Presentation on theme: "Hagia Sophia Also known as Aya Sofya and St Sophia. Built in 537 AD and situated in Istanbul, Turkey. A Christian Masterpiece All rights reserved. Rights."— Presentation transcript:
Hagia Sophia Also known as Aya Sofya and St Sophia. Built in 537 AD and situated in Istanbul, Turkey. A Christian Masterpiece All rights reserved. Rights belong to their respective owners. Available free for non-commercial and personal use. First created Jul 2007. Version 3.0 - 24 Mar 2012. Jerry Tse. London.
Hagia Sophia overlooking the Bosphorus, situated in Turkey’s largest city, Istanbul.
The History of Byzantium The Roman Empire proved too vast to govern. In 286 AD, it was divided into East and West. The empire was re-united briefly under the rule of Constantine (306-337 AD), who in 330 AD transferred the capital from Rome to Byzantium, which was a little Greek port and renamed as Constantinople, or its modern name Istanbul. After the death of Constantine, the empire was split up again. Eventually, the western part of the empire was overran by barbarians in 476 AD. The eastern part of the empire survived until 1453, about a thousand years later, when it was defeated by the Turks. The surviving eastern empire is known The Byzantine Empire.
Modern day Istanbul showing the massive city wall.
The History of the Building Haghia Sophia (‘Holy Wisdom’ in Greek) was inaugurated in 537 AD, nearly 1500 years ago, by Emperor Justinian. An enormous sum was used to build the church. It marks the beginning of Byzantine architecture. For many years it was the most celebrated church in all of Christendom. After the fall of Constantinople, it was converted into a mosque with the additions of minarets in 1458. Ever since it has been an inspiration and a model for many of the Islamic mosques. Today, it is used as a museum. Like the Pantheon in Rome, it is one of the oldest building in continuous used today for nearly 1500 years.
The Architectural Achievement and Plan An old architectural problem is to fit a circular dome over a square plan. A perfect solution to the problem is the use of a pendentive, a curved triangular vault. These were incorporated into the construction of Hagia Sophia.
Cross section of the building showing the interior and exterior of Hagia Sophia.
The Interior The most impressive feature is the size of the building, the enormous interior space that it encloses. The dome is 31m across and reaching to a height of 56m. The space under the dome is further extended by a series of vaulted spaces, pushing the walls further out, until the dome appears to be hanging in the air. On the base of the dome there is a row of 40 windows. Large windows are opened on all the surrounding walls. These windows illuminate the interior from all sides and from above, creating an impression of light and a weightlessness space within the church. Much of the interior treasures including the alter was plundered by the crusader in 1204 and loots were carried back to Venice as trophies. Weakened by the crusader, the only Christian empire of the orient was finally fell to the Turks in 1453. Islamic decorations were added to the interior.
Pillars and decoration on the second level gallery.
The Mosaic Much of the mosaics from the time of Byzantine survived. Architecturally the interior is largely intact. The interior is embellished with gold mosaics, tapestries, polished marble, porphyry and ivory. On the next slide is the well known mosaic of Jesus, The Deisis of the 12C. Note pink coloured cheeks.
The Architectural Influence – San Macro, Venice. It was built between 1063 and 1082, with many of architectural elements similar to that of Hagia Sophia. In particularly the golden mosaics that cover all the interior walls and the multi-domes that form part of the ceiling.
The Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Camii), Istanbul. It derides its name from the blue tile work within the building. It was built between 1609-16 in the days of a declining Ottoman Empire. The Architectural Influence – Blue Mosque, Istanbul.
The End All rights reserved. Available free for non-commercial and non-profit use only The Byzantine culture is closest to the Greek culture of today. The language for Byzantine Empire is Greek and not Latin. They share the same religion, Orthodox Christianity and many of the symbols of Byzantium are still being used in Greece today. Music : Eklapsa Htes by Mimis Plessas played on a Bouzouki (a long neck Greek mandolin).