Presentation on theme: "Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a."— Presentation transcript:
Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitude Contestant #3 I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy
Treaty of Versailles Black Tuesday 1929 - stock market crashes Great Depression during 1930s Increasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control - For example: Communism, Nazism, Fascism Total Control of State by a Dictator
1.DefineTotalitarianism Root word? Individual is servant to state All is done to glorify state Dictator and or single party No opposition allowed –….for some…..this is the NEW SOLUTION to the problems of the 1930’s.
Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural)Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural) Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms)Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms) Strict controls and lawsStrict controls and laws Military state (secret police, army, military)Military state (secret police, army, military) Censorship (opposing literature and ideas)Censorship (opposing literature and ideas) Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters)Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters) One leader (dictator); charismaticOne leader (dictator); charismatic Total conformity of people to ideas and leaderTotal conformity of people to ideas and leader Terror and FearTerror and Fear
2. Explain the political reasons why Italy was dissatisfied after WWI Remember what happened at the beginning of the war………. Did join the Allies with the incentive of…… Expect to get land from Central powers ….but…. Only received small part of A-H Felt belittled
3. List 4 economic reasons for Italy’s discontent. Veterans of war – unemployed Strikes Peasants seize land War debt Lack of raw materials Lack of markets to sell products (remember their role in Imperialism?) They did not establish colonial empire… But…… NOW?
4. What type of political / economic policies did Mussolini originally believe in? Socialism – liberal ideas and equality Inspired by Russian Revolution » Lose faith in revolutions because its too chaotic
5. Define Fascism and label on political spectrum Glorify the state 1 party – no opposition allowed Strong ruler and Aggressive nationalism Far Right on spectrum- why? Absolute power - reactionary Elitist- do not believe in equality -especially for minorities Believe capitalism is best way to build economy but have strong government intervention – but goal is to glorify the state – not necessarily individual wealth …and do not believe in workers revolution or equal social classes (instead – class cooperation)
6. According to the book’s description, Fascism is a mixture of what kind of political / economic ideas? …. Is like modern communism (in practice) –(not the Marxist idea of economy) – but with authoritarian rulers –…is like capitalism – allow for private property and social classes
Fasces Roman Republic Power Juristiction Strength Through Unity
7. How did Mussolini come to power in the Italian government in 1922 Italy had constitutional monarchy 1922 Fascists (Black Shirts) Begin attacking opposition March To Rome King Victor Emmanuel III names Mussolini as Prime Minister (“to control him from the inside”) ….keep your friends close…..
8. How did Mussolini deal w/ opposition? Violently attack and intimidate To “fix” the elections to create a Fascist majority which gives Mussolini control. -“Il Duce” After gaining a majority – make laws to ban opposition parties
9. Corporate State- 10. Syndicates- 9 -Bring workers and employers together to work out differences 10- each industry selects worker and employer representatives – sent to Rome to set wages, production and distribution standards ….make Capitalism more efficient Capitalism with a helping hand
Characteristic of Fascism – democracy, multi-party systems and the worker/employer fighting in capitalism ……….. are too slow and inefficient ……………The masses must obey, they can not waste time searching for the truth. …………….After all, he made the trains run on time.
All within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state. Democracy is beautiful in theory; in practice it is a fallacy. Fascism is a religion. The twentieth century will be known in history as the century of Fascism. Fascism is not an article for export. Fascism should more appropriately be called Corporatism because it is a merger of state and corporate power.
Fascism, the more it considers and observes the future and the development of humanity, quite apart from political considerations of the moment, believes neither in the possibility nor the utility of perpetual peace. It is humiliating to remain with our hands folded while others write history. It matters little who wins. To make a people great it is necessary to send them to battle even if you have to kick them in the pants. That is what I shall do. It's good to trust others but, not to do so is much better. Let us have a dagger between our teeth, a bomb in our hands, and an infinite scorn in our hearts.
11. List and explain the political problems in Germany that led to their discontent following WWI Treaty of Versailles
#11 contin. Disarmament Loss of land, colonies, population Forced to adopt new democratic govt. --Weimar Republic --The new “leaders” of Germany are the ones who signed the Treaty……… *(Kaiser William II – abdicated, fled to Netherlands) ……so they are seen as “BETRAYING” Germany and its people --Will be used by Hitler and Nazis to their advantage
12. List and explain Germany’s economic problems Forced to pay reparations ($35 Billion) Lost important resources in Ruhr valley (coal, steel) Began to print money to pay debt = Hyperinflation – extreme loss of value of currency and price increases. 1918 : 5.21 German Marks = $1 U.S. 1923: 4.2 Trillion German Marks = $1 U.S.