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Chapter 14: Section 3.  “The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a long fuse. The explosion came in 1917 yet the fuse had been burning for.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14: Section 3.  “The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a long fuse. The explosion came in 1917 yet the fuse had been burning for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14: Section 3

2  “The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a long fuse. The explosion came in 1917 yet the fuse had been burning for a long time.”  Czars were oppressive for centuries  Reform-minded Czar, Alex II, was assassinated because reforms were too slow.  His son, Alex II, then halted all reforms and became even more autocratic

3 Anyone who questioned the Czar’s rule or worshipped outside the Russian orthodox Church was labeled dangerous. Secret spies everywhere Strict censorship on published materials Oppressed minorities & enforced Russification Jews were subject to pogroms Nicholas II continued autocratic rule and was blinded to the very real problems in Russia

4  Between 1863 & 1900 factories doubled  Russia sought foreign investment and raised taxes to bankroll industrialization  Prime target of industrialization was STEEL  By 1900 Russia was fourth in terms of industrialization within the West  Behind US, Germany & Gt Britain

5  Rapid industrialization created the same problems associated with early indust in W. Europe  Unions outlawed but workers went on strike.  Revolutionary groups grew and competed for power  Marxists – believed that industrial class of workers ( proletariet ) would overthrow the czar.  They would then form a dictatorship of the proletariet - - workers would rule the country

6  In 1903 Russian Marxists split into 2 groups:  Moderate Mensheviks  Wanted broad base of support  Radical Bolsheviks  Wanted small number of committed revolutionaries  Leader was Lenin  Forced to flee Russia  Ruthless

7  Series of foreign & domestic events between 1904 & 1917 will develop which will:  (1) Reveal Czar’s weaknesses  (2) Provide opportunities for revolutionary action

8  Russia & Japan competed for power over Korea & resource-rich Manchuria.  Had agreements which Russia violated  Japan crushed Russia militarily  Sparked unrest

9  Workers petitioned for greater freedom, better working conditions and a national legislature  Generals open fire  Provoked strikes & violence  Czar reluctantly agrees to Duma  Moderates wanted constitutional gov  Czar dissolves 10 weeks later

10  Russia first mobilized to show support for Serbs  Russia unprepared to take on the Germans  Weak generals and poorly equipped  4 million killed, wounded the first year  Nicholas II moves headquarters to war front to rally troops  His wife ran the gov in his absence  Influenced by Rasputin



13  Self-described holy man who claimed to have healing powers  Seems to be the only one who could help hemophilia of their son, Alexis  He opposed reforms and appointed his friends to high positions  Czarina ignored the usual advisors who eventually murdered Rasputin

14  Strikes and riots broke out in March 1917  “ Down with the autocracy. Down with the war ”  Soldiers eventually sided with the people  Czar abdicated  Provisional gov established headed by Alexander Kerensky  Decision to stay in the war will cost him support  Soviets are formed to overthrow the gov


16  Bolsheviks were led by Lenin  Took over the provisional gov  Within days Lenin distributed land among peasants  Gave control of factories to the workers  Signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany  Many in Russia resented humiliating terms of treaty


18  Whites against Reds  Whites consisted of numerous groups.  Liberals  Socialists  Czarists  Bolsheviks (Reds) were better organized & committed communists

19  Opposition to the Reds  The Whites barely cooperated with one another  There were 3 White Armies at one time  Leon Trotsky commanded the Red Army  Western nations such as the US provided military aid to the Whites.

20  War & rev destroyed the economy  Lenin temporarily delayed implementing the command economy in favor of New Economic Policy which was small-scale version of capitalism.  Peasants allowed to sell surplus  Some factories were privately owned  Major factories were state-controlled though  Thanks to NEP econ recovered by 1928 so that it was producing as much as before the war.

21  Lenin feared nationalism so divided Russia up into a self-governing Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.  Bolsheviks called themselves the Communist Party  Lenin will die in 1924



24  By 1928 Stalin was in control of the country  His main rival, Leon Trotsky, was exiled and eventually murdered.

25  Control of private & public life  Ideology citizens are expected to embrace  Mass communication  Surveillance tech makes it possible to keep track  Violence and police terror discourage those from open dissent

26  Terror and violence are used to force obedience & crush opposition  Normally police are expected to respond to criminal activity and protect the citizens  In total state police exist to enforce the gov policies.  How?  Spying  Force  Even murder

27  All media controlled by the gov  Artists, writers, musicians were subjected to censorship.

28  Began building total state by destroying his enemies (real or imagined)  GREAT PURGE (1934-1937  Campaign of terror directed at eliminating anyone who threatened Stalin’s power  This included 1000s of old Bolsheviks who helped stage the revolution  Forced to stand trial, they were sent to labor camps for “crimes against the Soviet state”.  He eliminated his ideological competition  8-13 m killed during the Great Purge

29  Instruction in the gov’s beliefs – mold minds  Control of education to glorify the leader and policies  Propaganda  Control of Mass media  Enemies of the state created to blame for things that go wrong.  Groups are often ethnic or relig groups, easy to identify

30  Gov controlled all media  Artists and composers were censored.  Their works had to conform to state views.  Media was used to glorify the achievements of communism and Stalin

31  From 1930s to his death in 1953 Stalin tried to boost morale and faith in the communist system by portraying himself as a godlike figure.  Cult of personality worked to increase his absolute power.

32  Communists sought to replace religious teachings with Communist ideals.  The League of the Militant Godless, an atheist group, spread propaganda attacking religion  Museums of atheism  Russ Orthodox Church was main target of persecution  Police destroyed many spectacular churches and synagogues

33  Command economy is a system in which the gov makes all economic decisions.  Political leaders identify the country’s econ needs and determine how to fulfill them  Five-Year Plans set impossible goals and quotas  5YPs focussed on heavy industry such as steel, coal, oil and electricity.  To reach these goals gov limited production of consumer goods – as result there were shortages.

34 Peasants no longer able to possess their own land 25m farms seized & 1000s combined All equipment had to be given up Eliminated power of wealthy kulaks Was seen as more efficient


36  Resistance  Concealed food  Destroyed livestock & crops  Famine  Millions dead  Kulak class destroyed


38  “Art must serve politics” Quote is from Lenin although he did not interfere in artistic freedom  Not true of Stalin who forced writers to conform to what is now called Soviet realism.  Goal was show USSR in positive light & promote optimistic Soviet future  Popular themes included peasants, workers, Stalin







45  He adapted Marxist ideas to Russian conditions 

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