Presentation on theme: "In Italia, where it was born at the end of XIV century, and like in others countries of Europe where it spread after, the style of the Renaissance which."— Presentation transcript:
In Italia, where it was born at the end of XIV century, and like in others countries of Europe where it spread after, the style of the Renaissance which replace the Gothic style which was on the top the last years of the Middle Ages.
The Renaissance came back to a reverse approach : the style didn’t depend anymore of possibilities of the technique, it was founded on esthetics principles, abstracts concepts : the symmetry, the proportions, and on the use of a language purely regulate in its vocabulary and its syntax : the orders system.
This style put the beauty in the respect of this principles in spite of all other consideration. It came back at the vault in bower, at a static conception of the construction, refrain from all performance, the excessive elevation of the volume, the reduction of sides, the opening at the light. In this direction, it represented a real decline.
Reverting to the style of the Antiquity, the Renaissance obeyed to several generals rules which should preside all architectural creation. We must realize that this basics principles represented a change and, in the same time, a reaction against the old practices of the Middle Ages.
The regular plane : rigorous lines, straight fronts, right angles. Egality of spans : regularity in the rhythm of the openings. For example, the frontages of the hospital of Innocents, the Médicis’ palace and the Rucellai’s palace. Alignement of bays at a same level. The symmetry : similitude between the two halfs of a building in comparison to its meridian axis. The proportion were one of the predominants worries of the Renaissance : all the dimensions of a building must be multiples of a basic module to be harmonious.
The Renaissance an architecture speak for by new forms learned of the antic art who are like the words of a new language and amass its style. The orders, at the same time system of proportion and decorative language, are the founding principles.
The column, feature elements of the antic architecture, is putting back ah the honor. Sit on top of a capital, it brought an horizontal entablement composed of three elements : an architrave, a frieze and a salient cornice. The cupola on pendants and the vault on pendants contain news. The tambour, the dome and the lantern : at the XVI century, we interject between the pendants and the cupola a cylinder-shaped tambour by the windows from which we could light the crossroads.
The vault in pendants introduce by Brunelleshi at the portico of the hospital of Inoocents. It is composed by the gather of four pendants which give him the form of a (calotte) failing again in bill-like in the angle. The ornament : in base of geometrical pattern or taxidermist. The boss, that the Middle-Ages has reserved at the military arhitecture, was introduce in the civil architecture.
The architecture of the Renaissance has been divide in Europe until France. We decided to choose three buildings which represent this architecture. The Grignan’s castle, The Liviers’ castle and the castle of Ventadour.
Located at 2,5 km next to Privas, since the XI century, the old castle was inhabited by the Rostaing of Liviers Family. In 1427, the noble Lancelot of Mars was the captain of Tournon. He was in charge of the castle’s garrison. It was probably him who modernised the medieval building and added some parts in Renaissance style. (fenêtres à meneaux, escalier à vis…).
TheVersas castle is located in the town of Sanilhac in the department of Ardeche. In the same time there is the tower of Brison, a very old fortificationand the ruins of Brison’s castle, a XVII century’s building, devastated during the Revolution. The castle has got a Renaissance’s façade which dominated the valley. It was built in the XVI century and had been modified between 1594 and 1603.
Grignan castle was build in the XII century, in Grignan, in Drôme-Provençale. It was changed into a fortress in the XIII century by the Adhémar family. Between 1478 and 1495, Gaucher Adhémar extended the room, he created some residential districts and he shook up the façades of the former fortress of the Middle-Age. It is probably the weeding between Gaucher Adhémar and Diane of Monfort which permited to introduce new architectural styles.
The Castle of Joyeuse was built on the place of an old fort in 1540 By Jean de Saint Sauveur, Viscount of Joyeuse. Nowaday, there is also a wing in direction of the North because the other was destroyed between the Revolution and 1832. Of Renaissance style, he was modified at the XIX century. Its court was increased by the supply of three bigs hoops.
The castle of Alba la Romaine The castle of Aubenas The castle of Châteaudouble The castle of Suze-la-Rousse