Presentation on theme: "Morphology There are several ways of forming words in English and Arabic, but the most common ways are derivation, inflection and compounding. This chapter."— Presentation transcript:
Morphology There are several ways of forming words in English and Arabic, but the most common ways are derivation, inflection and compounding. This chapter is an attempt to discuss the derivational systems of English and Arabic comparatively.
Derivation Derivation is one of the major processes of word-formation in English. Derivational morphemes can produce new words from existing words in two ways. First, they can change the meaning of a word, e.g. true, untrue. Second, they can change the lexical category of a word,e.g. (true ) is an adjective,( truly) an adverb, (truth) a noun.
Nouns derived from nouns 1-( small x) - : let,e tte,-ie e.g.:- droplet, booklet, cigarette, doggie 2-( female x) :- ess,- ine e.g.:- waitress, princess, heroine 3-( inhabitant of x) -: -er,-(i) an e.g. :- Londoner, new Yorker, Texan, Glaswegian 4-(state of being an x) :-ship,- hood (state of being an x) e.g.:- kingship, ladyship,motherhood, priesthood 5-( devotee of x) : - ist, ian e.g. contortionist, Islamist, logician, historian
Nouns derived from adjectives and verbs 6 – (- ity), e.g. Purity, equality, ferocity, sensitivity 7- (-ness), e.g. goodness, tallness, fierceness, sensitiveness. 8- (-ism) e.g. radicalism, conservatism
Nouns derived from verbs There are numerous suffixes for deriving nouns from verbs. Here are just a few :- 9- ( - ance,- ence) e.g. performance, ignorance, reference convergence, acceptance, dependence. 10 – (- ment),eg announcement, commitment, development, engagement, agreement, placement 11- (-ing ),e.g. painting, singing, building, ignoring
Ns derived from Vs 12- (- (a) t) ion ) e.g. denunciation,commission, organization confusion 13- (- al ) e.g. refusal, arrival, referral, committal, proposal 14- (-er,-or ) e.g. painter, singer,organizer, grinder leader, actor,director 15- (-y) e.g. delivery, flattery, discovery, recovery
Nouns derived from members of other word classes (-acy) e.g. conspiracy, supremacy. (-age ) e.g. coinage, shortage, percentage, shrinkage (-dom ) e.g. kingdom, freedom, dukedom (-(e)ry) e.g. slavery, refinery
Adjectives derived from adjectives In this category, prefixes predominate; the only suffix is (-ish), meaning ( some what x ) e.g. greenish, smallish, remotish By contrast, the prefix (un-)meaning not is extremely widely spread, e.g.:- unhappy, unsure, unreliable, undiscovered however,this does not mean that (un-) can be prefixed to all adjectives quite freely.
Adj made from prefixes Another negative prefixes are (in -),( ill-),(ir-) (im-) e.g. intangible, illegal, irresponsible and impossible And also other productive prefixes, such as : (dis-) disorder – disobey (mis) - Mistrust – misunderstood. (non-) non- cooperative – non – existent
Adjectives derived from members of other word classes Further suffixes that commonly form adjectives from verbs with their basic meanings, are :- 1- (- able) "able to be x ed" : breakable, agreeable, remarkable, reliable, readable. 2- (-ent,-ant) "tending, to x" :-repellent, expectant, excellent, confident, dependent 3- (-ive ) "tending to x" :- repulsive, explosive, creative, attractive, selective, preventive, instructive
Adj made from N Suffixes that form adjectives from nouns are more numerous here are some :- 1-( - ful) e.g. joyful, hopeful, helpful, meaningful, powerful, skillful, faithful, beautiful, successful 2- (-less) e.g. Joyless, hopeless, helpless, meaningless, powerless, homeless,worthless, useless 3-(-al)e.g. original, normal, personal, national, universal, regional
Adj made from N 4- (-ish) e.g. boyish – selfish, waspish, loutish, foolish, childish,sheepish 5- (-y) e.g. funny, stormy, sunny, guilty, messy, wealthy, gloomy. 6- (-ly) e.g. friendly, orderly, manly, costly, monthly. 7.(- ous) e.g. dangerous, mysterious, famous, nervous, poisonous.
Verbs derived from verbs This section is unusual in that all the affixes are prefixes, most prominent are (re-) and the negative prefixes (un-),(de-),(dis-),as in the following examples 1-repaint, re-enter 2-untie, untangle 3-decompose, desensitize, 4- disentangle, disbelieve
Verbs derived from members of other word classes Verbs derived from nouns and from adjectives are numerous. Some affixes for deriving verbs from noun are:- 1-(de-) e.g.:-. debug, deforest, delouse. 2- (-ize) e.g.:- organize, patronize, terrorize, realize, materialize, apologize, criticize 3- (-(i)fy) e.g.:- beautify, gentrify, petrify, identify, clarify, glorify, simplify.
V derived from other classes 4(-en)e.g.:- shorten- sweeten- lengthen- blacken- widen- broaden. (de-)e.g:- meaning is (remove x from ). However, neither (-ize) nor (-ify) has a clear-cut meaning a part from its verb – forming function. These suffixes can derive verbs from adjectival bases too, as in nationalize, tenderize, intensify, purify.
Adverbs-making suffixes (-ly) e.g., easily – recently,privately, noisily, socially (-wise) e.g., clockwise, valuwise In the chart below, some of the most common prefixes are listed, ante – (before) anti-(against) auto-(self) bi-( two)