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Management Of Genital Prolapse

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1 Management Of Genital Prolapse
Associate Professor Semyatov S.M. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology with course Perinatology Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow

2 DEFINITION Prolapse/Procidentia is downward decent of uterus &/or vagina. (Procidentia is from Latin procidere - to fall). It is a state of pelvic relaxation due to a disorder of pelvic support structures that is, the endopelvic fascia. It is not a disease but a disabling condition.

Precipitating / Exaggerating / Unmasking Causes - INCREASED INTRA ABDOMINAL PRESSURE Chronic cough Chronic Constipation Heavy Wt.Lifting / domestic Work Obesity, Ascitis WEAKNESS OF THE SUPPORTS & MUSCLES Chronic ill health, malnutrition dysentery, anemia Inadequate rest during pureperium Menopause

4 TYPES OF PROLAPSE Vaginal Anterior –cystocele & urethrocele
Posterior - Enterocele & Rectocele Vault Prolapse - a special term applied to the prolapse of upper vagina Uterine/Utero-vaginal- Acquired or Congenital. First degree. Second degree &. Third degree-(total Prolapse / complete procidentia). However Procidentia is often used only to denote third degree uterine prolapse.

5 EFFECTS OF PROLAPSE NO SYMPTOM- mild & moderate prolapse.
Discomfort & disability. Sexual Dysfunction. URINARY- Frequency, Dysuria, Stress incontinence, infection. Incomplete emptying of rectum. Discharge. Backache. Ulceration & Infection.

6 WHEN TO TREAT ? Should be treated only when it is symptomatic (Be certain symptoms are due to Prolapse ) Interferes with the normal activity of the woman The patient seeks treatment

7 HOW TO TREAT ? NON-SURGICAL Methods: -Limited Role
PELVIC FLOOR REHABILITATION (pelvic muscle exercises, galvanic stimulation, physiotherapy, rest in the purperium). HORMONE REPLACEMENT, both systemic and local. PESSARY TREATMENT for temporary relief During Pregnancy, Puerperium & Lactation When Operation is Unsafe due to Extreme Senility/Debility and Diseases Preoperatively For therapeutic test

8 HOW TO TREAT ? SURGICAL TREATMENT: -RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY is invariably needed and has to be a COMBINATION OF PROCEDURES to correct the multiple defects.

9 SURGICAL TREATMENT It is the definitive & curative treatment of Prolapse. It is a cold operation. So complete investigation should be done & all existing diseases & disorders should be treated first. Pre operative pessary/tampoon & or Hormone treatment should be given as indicated. Meticulous and through examination under anaesthesia should be done before deciding the surgery.

10 SURGICAL TREATMENT Depending on the type & extent of Prolapse, surgery should be tailor made not only to rectify the defect but also to suit the individual patient’s requirement. Absolute haemostasis is mandatory. Diathermy should be liberally used. Vaginal suturing should be with interrupted stitches. Synthetic absorbable fine sutures are preferable. Catheter for more than 48 hrs should be exceptional. Strict antibiotic prophylaxis is essential

Anterior colporrhaphy Posterior colporrhapry- High / Low Enterocele repair Perineorrhaphy Amputation of cervix Paravaginal repair Hysterectomy with or without Colporrhaphy / Perineorrhaphy

Manchester/ Fothergill’s operation & Shirodkar’s modification Uterus/Cervix suspension/fixation Vaginal vault suspension/fixation Retro-rectal levatorplasty and post. anal repair for associated rectal prolapse Vaginectomy ? Colpocleisis ?

13 Anterior colporrhaphy & Urethroplasty
For correction of Cystocele & Urethrocele Incision- Midline / Inv.T / Elliptical Excision of vagina according to the size & site of laxity Avoid shortening &/or narrowing of vagina Closure with interrupted sutures

14 Posterior colporrhaphy & Enterocele repair
For correction of Enterocele & Rectocele Enterocele repair can be done either by vaginal or abdominal route depending on the associated procedures. Approximation of uterosacral ligaments for enterocele & prerectal fasciae and levator for rectocele with interrupted sutures is essential Excision of vagina should be tailor made Perineorrhapy to be done only if perineal body is torn

15 Perineorrhaphy Not an Operation for prolapse, but Indicated only for associated old 2nd degree perineal tear Performed along with posterior colporrhaphy Aim-Reconstruction of the Perineal body and reduction of gaping introitus. Can cause Dyspareunea Essential steps - Excision of the scar tissue & approximation of levator ani & superficial perineal muscles

16 Vaginal Hysterectomy with/without Vaginal repair
Indicated when uterus needs removal, in old age & in total prolapse. Patient’s consent is mandatory knowing that there are alternatives to hysterectomy. Usually combined with Ant. & Posterior colporrhaphy. Perineorrhaphy is not mandatory but case specific. Vault suspension is an essential step. If sexual function is not needed narrowing of vaginal canal should be done.

17 Amputation of cervix Not for Prolapse.Indicated only for cervical elongation (Uterocervical length >12.5 Cm ) To be done only as a part of Fothergill’s repair/sling operations. Adequate cervical dilatation - a prerequisite Bladder displacement is a must Excision of cervix should not exceed 2 cm Likely to affect reproductive life Long-term complications are real risks

18 Fothergill’s operation
It is the operation of choice in uncomplicated Utero-vaginal prolapse when uterus is to be preserved but NO future child bearing is required. It is a combination of, Amp. of Cx., Fixation of the Meconrodt’s ligament to the anterior of Cx. & Ant. Colporrhaphy. D&C is a must. Post. Colporrhaphy to be performed only if Ent/Rectocele is present Perineorrhaphy is usually not required

19 Fothergill’s operation
Not useful if ligaments are weak & Uterus is of normal size. Purandare’s modification may help. Technically difficult operation, requiring high degree of surgical skill. Threat of short-term complications. Real possibilities of long term complications. Recurrence/Failure. Sling operations are better alternatives HAS A BLEAK FUTURE

Sling operations Closure or repair of enterocele Sacrocolpopexy Anterior Colpopexy Colposuspension Paravaginal repair

21 Abdominal Sling operations
Indicated when the ligaments are extremely weak as in nullipara & young women. Preserves reproductive function. Principle - With a fascial strip / prosthetic material (Merselene tape or Dacron) the Cx is fixed to the abdominal wall / sacrum / pelvis. Amp.of Cx should also be done if Utereocervical length >12.5cm. Cystocele/Rectocele repair if needed can be done vaginally before or after. Enterocele repair can also be done abdominally.

22 Abdominal Sling operations
It is a major abdominal operation & Synthetic material is costly & not widely available in India. Types-. Shirodkar’s posterior sling. Purandare’s anterior cervicopexy. Khanna’s sling. Virkud’s composite sling.

23 Shirodkar’s sling Tape is fixed to the post. Aspect of isthmus & sacral promontory Anatomically most correct but difficult to perform Risks of complication

24 Purandare’s cervicopexy
Tape is anchored to the ant.aspect of isthmus and ant. abd. Wall Easy to perform Dynamic support

25 Virkud’s composite sling operation
Tape is anchored from the post aspect of isthmus to sacral promontory on the Rt. side & ant. abd. Wall on the Lt. Side Utrosacral ligament is plicated Technically easy

26 Khanna’s sling operation
Tape is anchored to ant aspect of isthmus & ant. sup. Iliac spine Easier to perform and safer But tape is superficial Risk of infection

27 Abdominal Colpopexy / Colposuspension
Indicated when vault prolapse occurs after hysterectomy or vaginal laxity is to be corrected at abdominal hysterectomy. Major abdominal operation & technically difficult. Sexual function is preserved. Methods-. Sacrocolpopexy. Ant.Colpopexy. Colposuspension.

28 Sacrocolpopexy Vault is fixed to 3rd & 4th sacral vertebrae with a facial strip / proline mesh under the peritoneum to the right of rectum Enterocele repair can be done if required

29 Ant.Colpopexy Corrects ant. vag laxity & stress inc.
Useful at abdominal hysterectomy / for vault prolapse. Extra peritoneal supra pubic approach if done alone. Enterocele repair if required. Vagina stitched to the ileo-pectineal ligaments.

30 Vault / Colposuspension
Vault is fixed to the abdominal wall by a facial strip or merseline tape

Advantages of M I S-small incision, better view, haemostasis, no packing, minimal tissue & bowel handling, short recovery, less pain, insignificant scar Can all types of prolapse be treated?- Yes. Ant. / Post. Lower vaginal repairs if needed can also be done vaginally before or after lap.Surgery However extended period of rest is essential Expertise is needed Presently cannot be widely practised This is the surgery of the future today

PROCEDURES:- Cervicopexy / Sling operations with/without Lap.Paravaginal repair / Vaginal repair VH / LAVH / LH / TLH + Colposuspension VH / LAVH /LH/TLH+ Lap.Pelvic reconstruction Rectocele repair & levatorplasty Enterocele repair with suturing of uterosacral ligaments Colpopexy- Ant / Post

33 Laparoscopic Cervicopexy/sling Operations
All types of sling operations can be better performed by laparoscopy Associated vaginal prolapse can also be repaired laparoscopically (Lap.Paravaginal repair) Vaginal Ant./Post. colporrhaphy can be done before / after laparoscopy

34 Laparoscopic Vault suspension/ Culdoplasty)
Can be done with VH / LAVH / LH / TLH Corrects mild laxity Prevents vault prolapse

35 Laparoscopic Pelvic Reconstruction With VH / LAVH / LH / TLH
An alternative to Ward-Mayo’s operation Before Hys., Lap.Ureteral dissection is done and suture placed in uterosacral ligament near sacrum & left long, for latter vaginal vault suspension Lap. levator plication if needed Enterocele repair and suturing of uterosacral ligaments if needed Retro pubic Colposuspension (Bruch) if required

36 Laparoscopic Rectocele repair & Levatoroplasty
Rectovaginal space is opened & rectum dissected Interrupted sutures given in the levator in the midline Enterocele repair done if indicated Vaginal vault suspension done

37 Laparoscopic Enterocele repair
Rectovaginal space is opened, sac excised and purse string suture given Uterosacral ligament sutured

38 Laparoscopic Post Colpopexy / Sacrocolpopexy
Indicated for vault prolapse Enterocele if present is first repaired Prolene mesh is fixed to the vault & 3rd-4th sacral vertebrae, under the peritoneum in the Rt.para rectal space

39 Time has come for Laparoscopic Surgery for Prolapse So move with the times. Practice laparoscopy. This is the Surgery of the future today. THANK YOU

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