Presentation on theme: "WH CH 9.4 (305-308) AP WORLD HISTORY MS. STANGA THE CRUSADES."— Presentation transcript:
WH CH 9.4 ( ) AP WORLD HISTORY MS. STANGA THE CRUSADES
BYZANTINE EMPIRE: PROBLEMS Grew under the Macedonian rulers Political problems Incompetent leaders Ambitious military leaders Threats from abroad Religious split Eastern Orthodox Roman Catholic
THE CRUSADES A military expedition for the purpose of fighting a holy war against the unbelieving (infidels) Holy Land? Israel/Palestine How far? About 2,000 miles to Jerusalem
CALLING THE CRUSADES 1095CE Council at Clermont Pope Urban II calls it “God wills it”
CRUSADES - PURPOSE Pope Urban II 1. to free to Holy land from the Seljuk Turks; to fight in defense of the Holy tomb of Jesus 2. to rescue the Byzantine Empire from the Turkish rule
CRUSADES – WHY GO? Religious motives Dying in battle granted salvation Adventure Fighting for freedom Land! Money! Power!
ALL THEM CRUSADES… People’s Crusade 50,000 people sent to Turkey Nickname First Crusade CE Took Jerusalem
ALL THEM CRUSADES… Second Crusade CE Muslims won back the Holy City Third Crusade CE “Crusade of the Three Kings” Barbarossa, Philip II, Richard I
ALL THEM CRUSADES… Fourth Crusade 1193CE Collapse of Byzantine Empire Children’s Crusade 1212CE 50,000 children Victory on faith and purity
ALL THEM CRUSADES… Late Crusades CE Total of 8+1 crusades 1291CE: All Holy Land in Muslim control
EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES? Italian port growth Attacks on Jews End of Feudalism Nobles freed surfs to go fight Established stronger central governments Developed nation-states (i.e. countries)
ACTIVITY: THE CRUSADES On your sheet of paper illustrate each of the major crusades. Be sure to list the date(s) and the results.
PEASANTS, TRADE AND CITIES AP WORLD HISTORY MS. STANGA
POPULATION GROWTH Peace Stability More food Climate change 3 field crop rotation New technology Wind/air power Iron Carruca Horse inventions The population in Europe nearly doubled between 1000CE and 1300CE.
MANORIAL SYSTEM Lord is in charge Serf’s labor Their land & lord’s land Time off for feasts Rent Share of product Tithe Legal rights over serfs Permission to leave Permission to marry Tried in lord’s court Serfs weren’t slaves
ACTIVITY: CYCLE OF LABOR Look at the cycle of labor on your worksheet then answer it’s two questions.
FOOD/DRINK Bread Staple of diet Vegetables Cheese Fruits Meats Ale and Wine Water was dirty Often times bread was dark, hard and heavy because of the ingredients used: barley, wheat, rye, etc.
REVIVAL OF TRADE Trade fairs Creation of coins Money economy Led to the development of capitalism Widowed women would take over businesses
CITY LIFE Crowded Tall structures Fire risk Eww Dirty Smelly Ugly
INDUSTRY AND GUILDS Business associations Apprentice First learner Age 10 Not paid Journeymen Practiced learner Age Paid Desire to become Master
AP WORLD HISTORY MS. STANGA CULTURE OF THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES
University Latin meaning “corporation” First university Bologna, Italy 1158CE established a charter Royalty/Popes thought it honorable to start universities RISE OF UNIVERSITIES Bologna, Italy
Lecture = “to read” Liberal arts Grammar, logic, math, music, astronomy Exam when applied for a degree Bachelor’s of Arts (4-6 years) Master’s of Arts (6-10 years) Doctor of Philosophy (10+ years) CURRICULA As professors read aloud from the textbooks they often added their own commentary about the work.
Attempted to reconcile faith and reason Saint Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologica Posed question, offered opposition, reconciled then offered his explanation SCHOLASTICISM Many Christian philosophers were upset by Aristotle’s works because he arrived at conclusions through reason and logic not by faith.
Turn to the person next to you and answer What does “university” mean in Latin? What subjects were taught in the Middle Ages? How long did one have to study to receive each of the three degrees offered? What is the Summa Theologica? Who wrote it? REVIEW: THE OBJECTIVES
Vernacular: language of everyday speech in a region Troubadour poetry Nobles/Knights Woman made him better Chanson de geste Heroic epic Song of Roland VERNACULAR LITERATURE
11-12 th century Two types of roofs: Long, round stone arch vault (barrel vault) Cross vault (2 barrel vaults) Features Roofs were heavy Walls were big and heavy Limited window space ARCHITECTURE: ROMANESQUE
Two innovations: Ribbed vault with pointed arches for a roof Flying buttress (outside support) Stained glass windows ARCHITECTURE: GOTHIC
How did her class affect her writing? Why does she write a dialogue between herself and “reason”/“rectitude” and not “God”? According to Christine, where would men be without women? What are some of the myths about women that she is battling against? How does she refute these myths? How important is classical tradition for Christine? To what uses does she put examples of antiquity and ignore contemporary examples? Do you think she would be considered a feminist today? Why or why not? PRIMARY SOURCE: PISAN
AP WORLD HISTORY MS. STANGA THE LATE MIDDLE AGES
THE BUBONIC PLAGUE Economic problems Lack of workers Less demand for goods Social problems Lower-class Anti-Semitism Punishment from God?
THE BLACK DEATH Mass Grave in London (below)
POPES AT AVIGNON French king didn’t accept papal supremacy Arrested Pope Boniface VIII French pope elected Pope Clement V Avignon, France Papal election of 1377
THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR Duchy of Gascony Held by England French King Philip IV took it for France English King Edward III declared war War:
THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR French Armed noble cavalry English Cavalry Paid peasant foot soldiers Pikes Longbow The longbow was as tall as the man who carried it. He would draw it by stooping over with the bow parallel to the ground then straighten up, using his leg and back muscles. The arrow was drawn to his ear and thrown.
BATTLE OF CRECY 1346 First major battle of the war The illustration above indicates that the English placed their archers on the front lines of their cavalry allowing them to shoot into the thickest part of the French lines.
BATTLE OF AGINCOURT 1415CE
JOAN OF ARC Peasant Deeply religious Charles allowed her to join them at Orleans French victory by 1453
POST-WAR: FRANCE Nationalism King Louis XI Tailee
POST-WAR: ENGLAND Economic problems War of Roses Henry Tudor Began rule in 1485 Abolished private armies Less taxes made him popular
POST-WAR: SPAIN Muslims were expelled Aragon and Castile Isabella of Castile Ferdinand of Aragon Strict Catholicism