2IntroductionSummary: After Lenin dies, Stalin seizes power and transforms the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state.“Stalin, Lenin’s successor, dramatically transformed the government of the Soviet Union. Stalin was determined that the Soviet Union should find its place both politically and economically among the most powerful of nations in the world. Using tactics designed to rid himself of opposition, Stalin worked to establish total control of all aspects of life in the Soviet Union. He controlled not only the government, but also the economy and many aspects of citizens’ private lives.” (p. 874)
4Total, Centralized State Control Totalitarianism—government that dominates every aspect of lifeTotalitarian leader is often dynamic* and persuasive*pertaining to or characterized by energy or effective action; vigorously active or forceful; energetic: the dynamic president of the firm.
5Police Terror Government uses police to spy on and intimidate people “Normally, the police are expected to respond to criminal activity and protect the citizens. In a totalitarian state, the police serve enforce the central government’s policies.” (p. 874)
6IndoctrinationGovernment shapes people’s minds through slanted education“Control of education is absolutely essential to glorify the leader and his policies and to convince all citizens that their unconditional loyalty and support are required.” (p. 874, 876)
7Propaganda and Censorship Totalitarian states spread *propaganda.Government controls all mass media, and **crushes opposing views.*biased or incomplete information used to sway people**censorship
8Religious or Ethnic Persecution Leaders brand religious, ethnic minorities “enemies of the state.”
10Fear of Totalitarianism George Orwell illustrated the horrors of a totalitarian government in his novel, The novel depicts a world in which personal freedom and privacy have vanished. It is a world made possible through modern technology. Even citizen’s homes have television cameras that constantly survey their behavior.
11Totalitarian leaders in the 20th century Adolf Hitler (Germany)Benito Mussolini (Italy)Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)Kim Il Sung (North Korea)Saddam Hussein (Iraq)
13Stalin Builds a Totalitarian State Stalin aims to create Communist state in Russia.He began by destroying his enemies—real and imagined.
14Police StateStalin’s police attack opponents with public force and secret actions“They monitored telephone lines, read mail, and planted informers everywhere. Even children told authorities about disloyal remarks they heard at home.”The Great Purge (sometimes called the “Great Terror”)—terror campaign against Stalin’s perceived enemies.The purge involvedThe “old Bolsheviks” who helped in the 1917 Revolution.The Red Army leadershipRepression of the “Kulaks” or better off, independent landowning peasantsBy the end of 1938 Stalin is in complete control; 8-13 million people are dead as a result.
15Russian Propaganda and Censorship Government controls newspapers, radio, and movies.Stalin developed a “cult of personality” often glorifying himself in official propaganda posters (see right).Artists are censored, controlled; their work is harnessed to glorify the Party
16More PropagandaA poster from the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) celebrating Stalin’s 70th birthday. The text translates: “The leader and teacher of humanity in the fight for peace, democracy and socialism.”
17Yet MORE propaganda!This East German poster celebrates Stalin’s 73rd birthday in The text here translates “Long live the standard bearer of peace. the best friend of the German people.”
18Education and Indoctrination Government controls all education, from early grades to college.Children learn the virtues of the Communist Party.Teachers and students who challenge the Party are punished.
19Religious Persecution Government attacks the Russian Orthodox Church.Magnificent churches and synagogues are destroyed. Religious leaders are killed.People lose all personal rights and freedoms.
21New Economic SystemCommand economy—the government makes all the economic decisions.
22An Industrial Revolution Five-Year Plans—Stalin’s plans for developing the economyResult: large growth in industrial power, but a shortage in consumer goods
23An Agricultural Revolution In 1928, government creates collective farms—large, state-owned farms.Peasants resist this change, and 5-10 million peasants die in the crackdown.“The government expected that the modern machinery on the collective farms would boost food production and reduce the number of workers. Resistance was especially strong among kulaks, a class of wealthy peasants. The Soviet government decided to eliminate them.Peasants actively fought the government’s attempt to take their land. Many killed livestock and destroyed crops in protest. Soviet secret police herded peasants onto collective farms at the point of a bayonet. Between 5 million and 10 million peasants died as a direct result of Stalin’s agricultural revolution. By 1938, more than 90 percent of all peasants lived on collective farms.” (p. 878)By 1938, agricultural production is rising.
25Gains at Great Cost People better educated, gain new skills. Limited personal freedoms; very few consumer goods.
26Woman Gain Rights Communists say women are equal to men. Women forced to join labor force; state provides child careMany women receive advanced educations and become professionals.Women suffer from the demands of work and family.
28Powerful Ruler By mid-1930s, Stalin has transformed Soviet Union Totalitarian regime; industrial, political powerStalin controls all aspects of Soviet life:Unopposed as dictator, Communist Party leaderRules by terror instead of constitutional governmentDemands conformity and obedience.