-operation of the Indian rulers to the British The Gorkhas and the Sikhs did not co-operate with the rebels Weak organization lack of capable leaders No common objective The revolt started before the prescribed time Friendly relation between the British and Afghanistan Policy of oppressions by the British The supreme Naval power of the British Ideal time to the British

90 RESULTS OF THE REVOLT Consolidation of the British empire Increase in the number of British troops Direct administration of India into the hands of the crown The policy of the annexation came down Racial discrimination increased Policy of divide and rule by the British End of the Mughal dynasty The end of the rank of the Peshwa New policy towards the native states Recognition of the old treaties Inspiration to the national war of independence Amalgamation of the armies of the crown and the company Conciliation of different castes Artillery was handed over to the Europeans Abolition of religious discrimination Hostility between the Hindus and the Muslims Indian Council Act of 1861 organization of financial system Declaration by the queen Victoria

91 9. Commercialization of agriculture

92 Commercialization of agriculture INTRODUCTION OF PLANTATION CROPS

93 Coffee, largest producer Karnataka

94 Tea cultivation

95 Hilly areas more favourable

96 workers

97 Another view

98 Rubber

99 Indigo

100 Impact of commercialization -Rural indebtedness

101 POVERTY

102 Unemployment

103 MISERIES&LACK OF FOOD

104 RIOTS

105 PUBLICATIONS

106 PRESENT SCENARIO IN FARMS

107 DESTRUCTION OF COTTAGE INDUSTRIES

108 10. Modern Industries

109 Agro based industries Textile, Jute and paper industries

110 Textile The first industry of cotton clothes in India was established in 1853 at Bombay In 1879 the number of cotton mills was 56. In 1895 it became 144 and in 1905 it was 206. It is a large scale industry. Southern regions produced more cotton than the northern regions.

111 Textile, Oldest and largest industry

112 JUTE The first jute mill in India was established in 1855 at Rishra in Bengal by Mr. George Ackland. Jute is known as ‘golden fiber.‘ In 1882 there were 20 jute factories in India. In 1895 it became 36.

113 Sunderban delta Largest producer of jute in India is West Bengal. Sunderban delta in West Bengal is the largest producer of jute. It is the dwelling place of tiger also.

114 Paper industry An agro based industry. Origin in 1812 First paper mill at Serampur in West Bengal

115 Paper industry

116 Electronic, chemical& cement industries growth

117 electronic

118 Bangalore, biggest electronic industrial centre

119 Chemical industry

120 Cement industries

121 Building purposes

122 After independence- high growth

123 Engineering, ship building& air craft industries growth

124 Engineering industry Items of export- diesel engines and parts, steel pipes, electric fans and parts, tubes and fittings, dry batteries, bicycles and parts, railway track materials, data processing machines etc.

125 Engineering

126

127 Ship building industry The main ship building centers- Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Visakhapattanam&Goa All of them in public sector The largest ship yard is built at Cochin with the help of Japan. Dry docks( meant for repairing big ships) are Cochin, Visakhapattanam& Bombay Battleships for Indian navy are manufactured at Cochin Free India built her first ship at Visakhapattanam shipyard in 1948

128 Ship building industry

129 Dry docks( meant for repairing big ships) are Cochin, Visakhapattanam& Bombay

130 Air craft industries

131 11. Brahmo Samaj

132 Brahma Samaj Raja Rammohan Roy

133 Life and carrier Born in 1774 in Bengal Laid the foundation of Brahma Samaj in 1828 Advocator of western literature and English language Full faith in ancient scriptures, Vedas and Upanishads Expert of more than a dozen of languages

134 Different photos

135 Contribution to the religious field God is one, omnipotent and omnipresent All men are equal before God and children of same God The way to salvation lies in the worship of God, away from sins and do good deeds Preached equality and fraternity of mankind Against useless rituals, costly yajnas and superstitions Supporter of rational thinking Should respect all religions

136 Against idol worship

137 Condemned all distinctions based on caste, colour and creed

138 In the field of education Supporter of English, western and modern education and western literature and science Started English school at Calcutta in 1817 and college in 1825 Published the translations of Vedas and Upanishads into Bengali Books written by him-Gifts to monotheists and precepts of Jesus Composed a book on the Bengali grammar Made effort to spread Bengali language

139 Social field He helped william Bentick to abolish sati in 1829

140 Sathi practices

141 PRACTICE OF SATHI

142 Sathi in news paper

143 Invitation card

144 Supporter of widow remarriages Worked for the upliftment of women Demanded the right of inheritance to property to the women Condemned the practice of polygamy Against superstitions and useless rituals Introduction of western education and literature to fight against the evils

145 In the political field Against caste system Indianisation of high posts Trial by jury Equality of both Indians and Europeans in the judicial sphere Separation of executive from judiciary Against the oppression of the Zamindars Believer in internationalism and free co-operation between nations Freedom of press

146 1922 built Ashram, file photo

147 Tomb of Rajaram

148 END Death at Bristol in England in 1833

149 ALIGARH MOVEMENT Founder-Sir Syed Ahmed Khan( )

150 Sir Syed Ahmed Khan( )

151 Location at Aligarh

152 Khan-at a glance Supporter of English Education Establishment of Muhammad Anglo –Oriental School in Then Muhammadan Anglo –Oriental College This college later became the center of the Aligarh movement.

153 Aligarh Muslim University present status

154 Another view of Aligarh Muslim University

155 DIFFERENT PHOTOS OF SIR KHAN

156 PHOTOS OF SIR KHAN

157 Publications on Aligarh Movement- contents, publishers, title etc.

158 Arya Samaj and Swami Daya Nand

159 Life sketch Born in 1824 at Maurvi in Kathiawarh Father-Amba Shankar Child hood name-Mul Shankar In 1875 –foundation of Arya Samaj at Bombay Main Sermon- Back to Vedas Book- Satiarth Parkash

160 MAIN DOCTRINES- about God God is one God is formless No idol worship Salvation can be attained only through the help of the God God is merciful, justifiable, universal or omnipresent God is omnipresent

161 ABOUT VEDAS Vedas deal with the doctrine of the religion and transmigration Vedas are true knowledge, education, truth and real; utterances about the GOD Every Aryan should study Vedas Aryan civilization is the most ancient and supreme civilization Everybody should accept the truth or the reality and should reject falsehood The ignorance should be eradicated and knowledge should be propagated Every Aryan should realize his or her development and progress with the development and progress of the others The purpose of the society should be the welfare of the world

162 SOCIAL REORMS Refuted caste system Doctrine of equality of men and women Opposed caste system Education of women Hindi language as the national language Opposed female infanticide Favoured widow-remarriage

163 ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE RELIGIOUS FIELD Opposed caste system and untouchability Rejected false traditions and customs and idol worship Spread of Vedic religion throughout India Social equality Checked the decline of Hindu religion Reconsolidation of Hindu religion

164 Against child marriage Improved the condition of the widows Weakened the caste system Improved the condition of the Harijans Opened Samaj Sewa Kendras to improve the condition of the lower castes Opened many orphanages to provide education and workshops Charity work, distribution of money, medicine, dress etc. ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE SOCIAL FIELD

165 ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE EDUCATIONAL FIELD Opened colleges, schools and Guru Kuls First school at Lahore First Vedic College Popularized Sanskrit language, Hindu literature, Vedas, western literature and Science Large number of high schools, Guru Kuls and colleges

166 SWAMI VIVEKANAND AND RAMAKRISHNA MISSION

167 LIFE SKETCH BIRTH- on 9 February 1863 at Calcutta, childhood name - Narinder Nath Meeting with Swami Rama Krishna Turned an ascetic Contemplation and pilgrimage Journey to foreign countries In England In America

168 Foundation of Rama Krishna Mission In 1896 Main Objectives To propagate the doctrines and views of Swami Rama Krishna Param Hans Appointment of scholars and experienced persons in the monasteries Establishment of peace and harmony in the world To develop spiritualism Spread the doctrine of the Vedas

169 Achievements Service of the people Many hospitals Orphanages Schools Opposed caste system, false rituals and customs Encouraged liberal thinking and equality Feeling of brotherhood Centres of public welfare and service Many branches inside and outside country Spread of Indian civilization and culture in the foreign countries

170 Contributions of Jotiba Phooley, Dr. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi

171 Jotiba Phooley Born in 1827 Father -Gobind Rao Mother- Chemna Bai Real name-Jyoti Rai Wife -Savitry

172 Achievements to the depressed classes Schools for the girls of lower castes Promotion of Marathi language Library for the people of lower classes Murderous attack on Phooley To make public opinion against the exploitation of the depressed classes Propagation of the principles of liberty, equality and fraternity Foundation of Satya Shodhak Samaj in 1873 Objectives and principles of Satya Shodhak Samaj Worked for improving the condition of lower class women Encouragement for the widow remarriages Efforts to improve the conditions of peasants and farmers Awakening among lower classes and untouchables Title of MAHATMA DEATH IN 28 NOVEBBER 1890

173 Dr. Ambedkar Birth-14 April 1891 at Mahau in Indore state Father- Ramji Mala ji Jankpal Mother- Bhima Bai Caste-Mahar Marriage-first marriage in 1905 to Rama Bai. Rama Bai died in 1935 so married to Sharda{Savita} Education- Matriculation in 1908, B.A. from Alfanston College Bombay in 1912,Scholarship in 1913 from Baroda state, M.A. Economics in 1915 from Columbia University, P h.D from same university, M.Sc in Economics and D.Sc from London School of Economics Entered in politics

174 Contribution to the depressed classes As a representative of the depressed classes before South Bureau Committee Disappointment from the Congress Dis- satisfactory recommendations of the South Bureau Committee Conferences at Kohlapur and Nagpur Newspapers and Magazines –THE MOOKNAIK IN 1919, SAMAT IN 1929 Foundation of Bahishkrit Hitkari Sabha Newspapers- Janta and Bahishkrit Bharat Establishment of Samaj Samat Sangh for the equality of the depressed classes Agitations and demonstrations Struggle for the political rights For the welfare of peasants and labourers Foundation of Independence Labour Party and Schedule Castes Federation Member in Governor General Council Preparation of new constitution of India Law member in the Nehru Cabinet

175 Mahatma Gandhi Birth- 2 October 1869 at Porbandar in Gujrat Real name- Mohan Chand Karam Chand Gandhi Father-Karam Chand Gandhi,mother-Putli Bai Marriage with Kashturba at the age of 13 Barrister degree from England

176 Contribution to the depressed classes Non- cooperation movement Removal of untouchability Welfare of the depressed classes Three points programme-use of khadi, unity between Hindus and Muslims, uproot of untouchability Fight for the political rights to the depressed classes Communal Award and Poona Pact Untouchables as Harijans Foundation of Harijan Sewak Sangh Newspapers and Magazines- Harijan in February 1933 Tour in India for the welfare of the depressed classes In Nagpur In South India In Bihar earthquake effected areas In Orrisa In Poona Other parts of India

177 Growth of political consciousness or nationalism

178 Contributions of Jotiba Phooley, Dr. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi

179 Jotiba Phooley Born in 1827 Father -Gobind Rao Mother- Chemna Bai Real name-Jyoti Rai Wife -Savitry

180 Achievements to the depressed classes Schools for the girls of lower castes Promotion of Marathi language Library for the people of lower classes Murderous attack on Phooley To make public opinion against the exploitation of the depressed classes Propagation of the principles of liberty, equality and fraternity Foundation of Satya Shodhak Samaj in 1873 Objectives and principles of Satya Shodhak Samaj Worked for improving the condition of lower class women Encouragement for the widow remarriages Efforts to improve the conditions of peasants and farmers Awakening among lower classes and untouchables Title of MAHATMA DEATH IN 28 NOVEBBER 1890

181 Dr. Ambedkar Birth-14 April 1891 at Mahau in Indore state Father- Ramji Mala ji Jankpal Mother- Bhima Bai Caste-Mahar Marriage-first marriage in 1905 to Rama Bai. Rama Bai died in 1935 so married to Sharda{Savita} Education- Matriculation in 1908, B.A. from Alfanston College Bombay in 1912,Scholarship in 1913 from Baroda state, M.A. Economics in 1915 from Columbia University, P h.D from same university, M.Sc in Economics and D.Sc from London School of Economics Entered in politics

182 Contribution to the depressed classes As a representative of the depressed classes before South Bureau Committee Disappointment from the Congress Dis- satisfactory recommendations of the South Bureau Committee Conferences at Kohlapur and Nagpur Newspapers and Magazines –THE MOOKNAIK IN 1919, SAMAT IN 1929 Foundation of Bahishkrit Hitkari Sabha Newspapers- Janta and Bahishkrit Bharat Establishment of Samaj Samat Sangh for the equality of the depressed classes Agitations and demonstrations Struggle for the political rights For the welfare of peasants and labourers Foundation of Independence Labour Party and Schedule Castes Federation Member in Governor General Council Preparation of new constitution of India Law member in the Nehru Cabinet

183 Mahatma Gandhi Birth- 2 October 1869 at Porbandar in Gujrat Real name- Mohan Chand Karam Chand Gandhi Father-Karam Chand Gandhi,mother-Putli Bai Marriage with Kashturba at the age of 13 Barrister degree from England

184 Contribution to the depressed classes Non- cooperation movement Removal of untouchability Welfare of the depressed classes Three points programme-use of khadi, unity between Hindus and Muslims, uproot of untouchability Fight for the political rights to the depressed classes Communal Award and Poona Pact Untouchables as Harijans Foundation of Harijan Sewak Sangh Newspapers and Magazines- Harijan in February 1933 Tour in India for the welfare of the depressed classes In Nagpur In South India In Bihar earthquake effected areas In Orrisa In Poona Other parts of India

185 Contributions of Jotiba Phooley, Dr. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi

186 Jotiba Phooley Born in 1827 Father -Gobind Rao Mother- Chemna Bai Real name-Jyoti Rai Wife -Savitry

187 Achievements to the depressed classes Schools for the girls of lower castes Promotion of Marathi language Library for the people of lower classes Murderous attack on Phooley To make public opinion against the exploitation of the depressed classes Propagation of the principles of liberty, equality and fraternity Foundation of Satya Shodhak Samaj in 1873 Objectives and principles of Satya Shodhak Samaj Worked for improving the condition of lower class women Encouragement for the widow remarriages Efforts to improve the conditions of peasants and farmers Awakening among lower classes and untouchables Title of MAHATMA DEATH IN 28 NOVEBBER 1890

188 Dr. Ambedkar Birth-14 April 1891 at Mahau in Indore state Father- Ramji Mala ji Jankpal Mother- Bhima Bai Caste-Mahar Marriage-first marriage in 1905 to Rama Bai. Rama Bai died in 1935 so married to Sharda{Savita} Education- Matriculation in 1908, B.A. from Alfanston College Bombay in 1912,Scholarship in 1913 from Baroda state, M.A. Economics in 1915 from Columbia University, P h.D from same university, M.Sc in Economics and D.Sc from London School of Economics Entered in politics

189 Contribution to the depressed classes As a representative of the depressed classes before South Bureau Committee Disappointment from the Congress Dis- satisfactory recommendations of the South Bureau Committee Conferences at Kohlapur and Nagpur Newspapers and Magazines –THE MOOKNAIK IN 1919, SAMAT IN 1929 Foundation of Bahishkrit Hitkari Sabha Newspapers- Janta and Bahishkrit Bharat Establishment of Samaj Samat Sangh for the equality of the depressed classes Agitations and demonstrations Struggle for the political rights For the welfare of peasants and labourers Foundation of Independence Labour Party and Schedule Castes Federation Member in Governor General Council Preparation of new constitution of India Law member in the Nehru Cabinet

190 Mahatma Gandhi Birth- 2 October 1869 at Porbandar in Gujrat Real name- Mohan Chand Karam Chand Gandhi Father-Karam Chand Gandhi,mother-Putli Bai Marriage with Kashturba at the age of 13 Barrister degree from England

191 Contribution to the depressed classes Non- cooperation movement Removal of untouchability Welfare of the depressed classes Three points programme-use of khadi, unity between Hindus and Muslims, uproot of untouchability Fight for the political rights to the depressed classes Communal Award and Poona Pact Untouchables as Harijans Foundation of Harijan Sewak Sangh Newspapers and Magazines- Harijan in February 1933 Tour in India for the welfare of the depressed classes In Nagpur In South India In Bihar earthquake effected areas In Orrisa In Poona Other parts of India

192 causes Religious and social reform movements Role of Raja Ram Mohan Ray, Swami Dayanand, Swami Vivekanand etc. Supporters of widow remarriages Worked for the upliftment of women Demanded the right of inheritance to property to the women Condemned the practice of polygamy Against superstitions and useless rituals Introduction of western education and literature to fight against the evils

193 Influence of western education Role of Raja Ram Mohan Ray-Supporter of English, western and modern education and western literature and science Started English school at Calcutta in 1817 and college in 1825 Published the translations of Vedas and Upanishads into Bengali Books written by him-Gifts to monotheists and precepts of Jesus Composed a book on the Bengali grammar Made effort to spread Bengali language

194 Role of Indian press and literature Newspapers- Indian Mirror, Bombay Samachar, Amrith Bazzar Patrika, Keasri. Bengali,Indu Parkash,Hindu Subodh Samachar, Hindu Patriot, Marathi Subhodika Patrika, Tribune etc. provoked and inspired the feelings of patriotism among the people of India.

195 Literary works PUBLICATIONS

196 Role of writers Din Bandhu Mitran, Hemu Chander Banerjee, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee and Rabindra Nath Tagore Anand Math-bible of modern Bengali Patriotism Translated works

197 Improvement in the means of communication Railways

198 Role of the Railways

199 Dalhousie is regarded as the father of electric telegraph in India. Nearly 4,000 miles of electric telegraph lines were constructed connecting Calcutta with Peshawar, Bombay, Madras and other parts of the country. In Burma a line was laid down from Rangoon to Mandalay.

200 Revolt of 1857 The telegraph department proved of great assistance during the revolt of 1857 to Britishers.

201 REVOLT OF 1857

202 Impact of the revolt During the revolt of 1857, which is described as the first attempt at resisting the British, Hindus and Muslims fought side by side united in their purpose of defeating a common enemy.

203 Other causes Denial of higher posts to the educated Indians Misbehaviour with the Indians

204 Impact of British policy of exploitation Economic causes

205 Horrible famines

206 Impartial attitudes Dismissal of Surender Nath Banerjee from Service Decrease in the age for taking part in the competitive exam. for Civil Services The repressive policy of Lord Lytton Ilbert Bill

207 Political causes Impact of political unity Role of different institutions established up to 1854 The need for All India Institution and Adiyar Conference The establishment of Indian National union Origin of Indian National Congress

208 SOME IMPORTANT MOMENTS RELATED TO CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE AND NON CO-OPERATION MOVEMENTS

209 Non-cooperation movement This movement was a peaceful method of creating change. Mahatma Gandhi had shown in South Africa and in 1918 in Champaran, Bihar and Kheda, Gujarat that the only way to earn the respect and attention of British officials was to actively resist government activities through civil disobedience.

210 Satyagraha Gandhi's call was for a nationwide protest against the Rowlatt Acts. All offices and factories would be closed. Indians would be encouraged to withdraw from Raj- sponsored schools, police services, the military and the civil services, and lawyers were asked to leave the Raj's courts. Public transportation and English- manufactured goods, especially clothing, would be boycotted

211 Success and suspension The success of the revolt was a total shock to British authorities and a massive encouragement to millions of Indians. Then on February 4, 1922, in the Chauri Chaura, after violent clashes between the local police and the protestors in which three protestors were killed by police firing, the police chowki (pron.-chau key) (station) was set on fire by the mob, killing 22 of the police occupants.

212 Aftermath The Non-Co-operation Movement was withdrawn because of the Chauri-Chaura incident. Although he had stopped the national revolt single-handedly, on March 10, 1922, Gandhi was arrested. On March 18, 1922, he was imprisoned for two years for publishing seditious materials. Although most Congress leaders remained firmly behind Gandhi, the disillusioned broke away. The Ali brothers would soon become fierce critics. Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das formed the Swaraj Party, rejecting Gandhi's leadership. Many nationalists had felt that the Non-Cooperation Movement should not have been stopped due to isolated incidents of violence, and most nationalists, while retaining confidence in Gandhi, were discouraged.

213 Civil Disobedience Movement

214 Civil Disobedience Movement launched in 1930 under MK Gandhi's leadership was one of the most important phases of India's freedom struggle. Muslims reserved their opinion on the Simon Report declaring that the report was not final and the matters should decided after consultations with the leaders representing all communities in India.

215 The Satyagraha was a campaign of nonviolent protest against the British salt tax in colonial India which began with the Salt March to Dandi on March 12, It was the first act of organized opposition to British rule after Purna Swaraj the declaration of independence by the Indian National Congress. Mahatma Gandhi led the Dandi march from his Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi

216 Gandhi was arrested on May 5, 1930, just days before his planned raid on the Dharasana Salt Works. The satyagraha against the salt tax continued for almost a year, ending with Gandhi's release from jail and negotiations with Viceroy Lord Irwin at the Second Round Table Conference

217 The Salt Satyagraha campaign was based upon Gandhi's principles of nonviolent protest called satyagraha, which he loosely translated as "truth-force. The satyagraha teachings of Gandhi and the March to Dandi had a significant influence on American civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr., and his fight for civil rights for blacks and other minority groups in the 1960s.

218 There were outbreaks of violence in Calcutta, Karachi, and Gujarat. Unlike his suspension of satyagraha after violence broke out during the Non-cooperation movement, this time Gandhi was "unmoved". Salt Satyagraha produced scant progress toward dominion status or independence for India, and did not win any major concessions from the British. It also failed to attract Muslim support—many Muslims actively boycotted the satyagraha. The Satyagraha campaign of the 1930s also forced the British to recognize that their control of India depended entirely on the consent of the Indians — Salt Satyagraha was a significant step in the British losing that consent.

219 Causes of the Growth Communalism in India What is Communalism?

220 NEHRU AND COMMUNALISM Communalism does not end the other, each feeds on the other and both fatten. Jawahar Lal Nehru

221 Definition Communalism is a modern term that describes a broad range social movements and social theories which are in some way centered upon the community.

222 Communalism in Indian Context… In the Indian subcontinent, the term "communalism" has taken on a very different meaning, namely that of a religion and, more specifically, ethnicity-based sectarianism promoting communal violence, espoused by many political and socio-religious movements.

223 Growth of Communalism during the revolt of 1857 During the revolt of 1857, which is described as the first attempt at resisting the British, Hindus and Muslims fought side by Side, united in their purpose of defeating a common enemy.

224 The main causes of growth of communalism End of Muslim soverignity Wahabi movement Deplorable economic condition of the Muslims

225 The British noticed this unity and realized that their survival rested on being able to keep the people divided, for they had managed to establish their rule because politically India had been a divided country at the time of their entry. The British thus followed their famous 'Divide and Rule' policy.. Policy of DIVIDE AND RULE

226 ROLE OF SIR SAYID AHAMMED KHAN Till about 1870 the British oppressed the Muslims greatly for they held them responsible for the revolt. Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan, an earlier nationalist drifted towards Communalism.

227 Communalism was also fostered through the writing of the Indian History. e.g. the division of Indian History into Hindu period and Muslim period as ancient and medieval India. Misinterpretation of History

228 Socio-religious movements Socio-religious reform movements like Arya Samaj, Brahmo-Samaj, Sanatan Dharam movements, Aligarh movement, Wahabi movement and some other fringe movements contributed towards communalism.

229 Role of communal heroes Propagation of Communal Heroes to glorify the past communal traditions and struggles e.g. Prithvi Raj Chauhan, Maharana Pratap, Shivaji, Guru Gobind Singh among Hindus and Mahmud Ghaznavi, Mohammed Ghori, Akbar, Aurangazeb etc among the Muslims.

230 Other causes Contribution of MR. Buck Muslim associations Separate educational institutions of various communities Partition of Bengal Establishment of I.N.C.

231 The foundation of Muslim League on 30 Dec. 1906, institutionalized the Muslim communalism. Iqbal at Allahabad session of Muslim League in 1930 gave two nation concept. FOUNDATION OF MUSLIM LEAGUE

232 The term Pakistan was coined by a young under graduate student Rehmat Ali of Cambridge University in 1933.

233 Hindu nationalists like Savarkar, M.M. Malviya and S.P. Mukherjee along with the Sikh leaders Master Tara Singh took opposite position vis a vis, Muslims. ROLE OF OTHER COMMUNITIES

234 Quit India Movement and British Proposal for Independence

235 causes Trials of the officers of the I.N.A. Revolt of the naval soldiers at Meerut Second World War and the ministries Of I.N.C

236 Various causes Failure of Cripps Mission Advance of Japan Maltreatment with the Indian refugees who came from Burma Rice in the prices of the goods Oppression by the government in Bengal Views of Mahatma Gandhi

237 Stages of the movement Quit India Resolution on August 8, 1942 Mahatma Gandhi raised the slogan of ‘Do or Die.’ Twelve deeds were described. Appeal the people to hold meetings and conferences, processions, to observe strikes, to disobey the salt laws and other laws, not to pay taxes to the British government, to non co-operate the British government etc.

238 Progress In the first stage held meetings, conferences, processions, observed strikes, disobeyed the salt laws and other laws, did not pay taxes to the British government, did not co-operate with the British government etc. were the strategies.

239 Second stage Due to the oppression of the British govt. the people started violent actions. They destroyed telegraph offices, rail ways, police stations etc.

240 Third stage Police started violent actions by firing the people with machine guns. They became revolutionaries. They started to make and use bombs

241 Fourth stage Suppression by the British End of the movement Release of Gandhiji from the prison.

242 significance A mass movement Political awakening Hatred against the British rule India The British govt. was obliged to think British govt. and Muslim came very close to each other Influence of the Army

243 Causes of the failure Lack of organization Lack of plans Loyalty of the Indian govt. employees to the British govt. Policy of oppression by the British Violent proceedings and actions High power of British in India Non co-operation of the political parties.

244 Different PHASES of Independence The Communal Award of 1932 announced by the British Government further widened the gulf between the Hindus and the Muslims. By this time Jinnah emerged as the most prominent face of the Muslim League.

245 By the 1940's the move towards partition had gathered tremendous momentum and although secular nationalists tried right till the end to keep the country united, but sadly the country could not stay united, and its people were divided into two separate nations.

246 The August Offer (1940), The Cripps Mission (1942), The Wavell Plan (1945) and the Cabinet Mission (1946) were the British steps towards the partition and Independence of India.

247 In both the Punjab and Bengal, the Boundary Commission consisted of two Muslim and two non-Muslim judges with Sir Cyril Radcliffe as a common chairman. The boundary line between India and Pakistan was thus named as Radcliff line

248 Radcliff line

249 The shrewdness of Jinnah and his adroit handling of the political situation combining with the inept handling by the Congress and uncompromising doctrine of the Hindu ascendancy propagated by Savarkar, along with calculated passiveness of the British resulted in a worst tragedy that could ever befall on a nation and its people.

250 Final stage The Direct Action (16 august 1946) of the Muslim League and the ensuing communal riots were the climax of communal apathy. Attlee’s declaration (20 February 1947) and the Mountbatten Plan (3 June 1947) were the last moves towards freedom and division.

251 Making of the constitution

252 Mahatma Gandhi raised the demand voice regarding the new constitution of India INC demanded the election of the Constituent Assembly in Muslim League demanded the formation of separate Constituent Assembly.

253 Role of the British In August 1940 British govt. accepted the demand of the people. On August Lord Linlithgo, the viceroy of India declared proclamation that a Constituent Assembly would be accepted

254 Stages Cripps proposal regarding a Constituent Assembly Cabinet mission and Constituent Assembly Freedom to leave commonwealth Elections for the Constituent Assembly in 1946

255 Position of different parties in the Assembly Indian National Congress and his supporting parties-212 seats Muslim League-73 Sikhs- 4 Other independent -7 Total-296

256 Muslim League and Assembly Mr. Attlee called a conference at London on 26 November 1946 which continued 3 December. Representative of INC was Nehru, Sikhs was Sardar Baldev Singh and Muslim League was Jinnah and Liakat Ali. Muslim League did not take part in the Constituent Assembly and demanded separate nation. The efforts of Nehru and Gandhiji became failure

257 First meeting On December the first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held. Jinnah demanded to postpone the meeting and if not postponed he warned that riots would take place 209 participated in the meeting It did not postpone In this meeting Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the permanent president of Constituent Assembly Constituent Assembly.

258 Drawbacks of the Assembly Limited sphere It was formed according to the will of the British Govt. British Govt. could abolish the Assembly whenever it liked Assembly had no rights to constitute separate constitutions for the provinces It had no right to treat other subjects unlike the deptt. of defence, communications and foreign affairs Approval British Parliament was very compulsory It had no judicial authenticity

259 Final stages Objective resolution was introduced on 14 December 1946 Representative character of the Assembly Appointment of different Committees The main committees: Union constitution committee, Union powers committee, Committee of rules, Provincial constitution committee, committee on financial relations between union and states. Advisory committee

260 Different phases of the final stage Entry of the Indian states Adoption of national flag on 22 July 1947 Partition of India and the position of the Constituent Assembly after independence Appointment of the drafting Committee with DR.AMBEDKAR as the chairman Report of the drafting committee and discussion Final session of the constituent assembly-24 February Adoption of the constitution on 26 January 1950

261 Integration of princely states Sardar Patel

262 stages In 1947 there were 562 princely states in India Role of Patel Process of integration Organization of states

263 Integration of Hyderabad India govt. did not like the policy of the oppression of the Nizam of Hyderabad He stared military preparations Tried to annex Goa Indian police under the leadership of General Chowdhary reached Hyderabad on 13 September 1948 The Nizam surrendered Hyderabad was integrated on 17 September 1948

264 Integration of Junagarh Incapable Nawab of Junagarh He was the puppet of his chief minister, Shah Nawas Khan. Junagarh decided to integrate itself to Pakistan Jinnah assured military assistance to it. Due to the action India Govt. Nawab was forced to take shelter at Karachi. In 1948 the public opinion was held in which the people of Junagarh expressed their desire to integrate it to the union of India.

265 Kashmir problem Muslims were majority in number in Kashmir The king of Kashmir wanted to remain as an independent ruler Pakistan wanted to usurp Kashmir. Pakistan sent tribals to attack Kashmir. Kashmir requested the help of India and also requested to integrate Kashmir to the union of India. Indian Army was sent to Kashmir which made the tribals to flee away. The problem reached the UNO

266 The Organization of states The three member committee of 1953 Bill in the Parliament Re- organization of state Bill in 1956

267 Kinds of states in India Class A-Those provinces which were under the Governor during the British period Class B-Patiala and East Punjab State Union, Madhaya Pradesh and Mysore etc. Class C- Those states which were under the commissioners Class D- Andaman and Nicobar Islands state

268 Final stage Demand for re-organization Formation of new sates Some other states

269 Industrial and agrarian development after independence

270 Different industries Cotton textile Wollen textiles Silk Industry Artificial Silk Development in the jute Industry

271 Paper Industry Sugar Industry Iron and steel Industries Cement Industry Engineering and Machine industry Chemicals and fertilizer industry

272 Paper Industry Sugar Industry Iron and steel Industries Cement Industry Locomotive and Coach industry Aircraft industry

273 Development in agriculture Wide use land under cultivation Emphasis on the utilization of chemical fertilizers Increase in the irrigational facilities Good qualities of seeds Loan facilities The plant conservation

274 Farmers festivals, exhibitions and propagation Crops growing competitions Improved the sale of agricultural products Reforms regarding land Agricultural universities

275 Development of agricultural tools and implements Cattle breeding Special assistance to the farmers Development of agriculture in the five years


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