Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14: Section 3. “The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a long fuse. The explosion came in 1917 yet the fuse had been burning for."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 14: Section 3
“The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a long fuse. The explosion came in 1917 yet the fuse had been burning for a long time.” Czars were oppressive for centuries Reform-minded Czar, Alex II, was assassinated because reforms were too slow. His son, Alex II, then halted all reforms and became even more autocratic
Anyone who questioned the Czar’s rule or worshipped outside the Russian orthodox Church was labeled dangerous. Secret spies everywhere Strict censorship on published materials Oppressed minorities & enforced Russification Jews were subject to pogroms Nicholas II continued autocratic rule and was blinded to the very real problems in Russia
Between 1863 & 1900 factories doubled Russia sought foreign investment and raised taxes to bankroll industrialization Prime target of industrialization was STEEL By 1900 Russia was fourth in terms of industrialization within the West Behind US, Germany & Gt Britain
Rapid industrialization created the same problems associated with early indust in W. Europe Unions outlawed but workers went on strike. Revolutionary groups grew and competed for power Marxists – believed that industrial class of workers ( proletariet ) would overthrow the czar. They would then form a dictatorship of the proletariet - - workers would rule the country
In 1903 Russian Marxists split into 2 groups: Moderate Mensheviks Wanted broad base of support Radical Bolsheviks Wanted small number of committed revolutionaries Leader was Lenin Forced to flee Russia Ruthless
Series of foreign & domestic events between 1904 & 1917 will develop which will: (1) Reveal Czar’s weaknesses (2) Provide opportunities for revolutionary action
Russia & Japan competed for power over Korea & resource-rich Manchuria. Had agreements which Russia violated Japan crushed Russia militarily Sparked unrest
Workers petitioned for greater freedom, better working conditions and a national legislature Generals open fire Provoked strikes & violence Czar reluctantly agrees to Duma Moderates wanted constitutional gov Czar dissolves 10 weeks later
Russia first mobilized to show support for Serbs Russia unprepared to take on the Germans Weak generals and poorly equipped 4 million killed, wounded the first year Nicholas II moves headquarters to war front to rally troops His wife ran the gov in his absence Influenced by Rasputin
Self-described holy man who claimed to have healing powers Seems to be the only one who could help hemophilia of their son, Alexis He opposed reforms and appointed his friends to high positions Czarina ignored the usual advisors who eventually murdered Rasputin
Strikes and riots broke out in March 1917 “ Down with the autocracy. Down with the war ” Soldiers eventually sided with the people Czar abdicated Provisional gov established headed by Alexander Kerensky Decision to stay in the war will cost him support Soviets are formed to overthrow the gov
Bolsheviks were led by Lenin Took over the provisional gov Within days Lenin distributed land among peasants Gave control of factories to the workers Signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany Many in Russia resented humiliating terms of treaty
Whites against Reds Whites consisted of numerous groups. Liberals Socialists Czarists Bolsheviks (Reds) were better organized & committed communists
Opposition to the Reds The Whites barely cooperated with one another There were 3 White Armies at one time Leon Trotsky commanded the Red Army Western nations such as the US provided military aid to the Whites.
War & rev destroyed the economy Lenin temporarily delayed implementing the command economy in favor of New Economic Policy which was small-scale version of capitalism. Peasants allowed to sell surplus Some factories were privately owned Major factories were state-controlled though Thanks to NEP econ recovered by 1928 so that it was producing as much as before the war.
Lenin feared nationalism so divided Russia up into a self-governing Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Bolsheviks called themselves the Communist Party Lenin will die in 1924
By 1928 Stalin was in control of the country His main rival, Leon Trotsky, was exiled and eventually murdered.
Control of private & public life Ideology citizens are expected to embrace Mass communication Surveillance tech makes it possible to keep track Violence and police terror discourage those from open dissent
Terror and violence are used to force obedience & crush opposition Normally police are expected to respond to criminal activity and protect the citizens In total state police exist to enforce the gov policies. How? Spying Force Even murder
All media controlled by the gov Artists, writers, musicians were subjected to censorship.
Began building total state by destroying his enemies (real or imagined) GREAT PURGE (1934-1937 Campaign of terror directed at eliminating anyone who threatened Stalin’s power This included 1000s of old Bolsheviks who helped stage the revolution Forced to stand trial, they were sent to labor camps for “crimes against the Soviet state”. He eliminated his ideological competition 8-13 m killed during the Great Purge
Instruction in the gov’s beliefs – mold minds Control of education to glorify the leader and policies Propaganda Control of Mass media Enemies of the state created to blame for things that go wrong. Groups are often ethnic or relig groups, easy to identify
Gov controlled all media Artists and composers were censored. Their works had to conform to state views. Media was used to glorify the achievements of communism and Stalin
From 1930s to his death in 1953 Stalin tried to boost morale and faith in the communist system by portraying himself as a godlike figure. Cult of personality worked to increase his absolute power.
Communists sought to replace religious teachings with Communist ideals. The League of the Militant Godless, an atheist group, spread propaganda attacking religion Museums of atheism Russ Orthodox Church was main target of persecution Police destroyed many spectacular churches and synagogues
Command economy is a system in which the gov makes all economic decisions. Political leaders identify the country’s econ needs and determine how to fulfill them Five-Year Plans set impossible goals and quotas 5YPs focussed on heavy industry such as steel, coal, oil and electricity. To reach these goals gov limited production of consumer goods – as result there were shortages.
Peasants no longer able to possess their own land 25m farms seized & 1000s combined All equipment had to be given up Eliminated power of wealthy kulaks Was seen as more efficient
Resistance Concealed food Destroyed livestock & crops Famine Millions dead Kulak class destroyed
“Art must serve politics” Quote is from Lenin although he did not interfere in artistic freedom Not true of Stalin who forced writers to conform to what is now called Soviet realism. Goal was show USSR in positive light & promote optimistic Soviet future Popular themes included peasants, workers, Stalin
He adapted Marxist ideas to Russian conditions