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Jesus in the Qur’an and Islamic Tradition Presentation by Vernon K. Robbins [In the menu on the top line, click “Slide Show,” then “From Beginning.” This.

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Presentation on theme: "Jesus in the Qur’an and Islamic Tradition Presentation by Vernon K. Robbins [In the menu on the top line, click “Slide Show,” then “From Beginning.” This."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jesus in the Qur’an and Islamic Tradition Presentation by Vernon K. Robbins [In the menu on the top line, click “Slide Show,” then “From Beginning.” This will activate this Power Point in your computer. You must have “Windows Media Audio” on your computer to hear the audio.] Either left click or push the right arrow on your keyboard to proceed to the instructions on the next slide.

2 INSTRUCTIONS** (1) If your computer has the audio turned on with the volume high enough so you hear beeps, etc., you will hear audio as soon as you open a new slide. If the audio on your computer is turned off, push the audio button to turn it on or get someone to help you to get the audio properly functioning on your computer. You will not hear the audio if you simply downloaded the Power Point without the audio clips that are included in the folder. (2) You may pause audio at any time with a right click on the mouse and resume audio with a left click (with the arrow outside the menu box that appears). (3) A few slides include a statement “No Audio” to let you know they have been included only for you to read what is on the slide. There is no audio with such slides. (4) When the audio on a slide is completed, left click once, or perhaps twice, (or right arrow once or twice) to proceed to the next slide. (5) You can always go back to a previous slide and audio by pushing the left arrow two or more times on your keyboard. (6) Left click (or right arrow) to the next slide right now. When the slide opens, audio will begin and you can experiment with turning audio on and off. **TO MAKE A COPY OF THESE INSTRUCTIONS, PUSH THE “ESC” KEY, CLICK FILE/PRINT AND PRINT PAGES 2-3.

3 Practicing How to Turn Audio On and Off (1) You should be hearing audio right now. Right click to stop the audio. Then left click (with arrow outside the menu box) to start it again. (2) Try it again! Right click to stop the audio. Then left click (with arrow outside the menu box) to start it again. Going Back to Hear Audio Again (1) Push the left arrow until you go back to the previous slide, then left click (or right arrow) to come back here again. (2) When you are here the second time, left click (or right arrow) once or twice to proceed to the next slide and audio.

4 Jesus in the Qur’an and Islamic Tradition Presentation by Vernon K. Robbins

5 Basic Information 570 AD: Muhammad’s birth Place: Mecca, Saudi Arabia Learned trading from Uncle Abu Talib 595 AD: Married Khadijah: rich widow Took a month retreat yearly near Mt. Hira Took a month retreat yearly near Mt. Hira 610 AD: First revelation of Qur’an 40 yrs old: month retreat Ramadan 40 yrs old: month retreat Ramadan 622 AD: Hijrah from Mecca to Yathrib/Medina Islamic State and Constitution Islamic State and Constitution 632 AD: Death of Muhammad

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8 Earliest Revelation: 96:1-5 In the name of thy Lord who created. Created man from a clot. And thy Lord is the Most Bounteous, Who taught by the pen, Taught man that which he knew not.

9 Jews in Muhammad’s Life Jews were present in Mecca, before Muhammad went to Medina. Many Jewish tribes were present at Medina. Some Jewish tribes of Medina opposed Muhammad. In the Constitution of Medina, Jews were included in Muhammad’s community as long as they contributed to the welfare of the community.

10 Christians in Muhammad’s Life While a young man traveling as a trader, Muhammad had conversations with Christian monks and hermits. Muhammad’s wife Khadijah had a cousin Waraqa, who became a Christian and influenced Muhammad. Christians are mentioned in Qur’an revelations only after Muhammad moved to Medina. In the Constitution of Medina, Christians were included alongside Jews as people who receive protection if they were peaceful with Muhammad’s community.

11 Jesus in the Qur’an Jesus (Isa): 25 times in the Qur’an Q 2:87: And verily We gave unto Moses the Scripture and We caused a train of messengers to follow after him, and We gave unto Jesus, son of Mary, clear proofs (of God’s sovereignty), and We supported him with the Holy Spirit.

12 Jesus among the Prophets in the Qur’an Q 2:136: Say (O Muslims): We believe in God and what is revealed unto us and what was revealed unto Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and what Moses and Jesus received, and what the prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered.

13 The Ancestors of Jesus in the New Testament Paul’s Letter to the Romans 1:3-4 Jesus Christ  Descended from David according to the flesh  Declared to be Son of God with power according to the spirit of holiness by resurrection from the dead

14 Family Genealogies in the New Testament Gospel of Matthew 1 Gospel of Matthew 1 Gospel of Luke 3 Gospel of Luke 3

15 The Ancestors of Jesus in Gospel of Matthew 1:1-17 Abraham (Jesus is Son of Abraham) Abraham (Jesus is Son of Abraham) to to David (Jesus is Son of David) David (Jesus is Son of David) through through Joseph, Son of David (Matt 1:20) Joseph, Son of David (Matt 1:20) Mary has no family line in Matthew! Mary has no family line in Matthew!

16 The Ancestors of Jesus in Gospel of Luke 3:23-38 Adam, son of God Adam, son of God (Jesus is Son of God: Luke 3:22; 4:3, 9) Abraham Abraham David (Jesus is Son of David) David (Jesus is Son of David) Luke 1:32; 18:38-39 Joseph, father of Jesus, as was supposed Luke 3:23 Joseph, father of Jesus, as was supposed Luke 3:23

17 Information about Jesus in the Qur’an The Qur’an has no information from the Gospel of Matthew. The Qur’an has no information from the Gospel of Matthew. Jesus information in the Qur’an is related to the Gospels of Luke and John only. Jesus information in the Qur’an is related to the Gospels of Luke and John only. Only Luke has Zechariah and Elizabeth, parents of John the Baptist, whom the Qur’an knows. Only Luke has Zechariah and Elizabeth, parents of John the Baptist, whom the Qur’an knows.

18 Angel Gabriel and Jesus in the Qur’an In Luke, the angel Gabriel comes and speaks first to Zechariah in the temple and second to Mary at her home. In Luke, the angel Gabriel comes and speaks first to Zechariah in the temple and second to Mary at her home. From a Muslim perspective, when the angel Gabriel brought God’s words to Zechariah and Mary, these were “Quranic” moments in history. From a Muslim perspective, when the angel Gabriel brought God’s words to Zechariah and Mary, these were “Quranic” moments in history.

19 Gabriel “recites” God’s words to Special People throughout History Six hundred years later, the same Gabriel brought words of God to Muhammad. Six hundred years later, the same Gabriel brought words of God to Muhammad. These words are “Qur’an” (“the recitation” [al-Qur’an] of God’s words). These words are “Qur’an” (“the recitation” [al-Qur’an] of God’s words). There are 114 chapters of God’s words to Muhammad in the Qur’an, revealed by angels (most often “Gabriel”). There are 114 chapters of God’s words to Muhammad in the Qur’an, revealed by angels (most often “Gabriel”).

20 Mary and Her Family in the Qur’an Chapter 19 in the Qur’an has the title “Mary.” Chapter 19 in the Qur’an has the title “Mary.” It focuses on Mary, the mother of Jesus. It focuses on Mary, the mother of Jesus. Chapter 3 in the Qur’an has the title “Family of Imran.” Chapter 3 in the Qur’an has the title “Family of Imran.” In Muslim tradition, Imran is the father of Mary. In Muslim tradition, Imran is the father of Mary. The name “Imran” is the Arabic of “Amram,” the name of the father of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam (Maryam or Mary) in the Old Testament. The name “Imran” is the Arabic of “Amram,” the name of the father of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam (Maryam or Mary) in the Old Testament.

21 Mary, Mother of Jesus, in the Qur’an Mary’s name occurs 34 times in the Qur’an Mary’s name occurs 34 times in the Qur’an Mary’s name occurs 19 times in the New Testament (fewer than the Qur’an) Mary’s name occurs 19 times in the New Testament (fewer than the Qur’an) Reason: 21 of the 25 times in the Qur’an Jesus is called Jesus son of Mary Reason: 21 of the 25 times in the Qur’an Jesus is called Jesus son of Mary Mary is the only “named” woman in the Qur’an. Seven others are “wife of …” [e.g., Noah]. Mary is the only “named” woman in the Qur’an. Seven others are “wife of …” [e.g., Noah].

22 The Qur’an also knows the Infancy Gospel of James (200 AD Christian Gospel) Extends Luke before the birth of John the Baptist back to the birth of Mary to Anna. Extends Luke before the birth of John the Baptist back to the birth of Mary to Anna. As a child, Mary is kept in a holy bedroom like a small place of worship. As a child, Mary is kept in a holy bedroom like a small place of worship. Mary is placed in the Jerusalem Temple at age three (like Samuel) to be kept holy. Mary is placed in the Jerusalem Temple at age three (like Samuel) to be kept holy.

23 Infancy Gospel of James cont. In Infancy James, Zechariah the father of John the Baptist is High Priest of the Temple when Mary is there. In Infancy James, Zechariah the father of John the Baptist is High Priest of the Temple when Mary is there. Mary is taken out of the Temple at age 12 so she will not pollute it with her blood flow. Mary is taken out of the Temple at age 12 so she will not pollute it with her blood flow. Mary is assigned to Joseph who already has sons (James, Joses, Jude). Mary is assigned to Joseph who already has sons (James, Joses, Jude).

24 The Qur’an never refers to Joseph, husband of Mary The Qur’an never refers to New Testament Joseph (only Old Testament Joseph: Q 12). The Qur’an never refers to New Testament Joseph (only Old Testament Joseph: Q 12). Therefore, in the Qur’an Jesus is never “son of Joseph.” Therefore, in the Qur’an Jesus is never “son of Joseph.” Jesus is only “son of Mary” in the Qur’an. Jesus is only “son of Mary” in the Qur’an.

25 God said, “Be,” to Create both Adam and Jesus 3:59: Lo! the likeness of Jesus with God is as the likeness of Adam. 3:59: Lo! the likeness of Jesus with God is as the likeness of Adam. He created him out of dust, then God said to him: “Be!” and he is. He created him out of dust, then God said to him: “Be!” and he is.

26 The Angels gave God’s word to Mary, and it was Jesus! 3:45: And remember when the angels said: “O Mary! Lo! God gives you glad tidings of a word from him, whose name is the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, 3:45: And remember when the angels said: “O Mary! Lo! God gives you glad tidings of a word from him, whose name is the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, illustrious in the world and the Hereafter, and one of those brought near to God.” illustrious in the world and the Hereafter, and one of those brought near to God.”

27 In the Qur’an God’s word in Mary is Jesus Notice the relation of the Gospel of John, “In the beginning was the Word,” Notice the relation of the Gospel of John, “In the beginning was the Word,” and the Gospel of Luke, where Mary says to the angel, “Let it be with me according to your word” (Luke 1:38). and the Gospel of Luke, where Mary says to the angel, “Let it be with me according to your word” (Luke 1:38).

28 Who is Mary in the Qur’an? Q 66:12: And Mary daughter of Imran (Amram), whose body was chaste, therefore We breathed into her something of Our Spirit. And she put faith in the words of her Lord and His scriptures, and was of the obedient. Q 66:12: And Mary daughter of Imran (Amram), whose body was chaste, therefore We breathed into her something of Our Spirit. And she put faith in the words of her Lord and His scriptures, and was of the obedient.

29 Who is Mary in the Qur’an? Q 19:28: O [Mary], sister of Aaron! Your father was not a wicked man nor was your mother a harlot. Q 19:28: O [Mary], sister of Aaron! Your father was not a wicked man nor was your mother a harlot. Mary is “holy,” of the family of Moses, Aaron the priest, and Maryam their sister. Mary is “holy,” of the family of Moses, Aaron the priest, and Maryam their sister.

30 Mary, Mother of Jesus, in Gospel of Luke Mary is a relative of Elizabeth, Zechariah’s wife Mary is a relative of Elizabeth, Zechariah’s wife (Luke 1:36) (Luke 1:36) Elizabeth is “a daughter of Aaron” (Luke 1:5) Elizabeth is “a daughter of Aaron” (Luke 1:5) Moses appointed his brother Aaron and his sons as priests (Exodus 28:1) Moses appointed his brother Aaron and his sons as priests (Exodus 28:1)

31 The Name Mary, Mother of Jesus Moses and Aaron have a sister named Miriam Moses and Aaron have a sister named Miriam Miriam, Mariam, and Maryam are the same name in Hebrew and Greek Miriam, Mariam, and Maryam are the same name in Hebrew and Greek Mary’s name (Maryam) is a family name of Moses and Aaron Mary’s name (Maryam) is a family name of Moses and Aaron Amram is the father of Moses, Aaron, and Maryam in the Old Testament (Num 26:59) Amram is the father of Moses, Aaron, and Maryam in the Old Testament (Num 26:59)

32 Mary, Mother of Jesus, in Gospel of Luke Zechariah, Elizabeth’s husband, Zechariah, Elizabeth’s husband, is of the family of priest Abijah (Luke 1:5), is of the family of priest Abijah (Luke 1:5), grandson of Aaron Mary’s relatives have a priestly ancestry Mary’s relatives have a priestly ancestry through Aaron Mary has “priestly blood-line” from Aaron Mary has “priestly blood-line” from Aaron Mary is “holy” Mary is “holy”

33 Gospels of Luke and John Blend together in the Qur’an In the Qur’an, Jesus as “the Word” in the Gospel of John In the Qur’an, Jesus as “the Word” in the Gospel of John and Jesus as “the word of glad tidings” in the Gospel of Luke, which Gabriel brings to Mary, blend together. and Jesus as “the word of glad tidings” in the Gospel of Luke, which Gabriel brings to Mary, blend together. Gabriel brought the word “Be” from God to Mary, and Jesus was in the womb of Mary to be born in the world. Gabriel brought the word “Be” from God to Mary, and Jesus was in the womb of Mary to be born in the world.

34 Jesus in the Quran In the Qur’an, Jesus is “the Word” from God that came to Mary, mother of Jesus. In the Qur’an, Jesus is “the Word” from God that came to Mary, mother of Jesus. The word of God to Mary was “Gospel” (“Injil” in Arabic = “Evangel”). The word of God to Mary was “Gospel” (“Injil” in Arabic = “Evangel”). In the Qur’an, Jesus alone of all Prophet/Messengers heals and raises the dead. In the Qur’an, Jesus alone of all Prophet/Messengers heals and raises the dead.

35 Jesus Heals and Raises Dead in the Quran (cf. Luke) Al-Imran 3:49Luke 7: 22 (Matt 11:4) I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I raise the dead, with God’s permission. Jesus answered them, "Go and tell John the things which you have seen and heard: that the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them.

36 Jesus “Plays Creation” as a 5 year old Boy Al-Imran 3:49Infancy Gospel of Thomas 2 And will make him a messenger unto the Children of Israel, (saying): Lo! I come unto you with a sign from your Lord. Lo! I fashion for you out of clay the likeness of a bird, and I breathe into it and it is a bird, with God’s permission. Again, he took of the clay which came of that pool and made from it twelve sparrows… Joseph his father said to him: “Why have you done this which is not right to do on the Sabbath?” But Jesus opened his hands and commanded the sparrows, saying, “Go forth into the sky and fly. You shall not meet death at any man’s hands.” And they flew and began to call out and praise Almighty God.

37 Compare Gospel of John with Infancy Thomas and the Qur’an In John, “the Word” (Jesus) causes “all things to come into being through him,” In John, “the Word” (Jesus) causes “all things to come into being through him,” and “what came into being through him was life” (John 1:3-4). and “what came into being through him was life” (John 1:3-4). In Infancy Gospel of Thomas and Qur’an, Jesus as a five year old boy causes birds to come into being and have life. In Infancy Gospel of Thomas and Qur’an, Jesus as a five year old boy causes birds to come into being and have life.

38 In the Qur’an Jesus Speaks from the Cradle Al-Imran 3:46Arabic Infancy Gospel 1 He will speak unto mankind in his cradle and in his manhood. Jesus spoke, and, indeed, when He was lying in His cradle said to Mary His mother: “I am Jesus, the Son of God, the Logos [John 1], whom thou hast brought forth, as the Angel Gabriel announced to thee [Luke 1]; and my Father has sent me for the salvation of the world.”

39 Jesus Speaks from the Cradle We should expect, should we not, that “the Word” would be able to speak as soon as he was born? We should expect, should we not, that “the Word” would be able to speak as soon as he was born? Once again, “the Word” from the Gospel of John blends with “the word Gabriel brought to Mary” in the Gospel of Luke. Once again, “the Word” from the Gospel of John blends with “the word Gabriel brought to Mary” in the Gospel of Luke.

40 The Gospel of John and the Quran In addition to Jesus as “the Messenger Word of the Gospel” in the Qur’an, various verses in Qur’an have a relation to the Gospel of John. In addition to Jesus as “the Messenger Word of the Gospel” in the Qur’an, various verses in Qur’an have a relation to the Gospel of John. John 17 (Jesus’ High Priestly Prayer) has an important relation to the final verses of Chapter 5 in the Quran. John 17 (Jesus’ High Priestly Prayer) has an important relation to the final verses of Chapter 5 in the Quran.

41 Quran 5:116John 10:33 And when God said: “O Jesus, son of Mary! Did you say to mankind: Take me and my mother for two gods beside God?” The Jews answered, “It is not for a good work that we are going to stone you, but for blasphemy, because you, though only a human being, are making yourself God.”

42 Quran 5:116 Jesus said: “Be glorified!” John 17:1, 4 Jesus looked up to heaven and said, “Father, the hour has come, glorify your Son, that your Son also may glorify you. … I glorified you on earth by finishing the work that you gave me to do.”

43 Quran 5:116 “It was not mine to utter that to which I had no right. If I used to say it, then you know it.” John 17:7-8 “They know that everything you have given me is from you; for the words you gave to me I have given to them.”

44 Quran 5:116 “You know what is in my mind, and I do not know what is in your Mind. Lo! you, only you, are the Knower of Things Hidden.” John 17:25-26 “Righteous Father, the world does not know you, but I know you; and these know that you have sent me. I made your name known to them, and I will make it known, so that the love with which you have loved me may be in them, and I in them.”

45 Quran 5:117 “I spoke to them only that which you commanded to me, ‘Worship God, my Lord and your Lord.’” John 17:8, 3 “The words you gave to me I have given to them. And this is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God.”

46 Quran 5:117 “I was a witness of them while I dwelt among them.” John 17:12 “While I was with them, I protected them in your name that you have given me. I guarded them, and not one of them was lost except the one destined to be lost, so that the scripture might be fulfilled.”

47 Quran 5:117 “And when you took me you were the Watcher over them.” John 17:11, 15 “And now I am no longer in the world, but they are in the world, and I am coming to you.” “Holy Father, protect them in your name that you have given me, so that they may be one, as we are one… I am not asking you to take them out of the world, but I ask you to protect them from the evil one.”

48 Quran 5:117 “You are Witness over all things.” John 5:37; 8:18 “The Father who sent me has himself witnessed on my behalf.” “I witness on my own behalf, and the Father who sent me witnesses on my behalf.”

49 Quran 5:118 “If you punish them, lo! they are your slaves, and if you forgive them (lo! they are your slaves). Lo! you, only you, are the Mighty, the Wise.” (NO AUDIO) John 15:6-7 “Whoever does not abide in me is thrown away like a branch and withers; such branches are gathered, thrown into the fire, and burned. If you abide in me, and my words abide in you, ask for whatever you wish, and it will be done for you.”

50 Quran 5:119 God said: “This is a day in which their truthfulness profits the truthful.” John 17:17 “Sanctify them through your truth: your word is truth.”

51 Quran 5:119 “Theirs are Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they are secure for ever.” John 15:5; 4:14 “I am the vine, you are the branches. Those who abide in me and I in them bear much fruit, because apart from me you can do nothing.” “The water that I will give will become in them a spring of water gushing up to eternal life.”

52 Quran 5:119 “God taking pleasure in them and they in Him. That is the great triumph.” John 17:13 “But now I am coming to you, and I speak these things in the world so that they may have my joy made complete in themselves.”

53 Acts of John 95 And when he was hung upon the cross on Friday, at the sixth hour of the day there came a darkness over the whole earth. And my Lord stood in the middle of the cave and gave light to it and said, "John, for the people below in Jerusalem I am being crucified and pierced with lances and reeds and given vinegar and gall to drink. But to you I am speaking, and listen to what I speak… I suffered none of the things they will say of me…

54 Quran 4: Acts of John 95 And because of their saying: We slew the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, Allah's messenger - they slew him not nor crucified him, but it appeared so to them; … But God took him up to Himself. God was ever Mighty, Wise. … I am not the man who is upon that cross. I whom now you do not see but only hear my voice… Therefore ignore the many and despise those who are outside of the mystery; for you must know that I am wholly with the Father, and the Father with me. I have suffered none of those things which they will say of me... I will that it be called a mystery… What I am is known to me alone, and no one else.”

55 Jesus Stories in Islamic Tradition The Muslim Jesus: Sayings and Stories in Islamic Literature. Edited and translated by Tarif Khalidi (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001). The Muslim Jesus: Sayings and Stories in Islamic Literature. Edited and translated by Tarif Khalidi (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001). Contains 303 stories and sayings focused on Jesus. Contains 303 stories and sayings focused on Jesus.

56 Khalidi 38 (p. 74): Whenever the Hour was mentioned, Jesus used to cry out in anguish like a woman. John 16:21: “When a woman is in labor, she has pain, because her hour has come. But when her child is born, she no longer remembers the anguish because of the joy of having brought a human being into the world.”

57 Khalidi 39 (p. 39): Jesus met John and said to him, “Admonish me.” John said, “Avoid feeling anger.” Jesus said, “This I cannot do.” Luke 12:49 only: [Jesus said,] “I came to bring fire to the earth, and how I wish it were already kindled!” John said, “Do not own any wealth.” Jesus said, “As for this – it is possible.” Luke 9:58 (Matt 8:20): And Jesus said to him, “Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head.”

58 Both The Qur’an and The Muslim Jesus contain additional stories and sayings focused on Jesus, which are not in this Power Point presentation. But these have been shown so that you may understand the nature of Jesus in the Qur’an and Islamic tradition, and that through this understanding you may lead a better life in this world.

59 That’s all! Many thanks for your close attention! (NO AUDIO)

60 Khalidi 4 (p. 53): Jesus said, “If it is a day of fasting for one of you, let him anoint his head and beard and wipe his lips so that people will not know he is fasting. If he gives with the right hand, let him hide this from his left hand. If he prays, let him pull down the door curtain, for God apportions praise as He apportions livelihood.” Matt 6:2-3 only: 2 “So whenever you give alms, do not sound a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, so that they may be praised by others. Truly I tell you, they have received their reward. 3 But when you give alms, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, 4 so that your alms may be done in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you.” (NO AUDIO)


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