Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany"— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany
Objectives Characterize the totalitarian state in Germany established by Hitler and the Nazi Party Explain why many Germans accepted the Nazi dictatorship while other Germans suffered greatly under Hitler’s rule

2 I. Hitler and His Views Adolf Hitler born in Austria, 4-20-1889
Racism / Anti-Semitism *1919, joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or Nazi SA, Storm Troops or the Brownshirts Staged an uprising against the government, “Beer Hall Putsch”

3 Adolf Hitler

4 I. Hitler and His Views Failed, sentenced to prison
*Mein Kampf, “My Struggle” Nationalism, Anti-Semitism & Anti-Communism, Linked together with Social Darwinism Search for “living space”


6 II. Rise of Nazism Hitler will attain power by legal means
By 1931, Hitler & the Nazi party dominated the Reichstag – the German parliament Hitler promised to create a new Germany Appealed to national pride, honor & militarism

7 Reichstag

8 III. Victory of Nazism With help from the Right-wing elites, Hitler becomes chancellor & creates a new government In 1933, with his “legal seizure” of power came the Enabling Act which gave him the power to ignore the constitution for 4 years Hitler became a dictator appointed by the parliamentary body itself

9 III. Victory of Nazism Civil Service purged of Jews & democratic elements Large prison camps called *concentration camps where set up for those who opposed the regime Trade unions were dissolved All political parties except the Nazis were abolished

10 Dachau concentration camp

11 III. Victory of Nazism By late 1933, Hitler had established a totalitarian state Public officials & soldiers took a personal oath of loyalty to Hitler as their Fuhrer, or “Leader”

12 Adolf Hitler, 1936

13 IV. The Nazi State, 1933 - 1939 Totalitarian state
Aryan, ancient Greeks & Romans Term misused by Hitler, (people speaking Indo-European languages) The Third Reich Economic policies, mass spectacles, organizations & terror Policies towards women & Jews

14 Racial Purity

15 A. The State of Terror *Schutzstaffeln, “Guard Squadrons” or SS
*Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS

16 Heinrich Himmler

17 A. The State of Terror Two principles of the SS
1. Terror used repression & murder Secret police, criminal police, concentration camps, & later execution squads & death camps 2. ideology

18 B. Economic Policies Public works projects & grants to private construction firms Massive rearmament program Unemployment dropped from 6 million in 1932 to 500,000 in 1937 Many Germans accept Hitler & the Nazis

19 C. Spectacles and Organization
Mass demonstrations and spectalces Nuremberg party rallies Evoke mass enthusiasm & excitement Churches, schools & universities were brought under the control of the Nazi totalitarian state Organizations & leagues of civil servants, women, farmers, doctors, teachers and lawyers Youth organizations taught Nazi ideals


21 Nazi Germany In setting up a totalitarian state, the Nazis recognized the importance of winning young people over to their ideas. The Hitler Youth, an organization for young people between the ages of 10 and 18, was formed in 1926 for that purpose.

22 D. Women and Nazism Crucial role as bearers of children
Based on the Aryan race Men – warriors & political leaders Women – wives & mothers Limited employment, social work & nursing “Get a hold of pots & pans & broom & you’ll sooner find a groom”

23 E. Anti-Semitic Policies
Sept. 1935, *Nuremberg laws excluded Jews from German citizenship & forbade marriages between Jews & German citizens In 1941, Jews required to wear the yellow star of David & carry identification cards *Kristallnacht, “night of shattered glass” Destructive rampage against Jews synagogues & Jewish businesses

24 A teacher explains racial definitions according to the Nuremberg Laws
A Hitler Youth instructor teaching the definitions of race laid down by the Nuremberg Laws, September 1939.



27 E. Anti-Semitic Policies
30,000 Jewish males were rounded up & sent to concentration camps Further steps, Jews barred from public transportation, all public buildings including schools & hospitals Prohibited from owning, managing or working in any retail store Encourage to “emigrate from Germany”


29 200,999,999, DM .63 DM They were probably fearful, growing poorer, and losing the ability to buy basic necessities.

30 Section 4: Cultural and Intellectual Trends
Objectives Relate how radios and movies were popular forms of entertainment that were used to spread political messages Summarize the new artistic and intellectual trends that reflected the despair created by World War I and the Great Depression


32 I. Mass Culture: Radio and Movies
Marconi’s discovery of wireless radio waves First Movie, Birth of a Nation *Joseph Goebbels , the propaganda minister of Nazi Germany *The Triumph of the Will , Nazi propaganda documentary of the Nuremberg Rally

33 Joseph Goebbels

34 I. Mass Culture: Radio and Movies
Q. Why was the radio an important propaganda tool for the Nazis? - Radio offered great opportunities to reach the masses, & Hitler’s fiery speeches were just as effective over the radio as in person.

35 II. Mass Leisure Kraft durch Freude, “Strength through Joy”
It provided a new way to control the people - through leisure.

36 “Strength through Joy” program

37 III. Artistic and Literary Trends
Sense of despair Horrors of WWI Questioning Western values Humans beings were violent animals who were incapable of creating a sane & rational world The Great Depression Violent Fascist Movement

38 *Photomontage, a picture made of a combination of photographs
A. Art: Nightmares and New Visions *Photomontage, a picture made of a combination of photographs

39 http://www. courses. rochester. edu/seiberling/AAH128/IMAGES/IMG021

40 A. Art: Nightmares and New Visions
*Surrealism, a artistic movement that sought a reality beyond the material world & found it in the world of the unconscious

41 A. Art: Nightmares and New Visions
*Salvador Dali, Spanish surrealist artist, painted everyday objects but separated them from their normal contexts

42 The Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali, 1931
The Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali, 1931

43 List the qualities that the Nazis wanted German art to glorify
List the qualities that the Nazis wanted German art to glorify. Why do you think Hitler was concerned with issues such as the content & style of art? Supposed to glorify the strong, the healthy & the heroic



46 B. Literature: The search for Unconscious
*James Joyce, Irish writer who published Ulysses in 1922, tells the story of one day in the life of ordinary people in Dublin by following the flow of their inner thoughts

47 B. Literature: The search for Unconscious
Hermann Hesse, German writer, Siddhartha & Steppenwolf, reflect the influence of both Freud’s psychology & Asian religions

48 B. Literature: The search for Unconscious
Q. Why were artists & writers after World War I attracted to Freud’s theory of the unconscious? - A fascination with Freud’s theory of the unconscious content of the mind began before the war, but it seemed even more appropriate in light of the nightmare landscapes of the World War I battlefields

49 IV. The Heroic Age of Physics
German physicist Werner Heisenberg* Studied atoms and subatomic particles *Uncertainty principle, all physical laws are based on uncertainty Randomness challenges Newtonian physics Fits in well with the uncertainties of the interwar years

50 Uncertainty principle, the idea put forth by Heisenberg in 1927 that the behavior of subatomic particles is uncertain, suggesting that all of the physical laws governing the universe are based in uncertainty

51 IV. The Heroic Age of Physics
Q. How did Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle challenge the Newtonian world view? - Newton’s physics had been based on certainty & natural laws, while Heisenberg’s theory emphasizes randomness

52 Chapter Summary




Download ppt "Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google