ALL THEM CRUSADES… Fourth Crusade 1193CE Collapse of Byzantine Empire Children’s Crusade 1212CE 50,000 children Victory on faith and purity
ALL THEM CRUSADES… Late Crusades 1217-1291CE Total of 8+1 crusades 1291CE: All Holy Land in Muslim control
EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES? Italian port growth Attacks on Jews End of Feudalism Nobles freed surfs to go fight Established stronger central governments Developed nation-states (i.e. countries)
ACTIVITY: THE CRUSADES On your sheet of paper illustrate each of the major crusades. Be sure to list the date(s) and the results.
PEASANTS, TRADE AND CITIES AP WORLD HISTORY MS. STANGA
POPULATION GROWTH Peace Stability More food Climate change 3 field crop rotation New technology Wind/air power Iron Carruca Horse inventions The population in Europe nearly doubled between 1000CE and 1300CE.
MANORIAL SYSTEM Lord is in charge Serf’s labor Their land & lord’s land Time off for feasts Rent Share of product Tithe Legal rights over serfs Permission to leave Permission to marry Tried in lord’s court Serfs weren’t slaves
ACTIVITY: CYCLE OF LABOR Look at the cycle of labor on your worksheet then answer it’s two questions.
FOOD/DRINK Bread Staple of diet Vegetables Cheese Fruits Meats Ale and Wine Water was dirty Often times bread was dark, hard and heavy because of the ingredients used: barley, wheat, rye, etc.
REVIVAL OF TRADE Trade fairs Creation of coins Money economy Led to the development of capitalism Widowed women would take over businesses
CITY LIFE Crowded Tall structures Fire risk Eww Dirty Smelly Ugly
INDUSTRY AND GUILDS Business associations Apprentice First learner Age 10 Not paid Journeymen Practiced learner Age 15-17 Paid Desire to become Master
AP WORLD HISTORY MS. STANGA CULTURE OF THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES
University Latin meaning “corporation” First university Bologna, Italy 1158CE established a charter Royalty/Popes thought it honorable to start universities RISE OF UNIVERSITIES Bologna, Italy
Lecture = “to read” Liberal arts Grammar, logic, math, music, astronomy Exam when applied for a degree Bachelor’s of Arts (4-6 years) Master’s of Arts (6-10 years) Doctor of Philosophy (10+ years) CURRICULA As professors read aloud from the textbooks they often added their own commentary about the work.
Attempted to reconcile faith and reason Saint Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologica Posed question, offered opposition, reconciled then offered his explanation SCHOLASTICISM Many Christian philosophers were upset by Aristotle’s works because he arrived at conclusions through reason and logic not by faith.
Turn to the person next to you and answer What does “university” mean in Latin? What subjects were taught in the Middle Ages? How long did one have to study to receive each of the three degrees offered? What is the Summa Theologica? Who wrote it? REVIEW: THE OBJECTIVES
Vernacular: language of everyday speech in a region Troubadour poetry Nobles/Knights Woman made him better Chanson de geste Heroic epic Song of Roland VERNACULAR LITERATURE
11-12 th century Two types of roofs: Long, round stone arch vault (barrel vault) Cross vault (2 barrel vaults) Features Roofs were heavy Walls were big and heavy Limited window space ARCHITECTURE: ROMANESQUE
How did her class affect her writing? Why does she write a dialogue between herself and “reason”/“rectitude” and not “God”? According to Christine, where would men be without women? What are some of the myths about women that she is battling against? How does she refute these myths? How important is classical tradition for Christine? To what uses does she put examples of antiquity and ignore contemporary examples? Do you think she would be considered a feminist today? Why or why not? PRIMARY SOURCE: PISAN
AP WORLD HISTORY MS. STANGA THE LATE MIDDLE AGES
THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR French Armed noble cavalry English Cavalry Paid peasant foot soldiers Pikes Longbow The longbow was as tall as the man who carried it. He would draw it by stooping over with the bow parallel to the ground then straighten up, using his leg and back muscles. The arrow was drawn to his ear and thrown.
BATTLE OF CRECY 1346 First major battle of the war The illustration above indicates that the English placed their archers on the front lines of their cavalry allowing them to shoot into the thickest part of the French lines.