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Chapter 14 Reformations and Religious Wars, 1500–1600.

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1 Chapter 14 Reformations and Religious Wars, 1500–1600

2 Giorgio Vasari: Giorgio Vasari: Massacre of Coligny and the Huguenots (1573). This fresco shows the Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre in Paris, one of many bloody events in the religious wars that accompanied the Reformation. Vatican Palace/Scala/Art Resource, NY

3 The Folly of Indulgences In this woodcut from the early Reformation, the church’s sale of indulgences is viciously satirized. With one claw in holy water, another resting on the coins paid for indulgences, and a third stretched out for offerings, the church, in the form of a rapacious bird, writes out an indulgence with excrement. The creature’s head and gaping mouth represent Hell, with foolish Christians inside, others being cooked in a pot above, and a demon delivering the poplin a three-tiered crown and holding the keys to Heaven, symbol of papal authority. Illustrations such as this, often printed as single-sheet broadsides and sold very heaply,clearly conveyed criticism of he church to people who couldn't read. Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg

4 Cranach, who was the court painter forth elector of Saxony from 1505 to 1553, painted this giant illustration of the Ten Commandments more than 5 feet by 11 feet) for the city hall in Wittenberg just at the point that Luther was beginning to question Catholic doctrine. Cranach became an early supporter of Luther, and many of his later works depict the reformer and his ideas. This close association, and the fact that the painting captures the Protestant emphasis on biblical texts very well, led it to be moved to the Luther House in Wittenberg, the largest museum of the Protestant Reformation in the world. Paintings were used by both Protestants and Catholics to teach religious ideas. Lucas Cranach the Elder: The Ten Commandments, 1516 Prato, San Francesco/Scala/ArtResource, NY

5 Church of Saint Bavo, Haarlem Pieter Jansz, Saenredam, S. Bavoin Haarlem. John G. Johnson Collection, Philadelphia Museum of Art [J 599]

6 Jesuit Priest Distributing Holy Pictures From Pierre Chenu, The Reformation[New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986]

7 Ceiling of the Gesù Scala/Art Resource, NY

8 The Protestant notion that the best form of Christian life was marriage and a family helps explain its appeal to middle-class urban men and women, such as those shown in this domestic scene. The engraving, titled “Concordia" harmony), includes the biblical inscription of what Jesus called the greatest commandment—“You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and all your soul and your neighbor as yourself ”(Deuteronomy 6; Matthew22)—on tablets at the back. The father presides as his son says grace; the mother passes bread; the older daughters seem to have begun eating; and small children and animals complete the scene. The large covered bed at the back was both standard piece of furniture in urban homes and a symbol of proper marital sexual relations. Domestic Scene Mary Evans Picture Library

9 In this double portrait, Vasari uses matching hand gestures to indicate agreement between the pope and the emperor, though the pope's red hat and cape make him the dominant figure. Charles V remained loyal to Catholicism, though the political situation and religious wars in Germany eventually required him to compromise with Protestants. Giorgio Vasari: Fresco of Pope Clement VII and the Emperor Charles V Palazzo Vecchio, Florence/Scala/ArtResource, NY

10 The unknown creator of this work intended to glorify the virtues of the Protestant succession; the painting has no historical reality. Enthroned Henry VIII (r. 1509–1547)hands the sword of justice to his Protestant son Edward VI (r. 1547–1553). The Catholic Queen Mary (r. 1553–1558) and her husband Philip of Spain are followed by Mars, god of war, signifying violence and civil disorder. At right the figures of Peace and Plenty accompany the Protestant Elizabeth I (r.1558–1603), symbolizing England’s happy fate under her rule. Allegory of the Tudor Dynasty Yale Center for British Art, Paul MellonCollection/The Bridgeman Art Library

11 Young John Calvin Even in youth, Calvin’s face showed the strength and determination that were later to characterize his religious zeal. Bibliothèque de Genève, Département iconographique

12 Religious Divisions in Europe The Reformations shattered the religious unity of Western Christendom. The situation was even more complicated than a map of this scale can show. Many cities within the Holy Roman Empire, for example, accepted a different faith than the surrounding countryside; Augsburg, Basel, and Strasbourg were all Protestant, though surrounded by territory ruled by Catholic nobles. Use the map and the information in the book to answer the following questions:1 Why was the Holy Roman Empire the first arena of religious conflict in sixteenth-century Europe?2 Are there similarities in regions where a particular branch of the Christian faith was maintained or took root?3 To what degree can nonreligious factors be used as an explanation for the religious divisions in sixteenth century Europe?

13 The Netherlands, 1559–1609 This map shows the division of the seventeen provinces as a result of the religious wars. Some provinces were overwhelmingly agricultural; some were involved in manufacturing; and others were heavily commercial.

14 Iconoclasm in the Netherlands Calvinist men and women break stained-glass windows, remove statues, and carry off devotional altarpieces. Iconoclasm, or the destruction of religious images, is often described as a “riot,” but here the participants seem very purposeful. Calvinist Protestants regarded pictures and statues as sacrilegious and saw removing them as a way to purify the church. The Fotomas Index/The BridgemanArt Library

15 Hans Baldung Grien: Witches’ Sabbat (1510) beliefs about witches: they traveled at night, met at sabots (or assemblies), feasted on infants (in dish held high), concocted strange potions, and had animal “familiars” that were really demons (here a cat). Grien also highlights the sexual nature of witchcraft by portraying the women naked and showing them with goats, which were common symbols of sexuality. GermanischesNationalmuseum Nürnberg

16 On effective preaching, especially to the uneducated, Luther urged the minister “to keep it simple for the simple.” On effective preaching, especially to the uneducated Church of St. Marien, Wittenberg/The BridgemanArt Library


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