Presentation on theme: "Imperial Rome and the Making of an Architectural Revolution in Classical Architecture."— Presentation transcript:
Imperial Rome and the Making of an Architectural Revolution in Classical Architecture
I. Roman primacy of the curve before the Empire A. Making architectural curves possible: parts of the arch in stone or brick masonry; difference between arch and vault; monolithic concrete vault I. Roman primacy of the curve before the Empire A. Making architectural curves possible: parts of a true arch in stone or brick masonry; difference between arch and vault; monolithic concrete vault true archconstructing an arcadeparts of a true arch
I. B. For what types of buildings were concrete arches and vaults common before the Empire? amphitheaters & theaters baths warehouses shops aqueducts substructures of terraced buildings the rare temple cella (Temple of Vesta at Tivoli, late 1 st cen. BC )
I. C. Why was Roman architecture of the early decades of the Empire conservative (i.e., not very different from the Republican period)? Capitoline: Temple of Capitoline Jupiter Basilica JuliaBasilica Aemilia Comitium and Senate house Temple of Castor and Pollux Temple of the Vestal Virgins Basilica Julia Senate house Temple of Castor and Pollux Temple of the Vestal Virgins Basilica Aemilia Forum of Julius Caesar Forum of Augustus Roman Forum in Rome: Republican period Roman Forum in Rome: early Imperial period
Emperor Augustus (r. 27 BC - AD 14) Emperor Nero ( AD 54-68) Roman Empire begins 27 BC Roman Republic True imperial architecture starts (vaulted style) II. Imperial Roman architecture: a new architectural language (and a new style of residence) born from the expressive potential of concrete
Domus Aurea (Golden House of Nero), Rome, Italy, AD 64-68 Severus and Celer, architects Domus Aurea = buildings marked in red
vestibule + atrium w/ tri-porticus w/ “ocean” Oppian Hill pavilion Domus Aurea (Golden House of Nero), Rome, Italy, AD 64-68 Severus and Celer, architects II. Octagonal dining hall in the Oppian Hill pavilion
Nero’s Domus Aurea (hypothetical) 124124 Augustus’s domus II. A. Reception of the new house design by contemporaries 1. In the view of the historian (Suetonius), how did Nero’s building projects compare to those of emperor Augustus? Forum
II. B. Formalism: What is revolutionary about how the Nero’s architects Severus and Celer: 1. changed traditional republican floor plans? Domus Aurea – octagonal hall looking out broke tyranny of the 90-degree angle radiating vistas that emphasize a center House of Pansa, Pompeii Domus Aurea – Oppian Hill wing
broke tyranny of the 90-degree angle II. B. 1. Domus Aurea curving barrel vaultangled juxtapositions
II. B. 2. changed conventional (republican) expression of load-and-support relationships? Domus Aurea – octagonal hall enclosing volumes of the imperial era Concrete as used in the republicConcrete used to create enclosing volumes House of Menander, Pompeii
II. B. 3. altered conventional (republican-era) lighting solutions? Domus Aurea – octagonal hall Indirect lighting in the imperial age light and space as building “material” Direct lighting in a republican-era atrium Domus Aurea – octagonal hall House of the Faun, Pompeii, 2 nd cen. BC
Domus Aurea concrete clad in rich colors and textures (marble, stucco, mosaic) ceilings with moveable parts moving and still water I. B. 4. altered familiar (republican) sensory effects? “using art and squandering the wealth of the emperor created eccentricities which went against the laws of nature” (Tacitus, Annals 15.52)
Domus Aurea, sunlight from the oculus A. What did Nero say when the Domus Aurea was finished, according to Suetonius? III. Political context: Why this radical change in residential architecture now?
III. B. Suetonius’s judgment in context: To what building typology did Nero’s Golden House really belong, and why did the presence of this typology in the city cause resentment? Domus Aurea Fresco of a Roman seaside villa 3.
“Rome is being made into a palace” (Suetonius) III. B. The Flavian dynasty returns the land to the people: The Flavian Amphitheater (the Colosseum), AD 72-80
III. B. The Flavian Amphitheater (the Colosseum), AD 72-80 The Imperial Palace on the Palatine Hill, Rome, AD 96 Forum of Julius Caesar Forum of Augustus Imperia fora built by Flavian emperors Vespasian and Domitian
Forum and Market of Trajan, Rome, Italy, AD 100-133 IV. Imperial ideology and the architecture of public spaces
Six fora in downtown Rome IV. A. Trajan’s Forum and political context: Imperial “gift” of civic space 1. Typologies: What were the main buildings, spatial organization, and size and how did it compare to the fora of previous emperors?
Forum of Trajan – Trajan’s Column (historiated column)
Forum of Trajan – the Basilica IV. A. 2. Formalism: What is the dominant architectural language of Trajan’s Forum?
Forum of Trajan – outdoor pavement IV. A. 3. Materials: What were the building materials of Trajan’s Forum and how did the exalt empire? Forum of Trajan – monolithic columns
IV. A. 4. Imperial control: How is autocratic ideology visible in an imperial forum like Trajan’s compared to the Roman Forum of the Republican period? Forum of Trajan, RomeRoman Forum, Rome
IV. B. The Innovative use of the imperial vaulted style in the “utilitarian” space of Trajan’s Market Trajan’s Market has 200 rooms and not a single structural column Trajan’s Market
IV. B. 1. Typology: How has the market typology been modified since Republican Macellum in Pompeii? Market in the Republican periodTrajan’s Markets in Imperial Rome The Macellum in Pompeii
IV. B. 2. Vaulted style: a. Reception: What is the possible hierarchical difference embodied in the architectural language of Trajan’s Forum (civic) vs. the Market (commerce)? Trajan’s Market – the AulaTrajan’s Forum – the Basilica
IV. B. 2. b. Evolution: How did the vaulted style help architects keep the design dynamic? Trajan’s Market