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By Matt Shuler ECIV 303: Fall 2010

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1 By Matt Shuler ECIV 303: Fall 2010
The Pole Vault Pole By Matt Shuler ECIV 303: Fall 2010

2 Pole Vaulting Pole Vaulting: An event in track and field in which an athlete known as a “vaulter” uses a pole to propel them over a cross bar. The athlete must run while holding the pole, plant the pole in a rigid box in the ground and jump off the ground at the same time, and then perform a gymnastic maneuver to propel them over the bar. World Record: Men: 6.15m (20’2”) Women: 5.06m (16’8”)


4 Box Dimensions

5 So What Must a Pole Go Through??????


7 Not Good! Need materials that will fit needs…elastic and strong

8 Pole Range of Motion Bending Pole
Material on Tension Side must Stretch-180 Degree Bend: Must Stretch 2.18% Material on Compression Side must Compress-180 Degree Bend: Must Compress 2.2% Pole Must Start to Oval-1.5% Decrease in axis length in tension/compression plane. Ekevadand Lundberg J Biomech, 30, 259 (1997)

9 Materials of Choice Fiberglass Carbon Fiber
Material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. Types of Fiberglass used: E-Glass-Tensile Strength: 3,450 MPa d Density: 2.57 g/cm^3 S-Glass-Tensile Strength: 4,710 MPa d Density: 2.48 g/cm^3 Both Types: Tensile Strength=Compressive Strength An extremely strong, thin fiber, consisting of long, chainlike molecules of pure carbon that are made by charring synthetic fibers such as rayon in the absence of oxygen. Carbon Fiber- Tensile Strength: 5,650 MPa d Density: 1.75 g/cm^3 4x Rigidity of Fiberglass 2/3 Compressive Strength of Fiberglass but depends on how alignment of material Cost more than fiberglass Both materials fit need for pole vault. FEA program helped

10 Tensile Stress vs. Percent Strain
For different materials used for poles…..material fail at percent strain Jeff Watry: Pole Vault And The Pole

11 The Pole Making Process
Vaulting Poles Range in Length from 10’-17’ The “Stiffness” of a pole given its length depends on the diameter of the pole Poles are measured to correspond to a vaulter’s body weight-to account for a factor of load-(the vaulters body weight moving as the vaulter leaves the ground)

12 The Pole Making Process
Step: 1 Choose Mandrel Size Hollow steel tube-sized for the length and inner diameter of the pole 1st Layer of Material Mandrel is rapped cress-cross style in both directions with chosen material : resin impregnated fiberglass or carbon fiber Resin-hydrocarbon secretion: used for adhesive properties 1st Layer: Gives pole flexibility, durability, and fortifies pole circumference

13 The Pole Making Process
Step 2 Cut Fiberglass/Carbon Fiber Patterns are heat rolled onto the mandrel-resin helps it bond. Sail Piece is added last Controls how the pole bends Bruce Caldwell-EssX Poles

14 The Pole Making Process
Step 3 Mandrel and Fiberglass are put into a oven Stage 1: Steam is used to heat the oven to 175° F This liquefies the resin so that it resaturates the fiberglass Stage 2: Oven gradually rises to 300 ° F This solidifies the resin-”curing” it Curing-toughening or hardening Bruce Caldwell-EssX Poles

15 The Pole Making Process
Step 4 Pole is then subject to a stress test Stress Test- Tests pole for deformities and defects: pole will fail if any defects are present Stress Test- Puts a permanent natural bend in the pole: poles are only meant to bend one way Gives the pole a soft side and stiff side

16 The Pole Making Process
Step 5 Pole is given a “Flex Number” Flex Number Test: Pole is supported 6” on both ends of the pole. A 50lb weight is then added to the mid point of the pole. The distance in cm that the pole deforms is the flex number. Flex Number are used to help vaulter transition form one pole to the next. Flex Numbers are used to only measure relative stuffiness, not the total load that the pole can support

17 Pole Failure Causes of Failure Overload Fatigue Causes of Failure Overload When vaulter applies more force than the pole can withstand When pole is overloaded: the pole will develop “bruises” or permanent deformations in the fibers-eventually leading to failure Fatigue Crack-caused by a strike to the pole-failure usually happens on the tension side of the pole

18 Works Cited Jeff Watry: Pole Vault and The Pole
INFORMATION FOR TRACK & FIELD/ATHLETICS COACHES Athletics Outstanding Performer---The Vaulting Pole Bruce Caldwell- Essx Poles How its Made

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