Presentation on theme: "Buildings The Key Words. You Need to know at least four styles of buildings in English : Gothic Otoman Modern Jugendstil or Art Nouveau Baroque Ethnographic."— Presentation transcript:
Buildings The Key Words
You Need to know at least four styles of buildings in English : Gothic Otoman Modern Jugendstil or Art Nouveau Baroque Ethnographic
Special features of buildings: spire - smaile tower- tornis dome - kupols balcony - balkons arch - arka vault - velve buttress – balsts pillar – pīlārs; pārsedzošs balsts
Special features of buildings door - durvis perron – lievenis; lieveņa kāpnes steps – kāpnes; pakāpieni chimney; stove – skurstenis; krāsns cellar – pagrabs front and back garden (yard) - dārzs fence or hedge– žogs vai dzīvžogs terrace - terase
When you start building a house, you need: a project, design or plan of the house that are made by a designer or an architect; a construction site or a building yard where the construction of the house takes place; a team of constructors or builders who build or construct the house building materials or supplies and different building tools
The Construction: first you excavate or dig a hole for the basement or fundaments; then you mix and pour concrete; then you attach some trusses or carcas for the construction of your house; after that you make walls and window openings: - lay bricks or blocks; - joint logs; - make wartherboards;
after that you lay trusses or rafts and have ridgepole celebrations;
and finally you lay the roof
or thach it.
Different types of roofs: dome curved roof
Traditional Roofs: Gable A very triangular roof, the gable allows rain and snow to run off easily Mansard A French gable roof. Cross Gable This is like the gable roof, but has two parts that cross. Flat A flat roof is exactly that - flat. It is easy to build and uses few materials.
Traditional Roofs: Hipped A low-pitched roof that allows rain and snow to run off easily, also allows for large eaves on a building. Cross Hipped Similar to a hipped roof, but this roof has two parts that cross Pyramidal A hipped roof that forms a pyramid shape. Gambrel This roof looks more bell-like than triangular when viewed from the side.
Traditional Roofs: Saltbox Similar to a gable roof, but the two sides of it are not symmetrical. Shed Similar to a gable roof, as it allows rain and snow to run off easily. Sometimes, if there is a stove heating in the house, there is a chimney above the roof. Usually there is an attic – a room directly below the roof. Nowadays many houses have got central or district heating.
Materials of roofs are: tile or tilting roof sheet iron or iron slate straw or reed
What roofs have these houses got?
Materials of Buildings: wood: -weatherboards; -joint logs; stone: -red sandstone; -coarse or white limestone; - marble; brick glass and metal or steel
Materials of Buildings: joint logs;watherboards; red sandstone; white limestone
Materials of Buildings: coarse limestone marble glass and metal brick