Presentation on theme: "(briefly). Architecture has at its beginnings caves and huts fashioned by people as shelters for their families. It wasn’t till the civilizations of Ancient."— Presentation transcript:
Architecture has at its beginnings caves and huts fashioned by people as shelters for their families. It wasn’t till the civilizations of Ancient Egypt that it was recorded that we as a race first used drawings to plan their designs. Imhotep, (contrary to the movie series the Mummy), is known as the world’s first named architect as well as an important advisor to the Pharoah. The Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/dsteppyramid1.ht m
Before the civilization of ancient Egypt, was the architecture of the Neolithic period of which some remains today. Stonehenge would be one such example of this. Most of the Neolithic architecture seems to involve simple design such as the post and lintel system. http://faculty.evansville.edu/rl29/art105/sp03/art105- 1.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Stonehenge_Inside_Faci ng_NE_April_2005.jpg post lintel
Architectural advances are directly correlated with progress in learning, especially science/math. As new building materials and methods come about, the design changes. One of the oldest types of construction is the bearing wall. In this method, walls are used to take the load of the roof. In order to create a door opening in this, one uses a simple post and lintel system, (Thus the simple design of the Neolithic period). This design was used in many different cultures throughout the world including the cultures of western civilization. By the time of Ancient Greece, this method was refined to include large open spaces and a detailed designs on the posts and lintels. Temple at Sounio
With their extensive use of “posts”, the Greeks developed, over time, many types of columns or posts such that today they exist as ‘Orders’. The most common are the Doric Order, the Ionic Order, and the Corinthian Order, and were designed in that ‘order’. =) Later the Romans developed a Composite Order, Tuscan Order, and Etruscan Order.
From the post and lintel system, ancient Romans advanced the field of Architecture greatly and came up with the “Arch” which allowed for greater span without support. Through this method, each stone is supported by leaning on the keystone in the center which locks all the other stones in place. http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/a/images/aqueduct_ni mes.lg.JPG Roman Aqueducts
Romans continued their advances in engineering with the vault, which is what occurs when the arch is extended. A vault is simply a series of arches. Barrel Vaults became used as passageways and aisles and were especially popular later in churches to create naves. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.historyforkids.or g/learn/medieval/architecture/pictures/caendames/vault.jpg&imgrefurl =http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/architecture/groinvault.htm&h=5 33&w=400&sz=44&hl=en&start=3&um=1&usg=__nbn7pyKs7CRvzt YfifAHXx8xeEw=&tbnid=vLoYJUHIbjyKaM:&tbnh=132&tbnw=99 &prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbarrel%2Bvault%2Bpictures%26um%3D1 %26hl%3Den Two barrel vaults intersecting creates what is called a groin vault as seen here: Abbeye aux Dames, Caen, 1050 http://upload.wikimedia.or g/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/ Barrel_Vault.jpg Barrel Vault at the cloisters in New York City
The final pinnacle of the arch is the dome which is simply multiple arches arranged such that the bases are in a circle and the top is the middle of the ceiling. This was thought to convey power so Romans often used it in religious and governmental structures. Without these advances discovered by Roman engineers, much of what we have done today would not be possible. With these advances, those with the funds were able to create larger and more impressive buildings. http://art.optzile.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/09_929- 296_pantheon_interior.jpg Pantheon interior, Commissioned by Emperor Hadrian, 118-125 CE
Much of this new architecture was later used in constructing churches, however, even with the vault and arch, there were limits about how far apart columns could be placed. Gothic Architecture used pointed arches and flying buttresses to take some of the weight off of the walls thus allowing for the use of large windows which let in light and allowed the building to feel more spacious while extending its height. http://afxafx.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/notre_da me.jpg http://lh6.ggpht.com/_cdbJDiM_6YY/SG_b1Bjm1MI/AAAA AAAACew/B4zaZ8QD0Z4/DSC00675.JPG Notre Dame de Paris, 1163-1285
Following the Gothic period was a return to the classical foundations of Rome with the Renaissance which was followed by a more elaborate period called Baroque. Baroque was succeeded by the Neoclassical period, again returning to classical roots for inspiration. At this time countries like France and England began to develop their own more in depth styles for which they became known, (English tudor, French chateau, etc.) When it comes to the US, we have taken from both of these countries as well as Italy and Spain for the majority of our architecture. http://www.sirclisto.com/cavalier/fr_baroque.html http://www.arcoremodeling.com/gpage4.htmlhttp://www.bali- information.com/BaliGalleryListing.php/Item/329 http://www.frontdoor.com/buy/neoclassical- architecture/1044
Outside of western civilization were many different cultures that have influenced the world and the way architecture is today including, (but not limited to), India, China, Japan, Ancient Persia & Byzantine, and so on. http://speaker-author.com/travelog.html http://www.architecturepicture.net/japanese-architecture/ Iranian Mosque Shinto Shrine
Another style that bears talking about is Art Nouveau, (or new style). Art Nouveau began in France and emphasized curving organic forms integrated into architecture, art, and everyday objects. It was a style that permeated the lives of people. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:HortaELWI.jpg Victor Horta, Hotel Van Eetvelde Staircase, Brussels http://farm1.static.flickr.com/120/302759014_7981338c4f.jpg?v=116412 4055 Antonio Gaudi, Casa Batllo, Barcelona, 1905- 1907
With the advancement of new technology and materials, architecture has been able to grow and change by leaps and bounds in the past century. The development of steel, aluminum, structural glass, prestressed concrete, laminates and plastics have made buildings lighter and allowed them to change their shapes. Steel beams have allowed for cantilevered construction which takes the weight off of one end of a beam and spreads it to the other end. Fallingwater, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1938 http://greatbuildings.com/Fallingwater.html
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/101.portrait.a ltonthompson.jpg Taipei 101 is one of the world’s tallest completed skyscrapers. It would not be possible without steel. This building was recently outstripped by Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Frank Lloyd Wright once proposed a mile high skyscraper and in the past 20 years there have been many buildings constructed each outstripping the others in height.
All of these developments lead us to the present day where such architects as Frank Gehry are in demand. Form doesn’t always allow for function, but in this work, Gehry meets both requirements. Disney Concert Hall, Frank Gehry, 2003
Other famous works of architectural greatness include: Taj Mahal, 1653 (considered to be a great example of Muhgal architecture)
Great Wall of China, 5 th century BC- 16 th century (considered to be a great example of Muhgal architecture)
Colosseo, 80 AD (considered to be one of the greatest feats of Roman engineering)
Eiffel Tower, 1889-1930 (originally constructed as the entrance for the 1889 World’s Fair)
Sydney Opera House, 1973, Jorn Utzon (Example of Modern Expressionism)
Leaning Tower of Pisa, 1173-1372 (An example of poor engineering)
Statue of Liberty, 1886, Frederic Auguste Bartoldi (A gift of France to celebrate America’s centennial)
And so on, and so on. The list of impressive/influential works of architecture is endless at this point. You as artists and students need to explore what is out there. Don’t limit your creativity. Look at how architecture has changed over the years, and how you might mix styles and industrial developments.