# 5/1/20151 Digging the Fifth Grave For Naturalism – Redshift Interpretation Christopher Chui, PhD Acknowledgment: I am indebted to numerous sources in the.

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5/1/20151 Digging the Fifth Grave For Naturalism – Redshift Interpretation Christopher Chui, PhD Acknowledgment: I am indebted to numerous sources in the Internet, NASA photos, and several books, especially John Hartnett’s book “Starlight, Time and the New Physics,” and many research papers of Robert Gentry. http://ChristCenterGospel.org ckchui1@yahoo.com

5/1/20152 God Created the Universe “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” John 1:1 “In the beginning, God created the Heavens and the Earth.” Gen 1:1.

5/1/20153 Doppler Effect

5/1/20154 Redshift of Starlight

5/1/20155 Redshift or Blueshift

Strange Speeds at the Edge of the Universe Hubble’s Law: v=Hr H=v/rH=71 km/s/Mpc Radius=13.75 bly=13750000000 ly (for non-expanding cosmos) 1 pc = 3.261568 ly 1 Mpc = 3261568 ly = 3261568 13.75 x 10^9 /3261568 = 4215.76471 x 4215.764 = 299319.2The speed of light = 300000 km/sec % speed of light = 0.997731 x 100% = 99.77%! Impossible! Therefore, all redshifts must be corrected to be less than 0.3.

Special Relativity for Mass Increase %speed of light v1-v^2sqrt(1-v^2)1/sqrt(1-v^2)% increase 100.10.990.9949874371.0050378150.503781526 200.20.960.9797958971.0206207262.062072616 300.30.910.9539392011.0482848374.828483672 400.40.840.9165151391.0910894519.108945118 500.50.750.8660254041.15470053815.47005384 600.60.640.81.2525 700.70.510.7141428431.40028008440.0280084 800.80.360.61.66666666766.66666667 900.90.190.4358898942.294157339129.4157339 For galaxies, redshifts of over 30% of the speed of light are impossible! The same is true for QSOs.

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9 Redshift and distance

Response to Scientific American (July 2010) 1.The curvature of space is not detectable except gravitation around massive stars. 2.Doppler redshifts apply to closeby galaxies only. 3.About 30% of galaxies have redshifts of over 0.3 4.About 80% of QSOs have redshifts of over 0.5 5.Excessive redshifts are not Doppler. 6.Excessive redshifts are gravitational in nature. 7.Gravitational redshifts are Einstein redshifts. 8.The edges of the universe are not expanding. 9.Expansion of the universe requires continuous creation of matter. 10. Continuous creation of matter has not been observed.

Evidence from Atomic Clocks-1 Einstein predicted that gravity should cause a perfect clock to go “more slowly if set up in the neighborhood of ponderable masses. From this it follows that the spectral lines of light reaching us from the surface of large stars must appear displaced towards the red end of the spectrum.” In 1954, Brault’s redshift measurements of the sodium D line coming from the sun’s spectrum did succeed to confirm the magnitude of the gravitational redshift that Einstein had predicted.

Evidence from Atomic Clocks-2 Atomic clock experiments have repeatedly shown that a clock on a mountain top does run faster than its sea level counterpart by a fractional amount. The Einstein redshift is due to local gravity operating to affect relative emission frequencies as seen by an observer in a different gravitational potential. This fact is confirmed many thousands of times every hour in the continuing operation of GPS atomic clocks. Synchronization of those clocks makes use of the Einstein’s static-spacetime paradigm with its predicted effect of gravity on emission frequency to calculate how much faster satellite clocks will be expected to operate once they are in orbit. Therefore, before launch, satellite clocks are preset to run 38,400 ns/d slower than the ground master-clock to compensate for their faster rate in orbit.

Gravity’s Effect on Emission Frequencies Another confirmation of gravity’s effect on emission frequencies comes from Taylor’s comparison of atomic clocks time with pulsar timing data. To synchronize both data sets he found it necessary to account for the change of local atomic clock time due to the monthly variation in the sun’s gravitational potential at the Earth. Taylor wrote, “Here is direct proof, based on a clock some 15,000 light years from the solar system, that clocks on Earth run more slowly when the moon is full—because at this time of the month we are deeper in the gravitational potential of the sun!”

5/1/201514 Einstein’s Gravitational Redshift Therefore, Einstein’s 1916 predictions about both the origin and the magnitude of the gravitational redshift have been confirmed by a variety of general relativistic experiments, so as to obtain the following conclusions: (1) there is only one gravitational redshift between two points at different potentials, and (2) this redshift does not originate with photons exchanging energy with gravity during transit through a potential gradient, but instead, “An atom absorbs or emits light of a frequency which is dependent on the potential of the gravitational field in which it is situated.”

5/1/201515 Einstein’s Gravitational Redshift

Gentry: A New Redshift Interpretation-1 一种新的红移解释 -1 Digging Graves for Naturalism – Christopher Chui, PhD On June 20, 1998, Dr. Gentry published a paper on “A New Redshift Interpretation” in the Modern Physics Letters. The abstract states that “A nonhomogeneous universe with vacuum energy, but without spacetime expansion, is utilized together with gravitational and Doppler redshifts as the basis for proposing a new interpretation of the Hubble relation and the 2.7K Cosmic Background Radiation.”

5/1/201517 Gentry: A New Redshift Interpretation-2 Stephen Weinberg in his book, The First Three Minutes, recognized that the Cosmological Principle as the “one great uncertainty that hangs like a dark cloud over the standard model.” In 1929, Hubble discovered that galactic redshifts increase in proportion to their distance. Actually, Einstein’s static-spacetime general relativity could account for increasing galactic redshift in a real, finite-density universe. Hubble’s results implied omnidirectional galactic recession, which in turn implied the existence of a universal center near the Galaxy. Even though the Hubble relation is powerful evidence for large-scale isotropy about the Galaxy, we cannot confirm universal homogeneity because we lack the knowledge whether the Hubble relation would hold if redshift measurements were made from points of observation on other galaxies.

5/1/201518 Gentry: A New Redshift Interpretation-3 Without expanding spacetime there can be no Cosmological Principle, and without this Principle the Hubble relation implies the existence of a center in the Galaxy. Now, the Hubble redshifts are interpreted as relativistic Doppler and Einstein gravitational redshifts, all within the framework of a finite, nonhomogeneous, vacuum-gravity universe with cosmic center near the Galaxy.

5/1/201519 Gentry: A New Redshift Interpretation-4 Thus, the volume of space enclosed by this luminous shell to have a nearly uniform temperature of about 5400K would completely fill with blackbody cavity radiation. It can be shown that galaxies could be gravitational shifted by a factor of 2000 so as to appear as 2.7K blackbody cavity radiation here at the Galaxy. This will explain some quasars with redshifts of > 4. Hubble Deep Field shows distant galaxies’ angular diameters diminish as the distances increase. This shows we are indeed the center of the universe. Dr. Gentry has not addressed the issues of dark matter or dark energy.

5/1/201520 Hartnett solutions to equations (2002-2007) The universe has expanded over a short time The hill was initially large but decreased rapidly An expanding white hole with our galaxy at the center No ‘dark’ matter or ‘dark’ energy is needed Day 1, God formed the earth from only water after creating gravitation and electromagnetic energy Day 2, God separated the waters Day 3, God separated the land and water. Plants were also created Day 4, God created the lights to rule the day and night. God also stretched space. He created galaxies

5/1/201521 Harmonize Humphreys, Hartnett, and Gentry Humphreys pioneered the white hole solution (1994) A white hole continuously created matter in the past No white whole has been observed today Hartnett modified the white hole theory using Cameli’s Hartnett solved all problems of dark matter/energy Gentry (1996) showed that space cannot be expanded Space expansion happened only in the early cosmos Space is not expanding now because of conservation We live in a galactocentric universe God wants us to observe the universe to glorify Him

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5/1/201524 Our Galaxy at the center of concentric spherical shells of galaxies The two sky surveys show concentric and circular structures with our Galaxy as center The Big Bang Model should expect more galaxies at greater distances as we look back in time. The fact is that it is NOT the case. The sky maps show galaxy density oscillates with distance, hence circular structure Galaxies are found at certain discrete distances resulting in preferential variations with our Galaxy as the center

Discrete Redshifts The spikes seen in the N versus z plots from the 2dFGRS and SDSS data indicate preferred distances for galaxies where they concentrate This is indicative of the concentric structures Farther galaxies are too dim to be seen After subtracting off the polynomial, the density oscillations are clearly seen The redshifts can be plotted against peak numbers Interval of separation is about 36 Mpc (~100 mlys) We live in a galactocentric universe

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5/1/2015 Digging Graves for Naturalism - Christopher Chui, PhD 27 Quasars are also concentric around our Galaxy The galaxies dominate in low redshifts while the quasars dominate the high redshifts Our Galaxy lies at the center of a giant isotropic distribution of quasars in redshift parameter space If our Galaxy is randomly located, we should not see any particular spacing or peaks at all Quasars with redshifts greater than 1 are due to the inflation of space in the early universe Quasars have intrinsic redshifts not due to speed recession

5/1/2015 Digging Graves for Naturalism - Christopher Chui, PhD 28 High redshift quasars, z > 0.4c These redshifts are not results of expansion These redshifts are discrete. Some are forbidden These redshifts do not obey Hubble Law These redshifts are not distance-determining These redshifts are dominantly intrinsic due to youth These quasars are closer to their creation Prevailing redshift equation: 1 + z c = (1+ z obs ) / (1+ z i ) High redshift quasars ejected from active galaxy nuclei These quasars have very small Doppler contribution We live in a galactocentric universe. We are special in God’s creation

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We live in a galactocentric universe One solution of Einstein’s field equations allows a finite expanding white hole with our Galaxy at the center. Observations from the large galaxy surveys indicate that we live at the center of concentric spherical shells of galaxies with a spacing of about 100 million light-years. Observations indicate that quasars are distributed at discrete redshifts. These quasars are much closer than their redshift distances. They are also distributed on concentric spherical shells The universe was made for a purpose—we are here to observe the Creator’s glorious creation all around us.

Gloria Deo “For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them and rested the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.” Ex. 20:11 。 “Then God said, ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years;” Gen. 1:14 LIFE MUST BE CREATED BY GOD! THE BIG BANG NEVER HAPPENED! NO DARK MATTER OR DARK ENERGY NEEDED! THE BIBLE IS TRUSTWORTHY IN SCIENCE AND IN FAITH!

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