2 The underlying causes of World War I were: Militarism – many countries were building up their military and getting ready for war.Alliances – countries allied with one another for protection and markets.Imperialism – countries wanted to expand and conquer other countries for land, resources, and markets.Nationalism – strong feeling towards one’s country
3 Imperialism: Nationalism: Imperialism caused European nations to compete with one another due to industrialism & the need for raw materials. All of which created an underlying tension in EuropeNationalism:The belief that national interests & national unity should be placed ahead of global cooperation & that a nation’s foreign affairs should be guided by its own self interest.Militarism: (The development of armed forces & their use as a tool of diplomacy)Because of nationalism & imperialism European nations began building up their armed forces. Each nation wanted its armed forces to be stronger than those of any potential enemy.By 1890, Germany was the strongest nation in Europe. They set up an army reserve system that drafted young men, trained them & then returned them to civilian life until they were needed.
4 Alliance System:Nationalism, Imperialism & Militarism created mutual hostility, jealousy, fear & desires between the nations of Europe, which ultimately led to the signing of treaties between these various nations. These treaties committed them to support one another if they faced attack. There were two major alliances: the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente.
5 “The nations were caught in a trap. . .there was no looking back.” World War I“The nations were caught in a trap. . .there was no looking back.”General Joffre,on the eve of theBattle of the Marne, August, 1914What do you think General Joffre meant by this statement? Record on Left Side of your notes.
6 Catch Phrases To Help You Understand Each Country’s Position: Britain and France - Europe’s liberal powers“What spoiled children we are”Germany and Italy - The new nations“We demand our place in the sun”Austria and Russia - Dying dynasties“Hard times make for hard lines”Central Europe - The Balkan “tinderbox”“We wanna be free!”
7 MilitarismAlliancesImperialismNationalismM A I N
9 Long Term Causes Militarism- Glorifying Military Power Keeping a large standing army prepared for warArms race for military technology
10 Militarism-Definition An arms race between the European powersFueled by the industrial development of the Industrial RevolutionCreation of weapons of mass destructionGlorification of arms and warMislead the people with propaganda
11 MILITARISM = Solve problems with guns Glorification of MilitaryNaval Arms Race-competition for strongest navyGermany and England competed, building: DREADNOUGHT DESTROYERS
12 Militarism & Arms RaceGermany is the military leader in terms of expenditures and planning.Between 1870 – 1914 France and Germany doubled the size of their standing armiesIn 1889 Britain decides on a policy that their navy will be 2 1/2 times as large as the second and third largest navies so that they maintain naval superiorityBritain introduces the Dreadnought class of battleship
13 Essential Background - 1 Arms Race and the First World War:Essential Background - 1* the Daily Mail ran MANY stories (such as this one by William Le Queux) imagining German invasions.*also John Buchan, The Thirty-Nine Steps (about German spies).The Arms Race was as much about nations’ INSECURITY as about their NATIONALISM and EXPANSIONISM.
14 Arms Race and the First World War: Increase in SpendingThere was a four-fold increase in defence spending of the great powers,
15 Comparative Military Build Up: 1870-1914 Britain and Germany spent most per capita:Germany $8.52Britain $8.53U.S.A $0.32
16 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures Militarism & Arms RaceTotal Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.18701880189019001910191494130154268289398Increase in Defense ExpendituresFrance10%Britain13%Russia39%Germany73%
17 Attitude towards war Arms Race and the First World War: But note that militarism is also a government's attitude of mind, seeing war as a valid means of foreign policy. GERMANY was especially militaristic.
18 Arms Race and the First World War: Armies GERMANY, worried because it was in-between France and Russia, built up the largest land army. The German army was accepted as being the biggest and the best in the world.
19 Arms Race and the First World War: This Russian postcard of 1914 shows Russia (symbolised by a woman) nailing the German eagle to a pillory after a war.But other countries built up their land armies too – in 1914, the fastest growing army was that of RUSSIA. This worried GERMANY a lot.
22 Arms Race and the First World War: As well as their STANDING ARMIES, the nations introduced CONSCRIPTION, so they also had large numbers of trained RESERVES. All the nations except Britain had HUGE armies.
23 The age of the Dreadnought The Naval RaceBritainandGermanyThe age of the Dreadnought
24 The Naval RaceBritain needed a powerful navy to protect her large overseas Empire especially as the army was small.In 1900, Britain had the largest navy in the world.Germany began to build up her own navy in 1898 and this made Britain believe they were trying to challenge her and her colonies.These fears were partly responsible for Britain entering into agreements with France and Russia.The German navy became a real threat to Britain after 1906 when both sides began building Dreadnoughts, a new battleship that could easily destroy any of the older type of battleships.The race was on to build the most dreadnoughts.
25 The Naval Race 1906-1914 The race reached its peak in 1909. The Germans refused to agree on the number of dreadnoughts they would build.The British government only planned to build four but due to public pressure the government gave way and increased spending to maintain Britain’s naval superiority over Germany.By 1914, Britain had won the naval race so this cannot be seen as a main reason for Britain going to war.
26 Militarism Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships. The British feared an attack on their Empire
27 Navies - 1 Arms Race and the First World War: If GERMANY was to have an empire, it needed a navy, so in 1900 Admiral Tirpitz introduced the German Navy Law, which announced a huge programme of building warships.
29 Navies - 2 Arms Race and the First World War: Both BRITAIN and GERMANY started building Dreadnoughts – the most advanced class of warship in the world.The Dreadnought essentially reduced everybody else’s number of warships to zero.
30 Navies - 3 Arms Race and the First World War: There was a race between Germany and Britain to build the most Dreadnoughts.The graph shows the number built each year.
31 Navies - 4 Arms Race and the First World War: Reginald McKenna, First Lord of the AdmiraltyIn 1909 he told Parliament that the German navy was just about to become more powerful than the Royal Navy, and he instigated the press scare-campaign that forced Parliament to build more Dreadnoughts.The British government planned to build four Dreadnoughts in 1909, but the British public panicked, demanding: 'We want eight and we won't wait'.
32 Answer the following questions on the political cartoon on the Left Side of your notes. 1. According to this cartoon, how did the Germans view the British navy?2. In your opinion, was this a legitimate perception on the part of the Germans?3. In light of this German perception of the British navy, why did the Germans feel justified in using their U-boats as they did?
33 Militarism-Political Cartoons THE MISTRESS OF THE SEAS"Shall we attack, Sir?" "Oh, no; first we must signal for help! We are hardly three times as strong as the Germans.“March 1915This German cartoon is a bitter commentary on how they perceived the British Royal Navy.The two men in admiral's uniforms are supposed to be British officers.
37 Militarism Song: “Hymn of Hate” or “The Hasslied” Chanted by the German navy prior to and during World War One:French and Russian, they matter not,A blow for a blow, a shot for a shot,We fight the battle with bronze and steel,And the time that is coming peace will seal.You we will hate with a lasting hate,We will never give up our hate.Hate by water and hate by landHate of the head and hate of the heartHate of the hammer and hate of the crownHate of the 70 millions choking downWe love as one, we hate as one.We have one foe and one alone: England.
38 Militarism in British Newspapers, Prose and Poetry “The British Empire is built up on good fighting by its army and its navy: the spirit of war is native to the British.”---The Morning Post“I see the Junker and Militarists of England and Germany jumping at the chance they have longed for in vain for many years of smashing one another and establishing their own oligarchy as the dominant military power.”---George Bernard Shaw“Count the life of battle good, and dear the land that gave you birth.”---Henry Newbolt
39 “To The Troubler Of The World” by William Watson, The Times, August 6, 1914 At last we know you, War-lord. (Germany) You, that flungThe gauntlet down, fling down the mask you wore,Publish your heart, and let its pent hate pour,You that had God for ever on your tongue.We are old in war, and if in guile we are young,Young also in the spirit that evermoreBurns in our bosom ev’n as heretofore,Nor are these thews unbraced, these nerves unstrung.We do not with God’s name make wanton play;We are not on such easy terms with Heaven;But in Earth’s hearing we can verily say,“Our hands are purse; for peace, for peace we have striven.”And not by Earth shall he be soon forgiveWho lit the fire accurst that flames today.
40 “WAKE UP, ENGLAND” by Robert Bridges, The Times, August 8, 1914 Thou careless, awake!Thou peace-maker, fight!Stand, England, for honour,And God guard the Right!The mirth lay aside,They cavil and play:The foe is upon thee,And grave is the day.The monarch AmbitionHath harnessed his salves;But the folks of the OceanAre free as waves.For Peace thou art armedThy Freedom to hold:Thy Courage as iron,Thy Good-faith as gold.Through Fire, Air, and WaterThy trial must be:But they that love life bestDie gladly for thee.Thy Love of their mothersIs strong to command:The fame of their fathersIs might to their hand.
41 “WAKE UP, ENGLAND” continued Much suffering shall cleanse thee:But thou through the floodShalt win to Salvation,To Beauty through blood.Up, careless, awake!Ye peacemakers, Fight!ENGLAND STANDS FOR HONOUR.GOD DEFEND THE RIGHT!
42 “PRO PATRIA” by Owen Seaman, Punch, August 12, 1914 England, in this great fight to which you goBecause where Honour calls you, go you must,Be glad, whatever comes, at least to knowYou have your quarrel just.Peace was your care; before the nations’ barHere cause you pleaded and her ends you soughtBut not for her sake, being what you are,Could you be bribed and bought.Others may spurn the pledge of land to landMay with the brute sword stain a gallant pastBut by the seal to which you set your hand,Thank God, you still stand fast!Forth, then, to front that peril of the deepWith smiling lips and in your eyes the light,Stedfast and confident, of those who keepTheir storied scutcheon bright.And we, whose burden is to watch and wait---High-hearted ever, strong in faith and prayer,We ask what offering we may consecrate,What humble service share?
43 “Pro Patria” (For One’s Country) continued To steel our souls against the lust of ease;To find our welfare in the general good;To hold together, merging all degreesIn one wide brotherhood;-To teach that he who saves himself is lost;To bear in silence though our hearts may bleed;To spend ourselves, and never count the cost,For others’ greater need;-To go our quiet ways, subdued and sane;To hush all vulgar clamour of the street;With level calm to face alike the strainOf triumph or defeat;-This be our part, for so we serve you best,So best confirm their prowess and their pride,Your warrior sons, to whom in this high testOur fortunes we confide.
44 “VERITAS VICTRIX” (Truth Victorious) by William Watson, The Times, Sept 10, 1914 The Mill of Lies is loud,Whose overseer, Germania’s Over-lord,Hath overmuch adoredThe Over-sword,And shall be overthrown, with the overproud.Praised be the overwatching Heavens, that thoughFalsehood her blare of brass may pitch yet higher,Truth hath her trumpets also, and these of gold,And she can blowLonger than any liar,Fronting the sun, high on her mountains old.
45 Still Not Letting Go—and Still Breathing Still Not Letting Go—and Still Breathing! The Prussian Eagle: "This is no good to me. That pup's growing every minute. I've half a mind to fly away." From The Sketch, LondonThe German Eagle (symbol of Imperial Gemany) is shown as bloodied and missing feathers after tangling with the British Bulldog ( a symbol of the British Empire).
46 “WAR FEVER”: NOTED WRITERS AND THINKERS ADVOCATED WAR William James (American)“The plain truth is that people want war” (1912)Winston Churchill (British)“. . .in the field of battle life is at its best and healthiest while one awaits the caprice of the bullet.” (1900)von Treitschke (German)“War, with all its bruitality and sterness, weaves a bond of love between man and man, linking them together to face death, creating a bond that will last forever. He who knows history knows also that to banish war from the world would be to mutilate human nature.”
47 Driant (member of the French assembly) Schiller (German)Man is stunted by peaceful days,In idle repose his courage decays. . .But in war man’s strength is seen,War enobles all that is mean.Belloc (British)“How I long for the Great War. It will sweep Europe clean like a broom!”Stravinsky (Russian)“War is necessary for human progress.” (1907)Holmes (American)“. . .man’s warlike nature and his destiny is battle. Civilization has not changedhuman nature. . .armed strife will not disappear from the earth until human nature changes.” (1895)Driant (member of the French assembly)“the outcome of the next war will be decided in less than a month.” (1906)
48 “A War To End War”“After long years of lethargy, our country was once more about to assert her authority as one of the greatest, some said THE greatest of the world powers. We had been too modest, too lenient, they said, and see what come of it; now, once for all, we must give such small upstarts a lesson…It was really a war to prevent future wars.”---Flora Thompson
56 The Germans had recruitment posters as well The Germans had recruitment posters as well. Note the historical and religious themes.
57 In 1914 young men on all sides rushed to join up with their mates. Many were excited and pleased when war was finally declared.Most believed the war would be over by Christmas, because their side was sure to win quickly.By fighting and winning a war, men could become glorious heroes.
58 All able bodied men were expected to fight. Conscientious objectors were treated as criminals.They were humiliated by the general public.
59 In Britain…In London’s Trafalgar Square, crowds celebrate Britain’s declaration of war.
60 Recording Describing Crowds In London When War Was Declared
61 …and in Germany.In Munich, crowds greet the news that war has been declared with excitement. Adolf Hitler, is there.
63 Effects Arms Race and the First World War: The arms race was tied in to both NATIONALISM and IMPERIALISM. It increased SUSPICION and HATRED of other nations - and it gave the nations the WHEREWITHAL to wage war.
64 Great Friends, Trusted Neighbors, 1909 – Panel 1
65 Good Friends, Trusted Neighbors, 1909 - Panel 2
66 Good Friends, Trusted Neighbors, 1909 – Panel 3
67 French Political Cartoon on German Militarism What strategies are being used?What is the cartoonist’s point of view? Explain.
68 An Italian wartime postcard depicting �Guglielmo� (the Italian name for Kaiser Wilhelm) as a war mad buffoon."Isn't there somebody else to declare war upon?" "There's the Republic of San Marino, your Majesty." (San Marino is one of the smallest countries in the world and has no army.)
69 Militarism-Political Cartoon With your partner, come up with a good sarcastic caption for this historical political cartoon. Write it on the Left Side with an explanation.
70 On the Left Side of your notes, sketch out your idea and then turn to your partner and share: Sketch out ideas for a militarism Propaganda Poster or Political Cartoon for one of the following countries:EnglandGermanyRussiaConsider slogan and images that directly correspond with the country’s militaristic actions.
71 Long Term Causes Alliance System- Designed to keep peace in Europe, instead pushed continent towards warMany Alliances made in secretBy 1907 two major alliances: Triple Alliance and Triple Entente
72 Alliance-DefinitionAlliances were formed in the late 1800s in preparation for a world warAlliances were built around the wording of a defensive not offensive war for someOnce conflict broke out between two countries, all others would be drawn into the war due to the alliances
73 The alliances provided a measure of international security because nations were reluctant to disturb the balance of power.
74 Essential Background - Fact 1 Alliances and the First World War:Essential Background - Fact 1World War I was all about the place of Germany in Europe
75 Germany in the Middle Alliances and the First World War: Germany’s BIG problem was that it was IN THE MIDDLE.That made it VULNERABLE if it came to a war.
76 At last the dream of a life time was made real, a united Germany under Prussia with Wilhelm I as Kaiser, and Prince Otto von Bismarck the Iron Chancellor
77 A system of alliances would now be created to guarantee the safety of the new German State.German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck’s adage was always to be in a majority of three in any dispute among the five great European powers. His aim was to preserve Germany’s peaceful ties with Russia. “Never fight a two front war.”
78 Essential Background - Fact 2 Alliances and the First World War:Essential Background - Fact 2This Propaganda Image is in reference to the Franco-Prussian War that Bismarck instigated to unite Germany under Prussian rule. This would be one of the reasons France would want to go to war to get revenge on Germany.France and Germany hated each other! When Germany became united country in , France went to war to try to stop it … but got WHOOPED!
79 Essential Background Fact 2 (cont.) Alliances and the First World War:Essential Background Fact 2 (cont.)France also lost Alsace-Lorraine inThe French never forgave the Germans. They wanted REVENGE.
80 Three Emperors’ League, 1881 Alliances and the First World War:Three Emperors’ League, 1881In the 19th century, Germany’s brilliant Chancellor, Bismarck,solved this problem by keeping friends with RUSSIA andAUSTRIA-HUNGARY (the Dreikaiserbund).
81 Triple Alliance, 1882 Alliances and the First World War: Then Bismarck allied with Italy and Austria-Hungary (the TRIPLE ALLIANCE, 1882).Together with his friendship with Russia, this kept Germany safe.
82 In 1888, Kaiser Wilhelm I, King of Prussia of the House of Hohenzollern dies at age of 91, leaving the empire to his already dying son Frederick III.
83 A new force enters the stage of world politics A new force enters the stage of world politics. Wilhelm II now becomes the third Kaiser of a united Germany. Wilhelm is determined to build a place for Germany among the great empires of the world. Driven by an inferiority complex related to his own deformity and schooled by Bismarck in the concept of Pan-Germania, Wilhelm embarks on a an arms race.
84 “Dropping the Pilot”In 1890 Kaiser Wilhelm II forces the resignation of his tutor, Chancellor Prince Otto von Bismark.Wilhelm II will now act on his own as the designer of Imperial German Foreign Policy.
85 Kaiser Wilhelm II quickly upset Bismarck’s delicate balance of power Kaiser Wilhelm II quickly upset Bismarck’s delicate balance of power. Germany, by refusing to renew its friendship with Russia, soon found itself in a minority of two. Its only European ally, was the weakest of the European powers, Austria-Hungary.
86 Germany encircled Alliances and the First World War: But when Kaiser Wilhelm II became Emperor, he dumped the Russian alliance. He kept the Triple Alliance, but this did NOT solve the problem of Germany’s encirclement.
87 Franco-Russian Alliance, 1892 Alliances and the First World War:Franco-Russian Alliance, 1892Instead, in 1892, Russia made an alliance with FRANCE.Although it was only a DEFENSIVE alliance, it was Germany’s worst nightmare!
88 Anglo-Japanese Naval Agreement, 1902 Alliances and the First World War:Anglo-Japanese Naval Agreement, 1902A very important one was the 1902 Anglo-Japanese Naval Alliance, which freed up Great Britain from protecting its Empire in the far east…
89 Entente Cordiale, 1904 Alliances and the First World War: … which allowed Britain to make the Entente Cordiale (‘friendly relationship’) with France in 1904.
90 Triple Entente, 1907 Alliances and the First World War: In 1907 Russia joined Britain and France to make the Triple Entente.So by 1914 Europe had divided into two massive superpower blocs.People thought this BALANCE OF POWER would keep the peace.
91 The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance: Great Britain GermanyFranceAustria-HungaryRussiaItaly
92 Leaders Triple Alliance Triple Entente Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany) Franz Joseph I(Austria-Hungary)Vittorio Orlando(Italy)Triple EntenteDavid Lloyd George(England)Raymond Poincare(France)Czar Nicholas II (Russia)
96 The Two Sides Triple Alliance Triple Entente Germany Austria-Hungary ItalyCentral PowersOttoman EmpireTriple EntenteEnglandFranceRussiaAllied PowersEngland, France, Russia, United States, Italy, Serbia, Belgium, Switzerland
97 The Balkans Alliances and the First World War: But Russia was also allied to Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. When trouble erupted in the Balkans in 1914, the nations found their alliances dragged them into war…
98 Victor Emmanuel II [It] The Major Players:Allied Powers:Central Powers:Nicholas II [Rus]Wilhelm II [Ger]George V [Br]Victor Emmanuel II [It]Enver Pasha [Turkey]Pres. Poincare [Fr]Franz Josef [A-H]
99 Motivations behind Alliances Russia:saw itself as the Protector of the Slavsand claimed that Austria-Hungary treated the Serbs and the other Slavic minorities within its empire unfairly.Russia sought ready access to the Mediterranean Sea.Ottoman Empire:Had been losing territory since the 18th century (1700s)and sought to preserve its integrity and great power statusGermany:Shared history and culture with Austria and created a strong bond.Wanted to secure the Rhineland and ward off French desires to seek revenge for the loss of Alsace-Lorraine in 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War
100 Motivations behind Alliances Italy:Wanted to strengthen its position as world power and gain more colonies.Italy switched sides from the Central Powers to the Allied Powers in 1915 when promised to receive colonies after the warFrance:Looked upon Germany as an aggressorand wished to get back the territories it lost to Prussia (later leader of united Germany) in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871Serbia: Wanted to bring all Serbs in the Ottoman and Austrian-Hungary Empires into the Kingdom of Serbia
101 The Wearing-Down Tactics" - Lustige Blaetter (Berlin)The New-York Times Mid-Week PictorialNew York, New YorkDecember 30, 1915
102 "Goddam! What kind of fleas have I got in my mane anyway!" This cartoon from the periodical Simplicissimus, Munich portrays the British Lion (traditional symbol of Britain) as infested with Japanese fleas.The message it conveys is that the British are being influenced towards war by the Japanese diplomatic maneuvers.
103 How the Alliances caused war Alliances and the First World War:How the Alliances caused war… like mountain climbers tied to the same rope.(i.e. it is arguable that THE SYSTEM OF ALLIANCES CAUSED WORLD WAR ONE.)
112 “The Under-Study: The Triple Alliance Revised and Corrected. “ This Italian cartoon from the Numero in Turin shows Germany and Austria seated next to a smaller figure.The name on the middle chair used to be Italy but it has been crossed out and replaced with Turkey.It refers to the fact that originally Italy was a member of the Triple Alliance between Austria, Germany and Italy and should, pursuant to its treaty obligations, have fought on the side of the Germans.Instead, Italy (the weaker of the three parties) remained neutral and eventually entered the war on the side of the Allies.The cartoon comments on the fact that the Germans and Austrians have found a replacement in Turkey, also a weaker power that they can manipulate.
113 The Dallas Morning News On the Eve of WWI: Woodrow Wilson Steers Toward Justice (While Avoiding both War & Intervention)The Dallas Morning NewsDallas, TexasMarch, 1914
114 Why did it take so long for America to get involved in the war? America was isolationist“Why should I get involved in someone else’s problems”
115 Which side should the US pick? Central Powers:Allies:11 million German-AmericansIrish-Americans hated Great BritainClose cultural tiesShared transatlantic cables (so censored stories)Big business loaned much $ to AlliesUS Exports to both sides:
116 The U.S. Enters The Great War By 1917, the focus of the war shifted to the sea.That year the Germans intensified the submarine warfare.Earlier in 1915, the Germans sank the British liner the Lusitania off the coast of Ireland, which killed 1,198 persons including 128 Americans.The American public was outraged.President Woodrow Wilson sends a strong protest to Germany & they agree to stop attacking neutral & passenger ships, but two months later the Germans sink another British liner & a year later in 1916, the Germans sink a French passenger steamer killing or injuring about 80 passengers.By 1917, failed crops, as well as a British naval blockade, along the German coast to prevent weapons, food & other military goods from getting through, caused severe food shortages in Germany.An estimated 750,000 Germans starved to death as a result of the blockade.In response, Germany decided to establish its own naval blockade around Britain.In Jan. 1917, the Germans announce that their subs would sink without warning, any ship found in the waters around Britain – this policy was called unrestricted submarine warfare.
117 What did it take to get the US involved? 1. BlockadesBritain blockaded (stopped) all German ships going to AmericaGermany announced a submarine war around BritainY-53 German Submarine 1916
121 What did it take to get the US involved? 1. BlockadesLusitania torpedoed, sinking with 1200 passengers and crew (including 128 Americans)Was eventually found to be carrying 4200 cases of ammunitionGerman Propaganda Justifying Lusitania sinking
122 What did it take to get the US involved? 1. BlockadesThe US sharply criticized Germany for their actionGermany agreed not to sink passenger ships without warning in the futureNote in Bottle After Lusitania Disaster
124 What did it take to get the US involved? 2. Unlimited Submarine Warfare1917 Germany announced “unlimited submarine warfare” in the war zoneWhy? Otherwise their blockade would not be successful
125 What did it take to get the US involved? 3. Zimmerman NoteUS intercepted a note from Germany to Mexico,It promised Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona back in return for an alliance
126 What did it take to get the US involved? Zimmerman Note + the sinking of 4 unarmed American ships led to a declaration of war
127 In February 1917, the British intercepted a telegram from Germany’s foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, to the German ambassador in Mexico, which said that Germany would help Mexico obtain the land it had lost to the U.S. if Mexico would ally itself with Germany. The British decoded the message & gave it to the U.S. government.When the note was made public, Americans called for war against Germany.On April 2, 1917, President Wilson asked Congress to declare war. Thus the U.S. entered the war on the side of the Allies.The telegram had such an impact on American opinion that, according to David Kahn, author of The Codebreakers, "No other single cryptanalysis has had such enormous consequences.“It is his opinion that "never before or since has so much turned upon the solution of a secret message."
128 Pancho Villa's Specialty: Getting the Money An Early Shakedown Artist The Dallas Morning NewsDallas, TexasMarch 8, 1914
131 THE MAJOR PARTICIPANTS THE ALLIED POWERS(The Triple Entente)FranceRussiaGreat BritainSerbiaBelgiumJapanMontenegroUnited StatesItalyTHE CENTRAL POWERS(The Triple Alliance)Austria-HungaryGermanyOttoman EmpireBulgariaVS.
132 On the Left Side of your notes: Respond to the historical information on the Alliances.Can you compare the alliances to situations in your own life? Explain.What do you think of the motivations behind the alliances? Why?Do you think America made the right decision when joining the war and on the side she did? Why or why not?If you were Germany, would you have broken your promise to America in terms of unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917? Why or why not?