Presentation on theme: "Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany"— Presentation transcript:
1 Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany ObjectivesCharacterize the totalitarian state in Germany established by Hitler and the Nazi PartyExplain why many Germans accepted the Nazi dictatorship while other Germans suffered greatly under Hitler’s rule
2 I. Hitler and His Views Adolf Hitler born in Austria, 4-20-1889 Racism / Anti-Semitism*1919, joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or NaziSA, Storm Troops or the BrownshirtsStaged an uprising against the government, “Beer Hall Putsch”
6 II. Rise of Nazism Hitler will attain power by legal means By 1931, Hitler & the Nazi party dominated the Reichstag – the German parliamentHitler promised to create a new GermanyAppealed to national pride, honor & militarism
8 III. Victory of NazismWith help from the Right-wing elites, Hitler becomes chancellor & creates a new governmentIn 1933, with his “legal seizure” of power came the Enabling Act which gave him the power to ignore the constitution for 4 yearsHitler became a dictator appointed by the parliamentary body itself
9 III. Victory of NazismCivil Service purged of Jews & democratic elementsLarge prison camps called *concentration camps where set up for those who opposed the regimeTrade unions were dissolvedAll political parties except the Nazis were abolished
13 IV. The Nazi State, 1933 - 1939 Totalitarian state Aryan, ancient Greeks & RomansTerm misused by Hitler, (people speaking Indo-European languages)The Third ReichEconomic policies, mass spectacles, organizations & terrorPolicies towards women & Jews
17 A. The State of Terror Two principles of the SS 1. Terror used repression & murderSecret police, criminal police, concentration camps, & later execution squads & death camps2. ideology
18 B. Economic PoliciesPublic works projects & grants to private construction firmsMassive rearmament programUnemployment dropped from 6 million in 1932 to 500,000 in 1937Many Germans accept Hitler & the Nazis
19 C. Spectacles and Organization Mass demonstrations and spectalcesNuremberg party ralliesEvoke mass enthusiasm & excitementChurches, schools & universities were brought under the control of the Nazi totalitarian stateOrganizations & leagues of civil servants, women, farmers, doctors, teachers and lawyersYouth organizations taught Nazi ideals
21 Nazi GermanyIn setting up a totalitarian state, the Nazis recognized the importance of winning young people over to their ideas. The Hitler Youth, an organization for young people between the ages of 10 and 18, was formed in 1926 for that purpose.
22 D. Women and Nazism Crucial role as bearers of children Based on the Aryan raceMen – warriors & political leadersWomen – wives & mothersLimited employment, social work & nursing“Get a hold of pots & pans & broom & you’ll sooner find a groom”
23 E. Anti-Semitic Policies Sept. 1935, *Nuremberg laws excluded Jews from German citizenship & forbade marriages between Jews & German citizensIn 1941, Jews required to wear the yellow star of David & carry identification cards*Kristallnacht, “night of shattered glass”Destructive rampage against Jews synagogues & Jewish businesses
24 A teacher explains racial definitions according to the Nuremberg Laws A Hitler Youth instructor teaching the definitions of race laid down by the Nuremberg Laws, September 1939.
27 E. Anti-Semitic Policies 30,000 Jewish males were rounded up & sent to concentration campsFurther steps, Jews barred from public transportation, all public buildings including schools & hospitalsProhibited from owning, managing or working in any retail storeEncourage to “emigrate from Germany”
29 200,999,999, DM.63 DMThey were probably fearful, growing poorer, and losing the ability to buy basic necessities.
30 Section 4: Cultural and Intellectual Trends ObjectivesRelate how radios and movies were popular forms of entertainment that were used to spread political messagesSummarize the new artistic and intellectual trends that reflected the despair created by World War I and the Great Depression
32 I. Mass Culture: Radio and Movies Marconi’s discovery of wireless radio wavesFirst Movie, Birth of a Nation*Joseph Goebbels , the propaganda minister of Nazi Germany*The Triumph of the Will , Nazi propaganda documentary of the Nuremberg Rally
34 I. Mass Culture: Radio and Movies Q. Why was the radio an important propaganda tool for the Nazis? - Radio offered great opportunities to reach the masses, & Hitler’s fiery speeches were just as effective over the radio as in person.
35 II. Mass Leisure Kraft durch Freude, “Strength through Joy” It provided a new way to control the people - through leisure.
37 III. Artistic and Literary Trends Sense of despairHorrors of WWIQuestioning Western valuesHumans beings were violent animals who were incapable of creating a sane & rational worldThe Great DepressionViolent Fascist Movement
38 *Photomontage, a picture made of a combination of photographs A. Art: Nightmares and New Visions*Photomontage, a picture made of a combination of photographs
40 A. Art: Nightmares and New Visions *Surrealism, a artistic movement that sought a reality beyond the material world & found it in the world of the unconscious
41 A. Art: Nightmares and New Visions *Salvador Dali, Spanish surrealist artist, painted everyday objects but separated them from their normal contexts
42 The Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali, 1931 The Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali, 1931
43 List the qualities that the Nazis wanted German art to glorify List the qualities that the Nazis wanted German art to glorify. Why do you think Hitler was concerned with issues such as the content & style of art? Supposed to glorify the strong, the healthy & the heroic
46 B. Literature: The search for Unconscious *James Joyce, Irish writer who published Ulysses in 1922, tells the story of one day in the life of ordinary people in Dublin by following the flow of their inner thoughts
47 B. Literature: The search for Unconscious Hermann Hesse, German writer, Siddhartha & Steppenwolf, reflect the influence of both Freud’s psychology & Asian religions
48 B. Literature: The search for Unconscious Q. Why were artists & writers after World War I attracted to Freud’s theory of the unconscious? - A fascination with Freud’s theory of the unconscious content of the mind began before the war, but it seemed even more appropriate in light of the nightmare landscapes of the World War I battlefields
49 IV. The Heroic Age of Physics German physicist Werner Heisenberg*Studied atoms and subatomic particles*Uncertainty principle, all physical laws are based on uncertaintyRandomness challenges Newtonian physicsFits in well with the uncertainties of the interwar years
50 Uncertainty principle, the idea put forth by Heisenberg in 1927 that the behavior of subatomic particles is uncertain, suggesting that all of the physical laws governing the universe are based in uncertainty
51 IV. The Heroic Age of Physics Q. How did Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle challenge the Newtonian world view? - Newton’s physics had been based on certainty & natural laws, while Heisenberg’s theory emphasizes randomness