With a neighbor, explain how the geography affected the development of Ancient Greece.
The Geography of Greece The MountainsThe Mountains –¾ of the land –Little farmland (few streams) supported a small population) –Divided into city-states (polis) –Never united into one country The SeaThe Sea –Great sailors –Traded for things they didn’t have
What was the origin and structure of the Greek polis? Polis: city-statePolis: city-state By 750 BC- fundamental political unit in ancient GreeceBy 750 BC- fundamental political unit in ancient Greece Made up of a city and its surrounding countryside- including numerous villagesMade up of a city and its surrounding countryside- including numerous villages –Athens, Sparta, Ithaca Where did they meet to discuss issues?Where did they meet to discuss issues? –Acropolis: the highest and most fortified place in the city –Slide 21
What was the origin and structure of the Greek polis? Why did these develop?Why did these develop? –They began to identify with the local area in which they lived Different types:Different types: –Monarchy- rule by king –Aristocracy – rule by rich people –Oligarchy – rule by a small group of people –Tyrant – a dictator
Review: What was the polis? What was the acropolis?
Why do people need religion? How did the Greeks use religion for that purpose?
Describe polytheism in the Greek world POLYTHEISTICPOLYTHEISTIC Greeks developed a rich set of myths (stories) about their godsGreeks developed a rich set of myths (stories) about their gods Gave gods human qualities:Gave gods human qualities: –Love, hate, jealousy Lived foreverLived forever Mount Olympus- where the gods livedMount Olympus- where the gods lived Gods were worshiped in templesGods were worshiped in temples –Use of oracles as mediums
What political contribution did the Greeks give to Western cultures and societies?
Early Athenian Lawgivers Draco Promoted the idea that all people are equal under the law Promoted the use of capital punishment Solon Changes to the government Gave citizens a greater voice Cleisthenes created the first democracy!
Persian Wars: Famous Battles Marathon (490 BCE) 26 miles from Athens Thermopylae (480 BCE) 300 Spartans at the Mountain pass Salamis (480 BCE) Athenian navy victorious
Outcome of the Persian Wars Delian League: collaboration of Greek city-states to fight the Persians After the Persians were defeated, Athens became the strongest city-state and as a result, entered into…
Ch.5.3 Greece’s Golden Age “Age of Pericles” 460 BCE – 429 BCE
Pericles- wise and able statesman who had 3 goals: 1. Strengthen Athenian Democracy 2. Hold & Strengthen the empire 3. Glorify Athens Strengthen Democracy Strengthen Democracy »Increased number of public officials who were paid- poor could serve »Introduces Direct Democracy Athenian Empire Athenian Empire »Formed Delian League- used $ from treasury to make Navy strongest in Mediterranean Glorify Athens Glorify Athens »Used treasury money to beautify Athens.
Great Athenian Philosophers Socrates Know thyself! question everything “Socratic method” Absolute standards did exist for truth and justice Died by poison Plato Student of Socrates The Academy The Republic philosopher-king (person with greatest insight)
Great Athenian Philosophers Aristotle Student of Plato The Lyceum school Questioned the nature of the world and of human thought Provides the basis of the Scientific Method. Alexander the Great was his student
What were characteristics of Classical Greece culture?
Athens: The Arts & Sciences DRAMA (tragedians): Tragedies Comedies THE SCIENCES: Pythagoras Pythagorean Theorem! A 2 + B 2 = C 2 Democritus all matter made up of small atoms Hippocrates “Father of Medicine”
The Classical Greek “Ideal” Classical Greek art was focused on idealism and beauty.
Phidias’ Acropolis The acropolis was the fortified hilltop area of the city-state.
Peloponnesian War Ends Golden Age Athens had stronger navy while Sparta had stronger armyAthens had stronger navy while Sparta had stronger army Sparta burned AthensSparta burned Athens Pericles responded by bringing residents into city wallsPericles responded by bringing residents into city walls However, the plague struck and Pericles diedHowever, the plague struck and Pericles died War continues for year but eventually leads to a truceWar continues for year but eventually leads to a truce Sparta wins the war, but all of Greece is weakened as a result, leaving the door open for…Sparta wins the war, but all of Greece is weakened as a result, leaving the door open for…
Macedonia Under Philip II PHILIP II CONQUERS GREECE. Philip II hated the Greeks because they looked down on the Macedonians, seeing them as uncivilized foreigners (even though many Macedonians saw themselves as Greek)
Philip II of Macedon Becomes king of Macedonia in 359BCBecomes king of Macedonia in 359BC Quickly proved to be a brilliant general and ruthless politicianQuickly proved to be a brilliant general and ruthless politician Was seen as a threat to Greece by some, but the Greek city-states could not agree on a course of action.Was seen as a threat to Greece by some, but the Greek city-states could not agree on a course of action. Philip defeats the Greeks at the Battle of Chaeronea, ending Greek independence.Philip defeats the Greeks at the Battle of Chaeronea, ending Greek independence. Philip is assassinated at his daughters wedding! No daddy/daughter dance!Philip is assassinated at his daughters wedding! No daddy/daughter dance! Ow! My eyeball!
His son, Alexander the Great, quickly proclaims himself king
Alexander defeats Persia Conquered the lands from Greece to the Indus ValleyConquered the lands from Greece to the Indus Valley –Smashed the Persians, Egypt (crowned him pharaoh), Babylon, Indus River Valley -His soldiers fought for 11 years -They miss their families and beg Alexander to go home -Alexander agrees, but never makes it home. He dies of syphillis at the age of 32!
The Hellenization of Asia Hellenism: blend of Greek and Eastern (Persian, Egyptian, and Indian) cultures
Diffusion of Greek culture Greek culture and language traveled with Alexander’s army (notice the influence of his teacher, Aristotle!)Greek culture and language traveled with Alexander’s army (notice the influence of his teacher, Aristotle!) The blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences became known as Hellenistic cultureThe blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences became known as Hellenistic culture New blended languageNew blended language Alexandria- Egyptian city became an international community with diverse population; home to some of the world’s foremost scholars!Alexandria- Egyptian city became an international community with diverse population; home to some of the world’s foremost scholars!
Hellenistic Philosophers Diogenes promotes Cynicism ignore social conventions & avoid luxuries. citizens of the world. live a humble, simple life. Epicurus Promotes philosophy of Epicureanism Avoid pain & seek pleasure. Advocated moderation in all things
Hellenistic Philosophers Zeno- Promotes philosophy of Stoicism People should live virtuous lives in harmony with God’s will Human desires should be kept in check Hence the phrase: “He is a stoic individual.”
Hellenism: The Arts & Sciences Scientists / Mathematicians: Aristarchus heliocentric theory Euclid geometry Archimedes pulley Hellenistic Art: More realistic; less ideal than classical art Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age!
What is Hellenism? How did Alexander the Great’s conquest lead to cultural diffusion? What were some characteristics of Hellenistic Greece?
Alexander’s Legacy After his death, Alexander’s generals fight for control of the vast empire Three rise to the top: Antigonus- took control of Macedonia and the Greek city-states Ptolemy- took control of Egypt Seleucus- took control of the old Persian Empire