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The High Middle Ages 1000-1300AD.

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Presentation on theme: "The High Middle Ages 1000-1300AD."— Presentation transcript:

1 The High Middle Ages AD

2 The Age of Faith: High Middle Ages
Chartres: Cathedral of Our Lady Opens 1180AD after 40 yrs: Link to Cathedral video Regional Center of Spirituality And Business

3 Architecture Time: Make a List of the Differences: Romanesque v. Gothic
St. Sernin, Toulouse, France Chartres, France

4 Note the cross in both…

5 Clerestory windows Romanesque barrel vault Gothic Groin vaulting tympanum

6 Notre Dame Cathedral

7 Romanesque Gothic Separate compartments. Unified, unbroken space.
Radiating chapels and apse: Separate compartments. Unified, unbroken space. Vault: Mostly barrel-vaults, some groin-vaults. Groin-vaulted cathedrals. Arch type: Rounded arches. Pointed arches. Main vault support Thick walls, buttresses Thinner piers, Exterior flying buttresses. Clerestory: Small windows. Large stained-glass windows. Elevation: Horizontal, modest height. Vertical, soaring. Exterior: Plain, little decoration, solid. Ornate, delicate, lots of sculpture Sculptural decoration: Thin, elongated, abstract figures. More realistic proportions and individualized features. Mood: Dark, gloomy. Tall, light-filled. Examples: St. Sernin, Toulouse, France Chartres Cathedral, France. Notre Dame, Paris, France

8 High middle Ages Six Big Ideas in this Chapter
New farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade. The Catholic Church improved through important reforms. The church was a kingdom of its own that was nevertheless entangled with secular kingdoms.

9 …SIX KEYS… Most kings gained more power over their vassals, but lost power to growing towns. New and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose. The Catholic Church used the feudal system to try to conquer the Holy Lands, but the result was damaging to its own authority.

10 What new farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade?
New Ways of Farming Increased Food Population Growth Towns Grew Larger and Richer Burghers Banking and money circulated more widely Guilds Controlled Crafts and Trade Town people won new Liberties. Soon, universities start to expand higher learning

11 Stadtluft Macht Frei Townspeople won new liberties

12 A Town Charter (Monmouth, England, 1605)

13 The Charter of Lorris (France) AD 1155
18. Any one who shall dwell a year and a day in the parish of Lorris, without any claim having pursued him there, and without having refused to lay his case before us or our provost, shall abide there freely and without molestation.

14 Fairs were Centers of Trade
The Covered Market of Lorris, 12th century

15 The Covered Market at Miradoux (15th c.)

16 Guilds: What were they? Do they still exist?
What different kinds were there? How were they organized?

17 How did Jews live in Medieval Europe?
Read primary source: “The Position of Jews” taken from a decree by the Bishop of Speyer Answer the Questions on the handout.

18 Quick Quiz: Identify Gregory VII Lay investiture A friar
Concordat of Worms

19 Problems and Growth in the Church

20 What were the Big Problems of the Church around 1000AD??
Low moral standards among many priests Unlawful marriage Buying and selling of church positions Heresy Corruption in choosing popes Lay Investiture: To invest a bishop with power by secular lord Lay: Not a church person But these Bishops sometimes cared more about their feudal powers Where should these bishops’ loyalty be?

21 Pope Gregory VII Puts the Church in Order
What does secular mean? Reestablished Religious Authority over Secular Authority Cardinals set up to choose pope Fights against marriage of priests Buying/selling of positions Lay investiture

22 Pope Gregory vs. Emperor Henry
Humbles Emperor Henry IV in 1077 Pope Reaffirms a ban on lay investiture Henry’s letter: (Review Primary Source) How would you reply if you were Pope Gregory? Reply: King’s vassals are free of king Alps, Switzerland - 3 days in the snow...ouch!

23 A Fork in the Tree of Abraham Christians Into Two Branches- 1054 AD
Note this: not in Chapter 10 A Fork in the Tree of Abraham Christians Into Two Branches AD Catholic Church versus… Eastern Orthodox Church Cardinal Humbert visits Patriarch of Constantinople He carries Pope Leo IX’s statement (a bull) of excommunication Pope and Patriarch Excommunicate Each Other

24 Under Gregory, the Church became a powerful kingdom of its own….
Like feudalism: Pope like King Cardinals like elite nobility Archbishops like great lords bishops like lesser lords, priests like: __________ Diplomats Bishops operated local courts Tax called the Tithe (10%) Social services Archbishops as great lords, bishops as lesser lords, priests as knights…Legates: as foreign diplomats....Bishops operated local courts…canon law; Taxes: Tithes collected; Social services like hospitals and soup kitchens, orphanages

25 The Inquisition and Friars
Trials run by church lawyers in church courts: Courts arrest heretics under canon law Two new Orders of Friars: Dominicans – St Dominic Franciscans - St. Francis Dominicans – St Dominic Franciscans - St. Francis systematic education Spanish simple poverty more intellectual love of nature Italian

26 Six Key Concepts (reviewed)
New farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade. The Catholic church improved through important reforms. The church was a kingdom of its own that was nevertheless entangled with secular kingdoms. Most kings gained more power over their vassals, but lost power to growing towns. New and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose. The Catholic Church used the feudal system to try to conquer the Holy Lands, but the result was damaging to its own authority.

27 Kings Gained Power: Where would you prefer to be king? (1100 CE) WHY?
England William, Duke of Normandy: “the Conqueror” Henry II France Capetian dynasty: Hugh Capet Holy Roman Empire Otto the Great & Frederick Barbarossa

28 Read and Answer: How did William win England?
“That September, a large Viking force attacked England near York. Harold made an astonishing four-day march, 200 miles across England, and beat the Vikings soundly at Stamford Bridge. Four days later, William landed, and Harold had to repeat the march -- all the way down to the south coast of England. He took up a strong position near Hastings and waited for William. The great clash of two technologies, separated by 300 years, was set. William's armored horse might well have blown Harold away, but they were fighting uphill and their timing was bad. Harold's men, fighting from behind shields, savaged the horses with battle-axes. Harold won the first round and then didn't follow up. Historian David Howarth thinks Harold was destroyed, not by end-to-end history-making marches, nor by superior armor. In his view, the papal flag, the threat of excommunication, and Harold's own exhausted confidence lost the battle. He let his men sit still in a defensive position while William lofted arrows over their shields and into their ranks. He sat dispirited in a battle he might have won. Even then, William didn't win England at Hastings. He won the war when people like Harold's sister and the Archbishop of Canterbury joined him.” Lienhard, John H. “Engines of Our Ingenuity Series: #312, The Battle of Hastings.” (1997) (30 Nov. 2006).

29 Example of paraphrasing and quoting information from a source, and citing it properly.
Historian David Howarth says that William won primarily not because of his superior weaponry and armor, but because he had on his side the Pope’s threat of excommunicating Harold, the support of members of Harold’s own family, and the advantage of Harold’s “own exhausted confidence” (Lienhard).

30 William Centralizes England
Invades from Normandy France Wins at Battle of Hastings He takes all the lands Gives fiefs to 200 Norman lords loyal to him appointed bishops from Normandy. kept 1/5 of land for himself. Battle of Hastings 1066, defeats Harold Godwinson

31 More Notes on King William: Was he an effective leader
More Notes on King William: Was he an effective leader? Related evidence, ideas, and examples that can support a thesis. * Most kings everywhere were slow to accept townspeople's liberties * William’s control of all the land of England helped to organize England into a nation * William’s son Henry I continued the good work of his father * William introduced a better calendar * the infighting of the English aristocracy was replaced by a unified royal family * France had many innovations that worked

32 William the Conqueror’s rule in England.
(NO one good reason that doesn’t support) (YES: one good reason ) 1. “He was slow to accept the “He inspired his hardworking staff to increasing liberty of the townspeople impose French - style improvements ” in England” 2. Your Opinion/Main Idea we should believe: “William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy in France, made England a better place.” Thesis Formula: “Although 1,2 because of 3.” RESULTING THESIS: “Although he was slow to accept the increasing liberty of the townspeople of England, William the Conqueror made England a superior place in the Middle Ages because he and his inspired officials worked hard to put into effect many improvements they brought from France.”

33 Henry II, William’s Grandson
How did Henry II strengthen the king’s power over the lords? (Royal judges now, not local lords’ judges) How did a jury trial work? (A jury were locals who answered a royal judges questions about the case) How was it different from the way it works today in the US?

34 How did Otto the Great make the king’s position stronger?
Otto the Great used lay investiture cemented loyalties of bishops a habit his grandson Henry IV repents for… Otto invaded Italy to help Pope Pope crowned emperor in 962 establishing the Holy Roman Empire Seen as continuation of the Empire of Charlemagne

35 Frederick I (Barbarossa) 1152-1190 Descendant of Otto
Fights the Lombard League in N Italy 1167 Battle of Legnano… Next slide… Barbarossa was the Italians’ name for him.

36 An Army of Common Foot Soldiers Defeat Frederick’s Knights…OUCH

37 But in the Holy Roman Empire, German Kings Remained Overall Weaker than in other Kingdoms.
Why? They often got distracted in Italian affairs because of conflicts with the Pope. Kings were elected by nobles who retained local powers. Fewer riches; they did not possess a lot of rich land in their own name.

38 France / Capetians Hugh Capet Ruled from Paris
Avoided civil war among themselves Townspeople: new class outside of feudalism Bourgeoisie

39 Chivalry and Knights Define “Chivalry” The Song of Roland
From French Cheval: cavalier, cabellero - In German: Ritter: English: Rider The Song of Roland What steps were required to becoming a knight? How does the role of women change?

40 Women in art: How does art change over time? (pt 1)
Circa: 7th century AD Mary and Joseph with Child Circa 9th century AD: Church of Saint Prassede, Rome. Mary with Saints Prassede and Prudenziana. The square halo indicates the fourth person is still alive.

41 Women in art: How does art change? Part 2
1310 Circa 1100 1400

42 The University “The universal society of teachers and students”
This is a fortunate classroom…how does this compare with the description in the book?

43 New and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose in the 1100s.
Prior to the 12th century, intellectual learning only took place in monasteries in Western Europe. Describe the students’ experience at the first “universities”? From what socio-economic class did most students come?

44 The University was incorporated like a guild with ranks
(Guild: Apprentice, Journeyman, Master) Bachelors, Masters, Doctorate Classes start 6am. Up to 3-6 years for a Bachelors 3-4 more for a Masters. Subjects taught: Theology, Latin, Greek, Law, Medicine, Philosophy Students were given the special protection under the law that clergy had, so …stories of student mayhem and pranks abound in the period! Pagan writers’ words coming into Western Europe from non-Catholics! Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae

45 Crusades: The War of the Cross
Battle of Manzikert 1071 Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines

46 “God Wills It!” Pope Urban II calls for the Crusades in 1095
Hopes to unite Christians from East under the Pope 8 official crusades and numerous smaller unofficial crusades follow. Video Overview of Crusades as an end to the Dark Ages

47 Motivations for the Crusades
For all: a real sense of spiritual salvation by participating in defending Christendom The Pope To persuade the Byzantine Empire and the Eastern Orthodox Church to unite with the Pope/Catholic Church Wanted to show political power of Papacy To regain Jerusalem, and the land where Christ lived The Knights Without war in Europe, they are restless Forgiveness of sins for killing Christians in the past Promised Heaven for killing infidels Wanted plunder The Burghers Wealth from major trading cities in Eastern Europe and Middle East

48 Results of 1st Crusade 1099AD
3/4 of Crusaders died before reaching Holy Land Christians attacked Jews in Europe Jerusalem taken, but most Muslims and Jews were slaughtered in the city Christians captured about 400 miles of land around Jerusalem 4 feudal states formed Better castles built The Knights Templar founded to protect pilgrims

49 Original Headquarters of Knights Templar Jerusalem

50 Second Crusade Results: Disaster in the East!!
The Muslim Turks under King Saladin re-conquered all of the area won by the Christians in the First Crusade. Success: In Spain, Christians take some area from Moors

51 The Third Crusade: “Kings Crusade

52 King’s Tried To Retake Jerusalem
Led by King Richard the Lionheart Link to Richard and Saladin Video on Youtube King Philip Augustus, France Emperor Frederick I, Barbarossa, Holy Roman Empire King Richard I (the “Lionheart”), England Little success, defeated by Saladin Saladin’s chivalry? He allowed Christians to visit peacefully Angry Pope excommunicated Richard in 1192, left Muslim control of Holy land, but allowed Christians to visit and prosper.

53 The Really Bad Fourth Crusade
Crusades get really distracted, attack Byzantines in Constantinople!

54 Crusades Changed Europe, Good and Bad… Short Terms effects…
See packet for list of many outcomes!!! Temporary land gains in Palestine Sack of Constantinople Temporary gain in Pope’s power and prestige Europeans gained a bigger view of world Death of several 100,000

55 Long Term Effects of Crusades What declined?
Decline of the pope’s prestige Did God really want the Crusades? Why failure? Decline of noble power Knights died in battle and of disease and lost land Contributes to decline of feudalism AND Rise of stronger national Monarchs Decline of Byzantine power 4th Crusade dealt serious blow Muslims would conquer the Constantinople in 1453.

56 Long Term Effects :What Increased?
Increase in monarchical power Kings took advantage of noble misfortune …and the pope’s loss of prestige Increase in religious intolerance Tensions between Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Muslim, and Jews Beginning of the end of Muslims (Moors) in Spain Increase in trade Growth of independent Italian city-states Crusaders like spices and goods of Middle East (pepper, cinnamon) Increase in Learning and Technology Universities grew and more were established in Western Europe Rediscovery of Aristotle and other Greek and Roman ancients in the West Paper introduced to replace parchment New words: algebra, cotton, bizarre, azure, lemon, sugar Improvements in sailing and navigation Rounded Castles designed

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