2 1. Julius Caesar is an important figure in Roman history because he a. fought the First Punic Warb. became the first emperor of Romec. greatly increased the power of the Senated. expanded Rome's territory and became dictator for lifeJulius Caesar is important in Roman history because he expanded Rome's territory (in Britain, Egypt, France, Spain, and Syria) and became dictator for life (in 44 B.C.). Caesar exercised nearly absolute power.
3 a. Mark Antony b. Octavian c. Marcus Brutus d. Gaius Cassius 2. "I was the adopted son of the great Julius. I defeated all of my rivals and became the first emperor of Rome." The person speaking isa. Mark Antonyb. Octavianc. Marcus Brutusd. Gaius CassiusThe person speaking is Octavian, who took the name Augustus Caesar after becoming Rome's first emperor.
4 3. Which of the following conquered people influenced Rome the most? a. Greeksb. Carthaginiansc. Gaulsd. BritonsThe Greeks influenced Rome the most. After Greece was conquered by Rome during the 2nd century B.C., Greek literature, philosophy, science, mathematics, and art spread to Rome.
5 d. chemistry and physics 4. Two important contributions of ancient Rome to later societies were ina. poetry and dramab. law and engineeringc. painting and musicd. chemistry and physicsRome made important contributions in law and engineering. Roman law became the basis for many legal systems in Europe.
6 5. The Romans used aqueducts to a. carry water to towns and citiesb. improve transportation on the Mediterraneanc. increase farm productiond. improve military trainingAqueducts were used to carry water to towns and cities from reservoirs in the countryside.
7 a. were often forced into slavery because of debt 6. During the early years of the Roman Republic, members of the patrician classa. were often forced into slavery because of debtb. avoided service in the armyc. used their wealth to dominate the government of the Republicd. worked as small farmers, artisans and small merchantsMembers of the patrician class dominated the government of the Republic. The patricians were wealthy landowners who traced their ancestry to the original founders of Rome. They were the members of the Senate, which made the laws of the Republic.
8 a. It made Christianity the official religion of the empire. 7. What is the importance of the Edict of Milan issued by the Emperor Constantine in 313 A.D.?a. It made Christianity the official religion of the empire.b. It outlawed Christianity.c. It granted full toleration to all religions, includingChristianity.d. It attempted to revive the traditional religion of theRoman Republic.The Edict of Milan granted religious toleration to all religions, including Christianity.
9 8. The decline of the Roman Empire was partly caused by a. the widening of class distinctions between the rich and poorb. the replacement of efficient large estates by many lessefficient small farmsc. the interest of the common people in fulfilling theirobligations of citizenship in a democratic societyd. a uniformity of traditions and customs which preventedcultural diversityThe decline of the Roman Empire was partly caused by the widening of class distinctions between rich and poor.
10 a. Byzantines b. Germanic tribes c. Huns d. Persians 9. Which group was responsible for the destruction of the Roman Empire in the west?a. Byzantinesb. Germanic tribesc. Hunsd. PersiansThe Germanic tribes living north of the Danube River in Europe were responsible for the destruction of the Roman Empire in the west. German tribes flooded into the empire, seizing control of its western half.
11 a. A shortage of stone forced them to use primarily wood and 10. Why did Roman architects frequently use the arch, vault, and dome in construction?a. A shortage of stone forced them to use primarily wood anddried brick.b. These devices were inherited from the Greeks, whom they admired.c. It allowed them to place a roof on large buildings.d. They enabled the interiors of buildings to be heavily decorated.Roman architects used the arch, vault, and dome so that they could place roofs on large buildings. They inherited the arch from the Greeks, but invented the vault and the dome.