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1 西方文明史 第十二講: 中古歐洲藝術 劉 慧 教授 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版授權釋出】創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版.

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Presentation on theme: "1 西方文明史 第十二講: 中古歐洲藝術 劉 慧 教授 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版授權釋出】創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 西方文明史 第十二講: 中古歐洲藝術 劉 慧 教授 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版授權釋出】創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版

2 2 1) The Parliamentary peerage – Dukes (1337 duke of Cornwall) – Earls (11 th c) and barons (11 th c; 1387) – Marquess (1385), viscount (1440) – families 2) The gentry – Knights, esquires (14 th c), gentlemen (15 th c) – 9,000 families 3) Yeomen and the rest 1290s- new methods to recruit fighting men – Archer, infantry – Contract and salary; commission of array

3 3 Medieval Art ‘Renaissance’ Architecture/ sculpture/ (wall) painting/ tapestry/ book illumination th c Anglo-Saxon/ Insular art th c Carolingian minuscule th c Romanesque and Gothic architecture 4.15 th c Oil painting

4 4 Leonardo da Vinci ( )Raphael ( )

5 5 Michelangelo ( ) Sistine Chapel

6 6 Leonardo da Vinci ( ); Michelangelo ( ); Raphael ( ) Petrarch ( ); Machiavelli ( ) Shakespeare ( ); Cervantes ( ); Henry VIII and Elizabeth; François I; Isabella and Ferdinand the Duomo Florence Chambord

7 7 The Renaissances Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860): – individualism and modernity. personality, glory, self-fashioning BUT: – no ‘death’ of classical learning before – All Renaissance personalities and ‘humanists’ were Christians – ‘Renaissance’ thinkers and artists were enormously diverse – Society and culture had been increasingly worldly and materialistic since the 12 th c – ‘Re-birth’= self-perception of the Italian thinkers in the 14 and 15 th c: against the dominant French culture, esp. scholasticism and architecture

8 8 – Humanism Revival of Latin literature in the context of a rhetorical tradition (written communication, persuasion and entertainment; poems and letters) – In contrast with medieval scholasticism Human’s nobility and great potential for understanding – exercise of reason and self-control – But already most visible in the 12 th c R.W. Southern and ‘Scholastic Humanism’ – Logicians, lawyers, doctors, theologians etc. created a new intellectual world

9 9 1. ‘Early modern’ 2. The Italian Renaissance: literature and the arts from 1350 to Renaissances – Re-birth; renewal of classical learning – The Northumbrian Renaissance – The Carolingian Renaissance – The Ottonian Renaissance – The Twelfth-Century Renaissance 1927 Charles Homer Haskins Expansion of education and new intellectual approach Art and architecture, vernacular poetry on courtly love, transformations in attitudes to law, the emergence of a theological science, origins of the universities etc – The Renaissance th c

10 10 Medieval Art Architecture/ sculpture/ (wall) painting/ tapestry/ book illumination th c Anglo-Saxon/ Insular art th c Carolingian minuscule th c Romanesque and Gothic architecture 4.15 th c Oil painting

11 th c Anglo-Saxon/ Insular art In principio erat Verbum et Verbum erat apud Deum et Deus The Lindisfarne Gospels: Gospel of St John the Evangelist, initial page. Lindisfarne, late 7th or early 8th century

12 12 A 15 th -c Book of Hours

13 th c Carolingian art; the Carolingian minuscule Aix-la-Chapelle / Aachen

14 14 Carolingian The first line of the text reads: ‘O bona progenies quam terris contulit ille’ Merovingian The first line of the text reads: ‘qualitas astringit saepe namque alli suffi’.

15 15 Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini’s ‘Renaissance’ handwriting

16 16 3. Medieval Cathedrals Lincoln Cathedral note the black marble shafts

17 th c: oil paint and other new techniques New techniques – Oil painting: from Flanders – Linear perspective – Chiaroscuro – Human Anatomy More nonreligious themes, appealing to the intellect or the eye Caravaggio ( ), Supper at Emmaus(1602)

18 18 Material Artistic convention Raphael ( ) Madonna della Sedia, c.1514 Jan van Eyck ( ), The Virgin with Chancellor Rolin, c.1436

19 19 Architecture (1) Roman – the Pantheon – round arch; dome; barrel vault (2) Byzantine – the Hagia Sophia and St Marco – a dome on four pendentives (3) Western Europe – From Roman Basilica to the Cruciform church – Problem with the ceiling – 11 th c, 12 th c Romanesque, 13 th c- Gothic

20 20

21 21 (1) Roman – The Pantheon, 126 AD

22 22 (2) Byzantine – The Hagia Sophia

23 23

24 24 Pendentives Hagia Sophia – dome on four pendentives or four arches

25 25 (2) Byzantine – St Mark’s, Venice

26 26

27 27

28 28 (3) Western Europe – the Basilica; S. Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, c. 490

29 29 (3) Western Europe – the Basilica and Cruciform church

30 30 (3) Western Europe – the ceiling Barrel vaultRomanesque vault Gothic vault Ribbed vault

31 31 Saint-Sernin, Toulouse Barrel vaulting Amiens Cathedral Ribbed vaulting Bath Cathedral Fan vaulting

32 32

33 33 Clerestory windows/ triforium/ arcade or aisle windows

34 34 Medieval Architecture The Romanesque Style: round arch – Continuation – Heavy, solid, earthbound The Gothic Style: pointed arch, rib vault, flying buttress – a skeleton, stained glass windows – Lofty, delicate, reaching towards the heavens Later Middle Ages – Further elaboration of the Gothic style: more vertical and more decorative – Italy: Greco-Roman style, domes, round arches

35 35

36 36 版權聲明 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 3 WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Lady_and_the_unicorn_Desire.jpg) , visited.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Lady_and_the_unicorn_Desire.jpg 3 Flickr / frozenchipmunk (http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/ /) , visited.http://www.flickr.com/photos/frozenchipmunk/ / 4 Flickr / JKleeman (http://www.flickr.com/photos/jkleeman/ /) , visited.http://www.flickr.com/photos/jkleeman/ / 4 、 18 維基百科 (http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Raffael_026.jpg) ,http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Raffael_026.jpg visited. 5 Flickr / San Diego Shooter (http://www.flickr.com/photos/nathaninsandiego/ /) , visited.http://www.flickr.com/photos/nathaninsandiego/ /

37 37 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 5 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Creation_of_Adam.jpg) ,http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Creation_of_Adam.jpg visited. 6 WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cupola_di_santa_maria_del_fiore_dal_campanile _di_giotto,_02.JPG) , visited.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cupola_di_santa_maria_del_fiore_dal_campanile _di_giotto,_02.JPG 6 Flickr / roger4336 , British Library (http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/hightours/lindgosp/large17328.html) ,http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/hightours/lindgosp/large17328.html visited. 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 11 Luther College (http://faculty.luther.edu/~martinka/art43/daily/2nd/lind1.jpg) ,http://faculty.luther.edu/~martinka/art43/daily/2nd/lind1.jpg visited. 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。

38 38 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 11 WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ardagh_chalice.jpg) ,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ardagh_chalice.jpg visited. 12 LecturaMedieval / LecturaMedieval (http://lecturamedieval.wikispaces.com/Tipos+de+textos-+Textos+Religiosos) , visited.http://lecturamedieval.wikispaces.com/Tipos+de+textos-+Textos+Religiosos 13 Flickr / DailyM = Differentieel + JeeeM (http://www.flickr.com/photos/dailym/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/dailym/ / visited. 13 Flickr / jimforest (http://www.flickr.com/photos/jimforest/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/jimforest/ / visited. 13 Flickr / Jim Linwood (http://www.flickr.com/photos/brighton/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/brighton/ / visited.

39 39 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 13 Ridgeaphistory / Ridgeaphistory (http://ridgeaphistory.wikispaces.com/Charlemagne+and+His+Relationship+With+ the+Catholic+Church) , visited.http://ridgeaphistory.wikispaces.com/Charlemagne+and+His+Relationship+With+ the+Catholic+Church 14 Catholic University of America (http://faculty.cua.edu/pennington/ChurchHistory220/LectureTwo/IvreaCapBibl- Ifol53v.htm) , visited. 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。http://faculty.cua.edu/pennington/ChurchHistory220/LectureTwo/IvreaCapBibl- Ifol53v.htm 14 、 15 The Library of the Medieval Institute (http://medieval.library.nd.edu/facsimiles/facsintro/mathscript.html) ,http://medieval.library.nd.edu/facsimiles/facsintro/mathscript.html visited. 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 15 The Library of the Medieval Institute (http://medieval.library.nd.edu/facsimiles/laypi/prierscript.html) ,http://medieval.library.nd.edu/facsimiles/laypi/prierscript.html visited. 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 16 Flickr / Brett Jordan (http://www.flickr.com/photos/x1brett/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/x1brett/ / visited.

40 40 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 17 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Masaccio._Trinity._Scheme_of_linear_pe rspective..jpg) , visited.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Masaccio._Trinity._Scheme_of_linear_pe rspective..jpg 17 WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Caravaggio.emmaus.750pix.jpg) ,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Caravaggio.emmaus.750pix.jpg visited. 18 WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jan_van_Eyck_070.jpg) ,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jan_van_Eyck_070.jpg visited. 20 Flickr / TamasButi (http://www.flickr.com/photos/tamasbuti/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/tamasbuti/ / visited. 20 Flickr / IceNineJon (http://www.flickr.com/photos/iceninejon/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/iceninejon/ / visited.

41 41 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 20 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Saint-Paul-de-Mausole-2.jpg) , visited.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Saint-Paul-de-Mausole-2.jpg 21 Flickr / Breno Peck (http://www.flickr.com/photos/brenopeck/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/brenopeck/ / visited. 21 Miss Szeto’s Transitional Social Studies / Lisa (http://szetotransromans2011.wikispaces.com/Temples) ,http://szetotransromans2011.wikispaces.com/Temples visited. 21 TravellerTribe / Traveller Tribe Italia (http://it.travellertribe.com/roma/2010/07/12/pantheon/) ,http://it.travellertribe.com/roma/2010/07/12/pantheon/ visited. 22 Flickr / emilstefanov (http://www.flickr.com/photos/emilstefanov/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/emilstefanov/ / visited.

42 42 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 22 Flickr / archer10 (Dennis) (http://www.flickr.com/photos/archer10/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/archer10/ / visited. 22 CrabberWorldHistory / CrabberWorldHistory (https://crabberworldhistory.wikispaces.com/Ancient+Rome) ,https://crabberworldhistory.wikispaces.com/Ancient+Rome visited. 23 WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hagia-Sophia-Laengsschnitt.jpg) ,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hagia-Sophia-Laengsschnitt.jpg visited. 23 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS / Marsyas (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Constantinople_Hagia_Sophia.png) , visited.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Constantinople_Hagia_Sophia.png 23 Flickr / eleephotography visited.

43 43 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 24 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pendentive_and_Dome.png) , visited.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pendentive_and_Dome.png 24 University of Miami / School of Architect (http://intranet.arc.miami.edu/rjohn/ARC267_2006/Byzantine_2006.htm) , visited. 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。http://intranet.arc.miami.edu/rjohn/ARC267_2006/Byzantine_2006.htm 25 Flickr / mikol_ice (http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikol_ice/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikol_ice/ / visited. 25 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_Italy-it.svg) ,http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_Italy-it.svg visited. 26 Chest of Books / This illustration is from the“Illustrated Handbook of Architecture”book by James Fergusson , p.964 (http://chestofbooks.com/architecture/James-Fergusson/Illustrated-Handbook-of- Architecture---Christian-Architecture/797-S.jpg.html) ,http://chestofbooks.com/architecture/James-Fergusson/Illustrated-Handbook-of- Architecture---Christian-Architecture/797-S.jpg.html visited. 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。

44 44 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 27 Florida Center for Instructional Technology / Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.) (New York: The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company, 1910) 2:393 (http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/73400/73429/73429_st_marks.htm) ,http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/73400/73429/73429_st_marks.htm visited. 依據網站聲明以及著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。網站聲明 27 WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Veneto_Venezia2_tango7174.jpg) ,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Veneto_Venezia2_tango7174.jpg visited. 28 Flickr / RedGlow82 (http://www.flickr.com/photos/redglow/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/redglow/ / visited. 28 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Church_of_S._Apollinaire_in_Classe_Ra venna1.jpg) , visited.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Church_of_S._Apollinaire_in_Classe_Ra venna1.jpg 28 University of Miami/ School of Creative Art (http://arts.muohio.edu/faculty/benson/ecbasoutsiderome/classe.htm) ,http://arts.muohio.edu/faculty/benson/ecbasoutsiderome/classe.htm visited. 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。

45 45 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 29 Florida Center for Instructional Technology / Source: A. Rosengarten, W. Collett-Sandars A Handbook of Architectural Styles (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1895) 167(http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/61000/61037/61037_old_st_peter.htm) ,http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/61000/61037/61037_old_st_peter.htm visited. 依據網站聲明以及著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。網站聲明 29 、 32 WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Layout_plan_of_All_Saints%27_Church,_Newch urch.gif) , visited.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Layout_plan_of_All_Saints%27_Church,_Newch urch.gif 29 Florida Center for Instructional Technology / Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.) (New York: The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company, 1910) 2:403(http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/73400/73433/73433_salisbury.htm) ,http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/73400/73433/73433_salisbury.htm visited. 依據網站聲明以及著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。網站聲明 30 Florida Center for Instructional Technology / Source: A. Rosengarten, W. Collett-Sandars A Handbook of Architectural Styles (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1895) 180 (http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/61000/61058/61058_barrel_vault.htm) ,http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/61000/61058/61058_barrel_vault.htm visited. 依據網站聲明以及著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。網站聲明 30 Florida Center for Instructional Technology / Source: Hamlin, A. D. F. College Histories of Art History of Architecture (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1915) 189 (http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/58300/58328/58328_english_ribb.htm) ,http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/58300/58328/58328_english_ribb.htm visited. 依據網站聲明以及著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。網站聲明

46 46 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 30 Florida Center for Instructional Technology / Source: Hamlin, A. D. F. College Histories of Art History of Architecture (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1915) 82(http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/58000/58097/58097_barrel_vault.htm)http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/58000/58097/58097_barrel_vault.htm visited. 依據網站聲明以及著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。網站聲明 30 Studydroid / Studydroid:vro (http://studydroid.com/index.php?page=viewPack&packId=97105) ,http://studydroid.com/index.php?page=viewPack&packId= visited. 30 Flickr / v1ctory_1s_m1ne (http://www.flickr.com/photos/v1ctory_1s_m1ne/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/v1ctory_1s_m1ne/ / visited. 30 國立臺灣大學 歷史學系 劉 慧 教授。 31 Flickr / Martin Cathrae (http://www.flickr.com/photos/suckamc/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/suckamc/ / visited.

47 47 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 31 Flickr / elisala (http://www.flickr.com/photos/elisala/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/elisala/ / visited. 31 Flickr / 1hr photo (http://www.flickr.com/photos/martinpalmer/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/martinpalmer/ / visited. 31 Flickr / mnbf9rca (http://www.flickr.com/photos/mnbf9rca/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/mnbf9rca/ / visited. 32 Flickr / ☺ Lee J Haywood (http://www.flickr.com/photos/leehaywood/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/leehaywood/ / visited. 33 WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lincoln_cathedral_11_Nave_arcade.jpg) , visited.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lincoln_cathedral_11_Nave_arcade.jpg

48 48 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 33 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS / Derek Harper (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buttresses,_Exeter_Cathedral_- _geograph.org.uk_-_ jpg) , visited.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buttresses,_Exeter_Cathedral_- _geograph.org.uk_-_ jpg 33 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buttress_(PSF).jpg) ,http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buttress_(PSF).jpg visited. 34 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS / R. Engelhardt (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: _Altenbeken_5.JPG) , visited.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: _Altenbeken_5.JPG 34 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS/ Colin Smith (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:South_Door,_Ewhurst_Parish_Church_- _geograph.org.uk_-_ jpg) , visited.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:South_Door,_Ewhurst_Parish_Church_- _geograph.org.uk_-_ jpg 34 Flickr / Don Johnson 395 (http://www.flickr.com/photos/donjohnson395/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/donjohnson395/ / visited.

49 49 頁碼作品版權標示作者 / 來源 35 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coupe.voutes.cathedrale.Paris.png) , visited.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coupe.voutes.cathedrale.Paris.png 35 Flickr / Sean Munson (http://www.flickr.com/photos/logicalrealist/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/logicalrealist/ / visited. 35 Flickr / Sean_Marshall visited.


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