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1 Chapter 12. 2 FIGURE 12.1 Landmarks of the human skull commonly used in geometric morphometrics. (Note: not all landmarks that can be used are identified.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 12. 2 FIGURE 12.1 Landmarks of the human skull commonly used in geometric morphometrics. (Note: not all landmarks that can be used are identified."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 12

2 2 FIGURE 12.1 Landmarks of the human skull commonly used in geometric morphometrics. (Note: not all landmarks that can be used are identified in this figure, just the most common.) Left—anterior view that depicts facial and mandibular landmarks; middle—lateral view with lateral facial, vault, and mandible landmarks; right—inferior view showing landmarks of the basicranium and palate. Landmark names by number are provided. (Note: some bilateral landmarks are only visible from left lateral perspective; nevertheless, there is a right antimere that is not depicted). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

3 3 FIGURE 12.2 A researcher using a three-dimensional digitizer to observe landmark coordinates on a cranium. Photograph by Roselyn Campbell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

4 4 FIGURE 12.3 Cranium positioned for data collection with a three-dimensional digitizer. Photograph by Roselyn Campbell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

5 5 FIGURE 12.4 The steps of a Procrustes superimposition starting with (a) raw coordinate-based configurations that undergo (b) Step 1—translation, then (c) Step 2—rotation, and finally (d) Step 3— scaling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

6 6 FIGURE 12.5 Three-dimensional coordinate date from 20 cranial landmarks from 164 individuals (lateral view with facial landmarks to the right and vault landmarks to the left): (a) before Procrustes superimposition and (b) after Procrustes superimposition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

7 7 FIGURE 12.6 Group mean configuration (Euro-American and African-American male) overlays from superior view. Euro-American landmarks are represented by open circles and African- American landmarks are represented by solid circles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

8 8 FIGURE 12.7 Landmarks used in the biological distance analysis case study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9 9 FIGURE 12.8 Map of the sites used in the case study example with temporal information. EC is the Extended Coalescent and PCC is the Postcontact Coalescent. All site dates are approximate. North is to the top of the figure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

10 10 FIGURE 12.9 Graph of group means along canonical variates 1 and 2 for site components in case study with wireframe depictions of average group morphological variation. RY=Rygh; MBF1=Mobridge Feature 1; MBF2=Mobridge Feature 2; ND=Nordvold; CR=Cheyenne River; SL=Sully; LW=Leavenworth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

11 11 FIGURE Thin-plate spline deformation grid showing that morphological variation between mean forms for samples of Euro-American and African-American males is largely confined to the anterior face and inferior cranial vault. The configurations are shown from a lateral view with landmarks for the face at the left of the image and vault landmarks to the right. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


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