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Chapter 17 Common Chemicals. Soap Fat + Base Mode of Action One end = polar, dissolve in water Other end = non-polar, dissolve in oil Surfactant = stabilize.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Common Chemicals. Soap Fat + Base Mode of Action One end = polar, dissolve in water Other end = non-polar, dissolve in oil Surfactant = stabilize."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 Common Chemicals

2 Soap Fat + Base Mode of Action One end = polar, dissolve in water Other end = non-polar, dissolve in oil Surfactant = stabilize suspension of non-polar oil in water In hard water leaves mineral deposits Source:

3 Soap Dissected Ingredients: sodium tallowate, palm kernelate, aqua, parfum, stearic acid, glycerin, sodium chloride, tetrasodium EDTA, tetrasodium etidronate, FD&C Blue No. 4, FD&C Yellow No. 5. Sodium tallowate: soap made from animal fat Palm kernelate: soap made from palm kernel oil Aqua: water Parfum: mixture of natural and synthetic fragrances Stearic acid: fatty acid, improve soap texture Glycerin: moisturizer, keep soap from drying out Sodium chloride: improve soap texture Tetrasodium EDTA: chelating agent, prevent soap scum Tetrasodium etidronate: preservative FD&C Blue No. 4 and Yellow No. 5: artificial colors

4 Detergents Synthetic Non-biodegradable detergents banned Biodegradable detergents No mineral deposits, even in hard water Contents Synthetic surfactant Examples: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium laryl/laureth sulfate, benzalkonium chloride Stabilizers Fragrance

5 Softeners & Bleaches Fabric Softeners Layer on clothes 1 molecule thick Lubrication Electrically conductive (cancel out static electricity) Bleaches Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) Oxidation of color molecules in stains Brighteners (Color-safe “bleach”) reflect blue light, clothes look white

6 Cleaning Products Acids Toilet bowl cleaner (HCl, citric acid) Cleaners containing vinegar Bases Oven cleaner Drain cleaner Glass cleaner (ammonia) Bleach Source:

7 Cosmetics: Lotions Emollients: soften the skin by coating and protecting Moisturizer: form a physical barrier to hinder evaporation Sunscreens Humectants: hold water by hydrogen bonding Source:

8 Lotions Dissected Aqua: water, adds moisture directly to skin Glycerin: moisturizer, softener Cetearyl alcohol: emollient, emulsifier, stabilizer Petrolatum: moisturizer, emollient Mineral oil: moisturizer Ceteareth-20: emulsifier, surfactant Dimethicone: moisturizer, anti-foaming agent Carbomer: emulsion stabilizer Methylparaben: preservative Sodium Hydroxide: pH adjuster Titanium dioxide: white colorant, coverage, reflectant Octyl dimethyl PABA: UV absorber

9 Sun Protection Ultraviolet light 3 “near UV” wavelength ranges Therapeutic uses Psoriasis, vitiligo, eczema Cancer treatment (phototherapy) Dangers DNA damage Cancer Ageing Images source:

10 Sun Protection Cosmetics Sunscreens Sunblocks SPF Body’s defenses During sun exposure After sun exposure Image source:

11 Cosmetics: Other Skin Care Exfoliant: remove surface skin cells Chemical Mechanical Astringent: constrict pore openings Antiperspirant: retard perspiration Complexes of aluminum and zirconium Acne Salicylic acid, triclosan, benzoyl peroxide: antibiotics, can be very drying Anti-aging Alpha- and beta-hydroxy acids: chemical exfoliants

12 Cosmetics: Makeup Mascara: oils, waxes, colors, thickeners Lipstick: oils, waxes, colors, moisturizers, often with UV protection Powders: pigment, binders, mineral powders (aluminum, titanium, zinc) Foundation: oils, colors, pH balancers, emulsifiers, surfactants All have preservatives! Source:

13 Oral Care Toothpaste Sodium dodecyl (laurel) sulfate: detergent Artificial sweeteners, flavors Fluoride Abrasive Mouthwash Antimicrobials Surfactants fluoride Source:

14 Hair Care Composition of hair Protein Shape is determined by hydrogen bonds, salt bridges and disulfide bonds Only root of hair is alive: all visible hair is dead Slightly acidic Hair damage: brushing/combing, blow drying, environmental attack, chemical damage Source:

15 Hair Care: Hair Products Shampoo Mild detergent (surfactant) Most are gentle enough to not harm hair structure Conditioner Coats the hair shaft with moisturizers Dimethicone, silk proteins, collagen: smooth hair shaft Hair care myths and facts

16 Hair Care: Hair Products Hairspray Semisolid organic polymers that form sticky resin on hair Dissolved in a solvent that evaporates Perms Reducing agent breaks disulfide bonds in hair Oxidizing agent allows bonds to reform with hair in a new shape Depilatories Strongly basic—destroy peptide bonds in hair & skin Source:

17 Hair Care: Hair Products Hair dyes Hair is naturally colored by melanins Coloring: benzene-amine compounds soak into hair shaft Bleaching: hydrogen peroxide oxidizes natural pigments (melanins) into colorless products Avoid contact with skin! Source:

18 You The Consumer Types of products are often the same! Beware of outrageous claims Beware of unnecessarily expensive products Read the ingredients and compare Be a well-informed consumer Source:

19 Remember! 1 Corinthians 6:19-20 “Know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God?” “For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God’s.” Take care of yourself—your body is a gift

20 What should you know? Differences between soap and detergent Composition Behavior in soft & hard water Difference between regular bleach (NaClO) and color-safe bleach (brighteners) Be able to name an acidic and a basic cleaning product Understand how sunscreens and sunblocks work (different types, SPF, etc.) Be able to describe how emollients, surfactants, emulsifiers, moisturizers, astringents, exfoliants and humectants work Know common ingredients in toothpaste Understand the composition of hair and how it is damaged Be able to describe how hair dyes and bleaches, perms, hairspray and depilatories work


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