Presentation on theme: "THE AMERICAN DREAM IN THE 1950S"— Presentation transcript:
1THE AMERICAN DREAM IN THE 1950S THE POSTWAR BOOMTHE AMERICAN DREAM IN THE 1950SJohn Naisbitt
2Learning Objectives: Section 3 - Popular Culture 1. Explain how television programs in the 1950s reflected middle class values.2. Explain how the beat movement and rock’n’roll music clashed with middle class values.3. Describe ways that African-American entertainers integrated the media in the 1950s.
3Popular Culture New Era of the Mass Media The Rise of Television 3 SECTIONPopular CultureNew Era of the Mass MediaThe Rise of Television• Mass media—means of communication that reach large audiences• TV first widely available 1948; in almost 90% of homes in 1960• Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates communications• By 1956, FCC allows 500 stations to broadcast• Programs: comedies, news, dramas, variety shows, children’s shows• Lifestyle changes: TV Guide is popular magazine; TV dinnersContinued . . .NEXT
4SECTION 3: POPULAR CULTURE A new era of mass media led by television emerged in the 1950sIn 1948, only 9% of homes had T.VIn 1950, 55% of homes had T.V.By 1960, 90% of American homes had T.V.
5THE GOLDEN AGE OF TELEVISION The 1950s was known as the “Golden Age of Television”Comedies were the main attraction as Milton Berle, Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz were very popularDesi Arnaz and Lucille Ball starred in I Love Lucy
6TELEVISION EXPERIMENTS WITH VARIOUS FORMATS Television innovations like on-the-scene-news reporting, interviews, westerns and sporting events offered the viewer a variety of showsKids’ shows like The Howdy Doody Show and The Mickey Mouse Club were extremely popular
7Popular Culture GUIDED READING 1. Television TV Shows: I Love Lucy; See It Now;Playhouse 90Subjects presented:Comedy;idealized whiteAmerica;Western frontierSubjects avoided:Poverty;diversity;contemporary conflicts, such as racial discrimination
8Stereotypes and Gunslingers 3SECTIONcontinued New Era of the Mass MediaStereotypes and GunslingersWomen, minorities on TV are stereotypes; few blacks, LatinosWesterns glorify historical frontier conflictsRaise concerns about effect of violence on childrenRadio and MoviesTelevision cuts into radio, movie marketsRadio turns to local news, weather, music, community affairsMovies capitalize on size, color, sound advantages; try gimmicksNEXT
10TV ADS, TV GUIDES AND TV DINNERS EXPAND TV advertising soared from $170 million in 1950 to nearly $2 billion in 1960TV Guide magazine quickly became the best selling magazineFrozen TV dinners were introduced in 1954 – these complete ready-to-heat meals on disposable aluminum trays made it easy for people to eat without missing their favorite shows
11MAIN IDEA QUESTIONSA – How did the emergence of television affect Americans culture in the 1950’sMore households used television for entertainment andPeople spent an increasing number of hours watching TV.More varied shows were broadcast, andTV dinners were invented to accommodate viewers.
13Popular Culture GUIDED READING 2. Radio a. Radio changes: Tuned to local programming;began targeting specialized audiencesb. African-American culture:Hundreds of stations focused on African-American performers, helping to sell their records.
14B – Do you think the rise of television had a positive or negative effect on Americans? Explain. informing and entertaining;Reinforcing cultural values.Negative –Promoting stereotypes of minorities and women;Exposing children to images of violence.
16C – How did radio and movies maintain their appeal in the 1950’s They concentrated on what they did best – local news, weather, and music programming on radio;Size, color, and stereophonic sound in movies.
17Popular Culture GUIDED READING 3. Film Film: Introduced innovations such as stereoscopic soundand Cinemascope to capitalize on its advantages over TV;introduced such fads as piped-in smellsand 3-D
18A Subculture Emerges The Beat Movement 3 SECTIONA Subculture EmergesThe Beat Movement• Beat movement—writers, artists express social, literary nonconformity• Poets, writers use free, open form; read works aloud in coffeehouses• Beatnik attitudes, way of life attract media attention, studentsNEXT
19A SUBCULTURE EMERGESAlthough mass media and television were wildly popular in the 1950s, dissenting voices emergedThe “Beat Movement” in literature and rock n’ roll clashed with tidy suburban views of life
20BEATNIKS FOLLOW OWN PATH Centered in San Francisco, L.A. and New York’s Greenwich Village, the Beat Movement expressed social nonconformityFollowers, called “beatniks”, tended to shun work and sought understanding through Zen Buddhism, music, and sometimes drugsBeatniks often performed poetry or music in coffeehouses or bars
21D – Why do you think many young Americans were attracted to the beat movement? Teenagers looking for alternatives to the conformity and consumerism of the parents found a celebration of poverty, unconformity, and art that reflected immediate sensory experience.
22Popular Culture GUIDED READING 4. The Beat Movement a. Beat movement:, Ginsberg,Kerouacb. Characteristics:Nonconformity;anti-materialism;interest in a higher consciousness;the shunning of structure in life and art
23African Americans and Rock ‘n’ Roll 3SECTIONAfrican Americans and Rock ‘n’ RollRock ‘n’ Roll• Black musicians add electric instruments to blues—rhythm and blues• Rock ‘n’ roll—mix of rhythm and blues, country, pop• Has heavy rhythm, simple melodies, lyrics about teenage concerns• Music appeals to newly affluent teens who can buy records• Many adults concerned music will lead to delinquency, immoralityContinued . . .NEXT
24MUSIC IN THE 1950sMusicians in the 1950s added electronic instruments to traditional blues music, creating rhythm and bluesCleveland DJ Alan Freed was the first to play this music in 1951– he called it “rock and roll”FREED
25ROCK N’ ROLLIn the early and mid-fifties, Richard Penniman, Chuck Berry, Bill Haley and the Comets, and especially Elvis Presley brought rock and roll to the forefrontThe driving rhythm and lyrics featuring love, cars, and problems of being young captivated teenagers across the country
26THE KING OF ROCK AND ROLL Presley’s rebellious style captured young audiencesGirls screamed and fainted, and boys tried to imitate him
27E – Based on Elvis Presley’s song titles, what do you think were teenagers’ concerns in the 1950’s? Songs were about love and heartache, and the problems of being young.
29F – Identify your favorite singer, based his/her song titles what message or idea do you think they are trying to relate to you.ANSWER THIS ON YOUR OWN
30Popular Culture GUIDED READING 5. Rock ‘n’ Roll a. Rock 'n' roll: Elvis Presley,Chuck Berry,Little Richard;radio,TVb. Characteristics:heavy rhythm;simple melodies and lyrics;focus on youth
313SECTIONcontinued African Americans and Rock ‘n’ RollThe Racial GapAfrican-American singers like Nat “King” Cole, Lena Horne popularMany black artists play jazz, music characterized by improvisationAfrican-American shows mostly broadcast on black radio stations- content, advertising target black audiencesImportant to black audiences with fewer TV sets, no presence on TVNEXT