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2 BYZANTINE ART Architecture: central and quincunx plan churches Mysterious, irrational, and decorative Columns with basket capitals Mosaics with lots of gold Stylized forms: large eye, long thin fingers and noses Central, frontal, symmetrical Figures lack mass and have down-pointing feet Hieratic (representations or methods are fixed by or as if by religious tradition) scale Flat, linear; no shadows, no landscape, no background, little modeling Isocephalic-heads at same level


4 Cathedral of San Marco (Venice, Italy) Byzantine and local artists create mosaics over centuries Built for St. Mark’s relics Doge Domenico Contarini Begun 1063 Cruciform plan with central dome over the crossing and four smaller domes over the arms


6 Lamentation Over the Dead Christ Mural in St. Pantaleimon, Nerezi, Macedonia 1164 C.E. Emperors lifted ban on religious images For more emotion added Mary and John in a natural setting Represents intense grief


8 Three Angels (Old Testament Trinity) Andrei Rublyev Tempera on wood 4’ 8” x 3’ 9” ATP 1410 C.E. Russian icon painting - strong patterns, firm lines, & intense contrast colors so worshipers could see in candle light and incense Lines contrast demeanor Same figures, different colors

9 EARLY MEDIEVAL ATP 500-1000 Represnts a fusion of Christianity, the Greco-Roman heritage, and cultures of the non-Roman peoples

10 ART OF THE WARRIOR LORDS Interlace patterns Imaginary animals Appears on small portable objects (manuports), usually with a practical purpose Most likely large artworks did not survive war rather than were not made


12 Purse Cover from Sutton Hoo ship burial ATP 625 C.E. Gold, glass, & enamel cloisonné w/ garnets and emeralds 7½” Cloisonné- soldered metal strips (cloisons) edge up to metal background, filled w/stones, glass, or glass paste Believed to be funeral ship of Lord Scyld (from Beowulf) Part of medieval tradition of burying great lords w/ rich furnishings


14 Animal-Head Post From Oseberg, Norway ship burial for two women ATP 825 Wood about 5” high Animal form & lace pattern- fundamental motifs from Northern Frontier of former Roman Empire warrior lords Highlights intricate Viking carving ability

15 HIBERNO SAXON (Ireland, England) Distinctive illuminated manuscripts (hand written books containing books of the Bible and other Christian writings) Swirling animal images mixed with Christian ideas High crosses between 8 th and 10 th centuries exceptional in mass and scale Corsses were freestanding and unattached to any structural fabric


17 Cross and Carpet Page of Lindisfarne Gospels From Northumbria, England ATP 698-721 C.E. Tempera on Vellum 1’ 1½” x 9¼” Cobination of Christian images and animal interlace style Eadfrith, Bishop of Lindisfarne For God and St. Cuthbert who’s relics were recently deposited in the church


19 Chi-rho-iota (Book of Kells) Probably from Iona, Scotland Owned by Kells monastery in southern Ireland Late 8 th or early 9 th century Tempera on vellum 1’ 1” x 9½” Opening of Matthew’s Gospel XPI in Greek letters


21 St. Matthew (Lindisfarne Gospels) Northumbria, England ATP 698-721 C.E. Tempera on vellum 1’ 1½” x 9¼” Eadfrith, Bishop of Lindisfarne Follows tradition of Mediterranean manuscript illumination


23 High Cross or Muiredach Monasterboice, Ireland Sandstone about 18’ high 923 C.E For burial of Abbot Muiredach who headed on of oldest monastaries in Ireland Freestanding high Celtic cross

24 CAROLINGIAN ART Evidence of classical Illusionism: modeling, landscape background, attempts at perspective Expressionism: energetic lines, emphasis on expression of inner emotional state


26 St. Matthew (Ebbo Gospels) From Hautvillers (near Reims), France ATP 816-835 C.E. Ink and Tempera on vellum 10¼” x 8¾” Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims – made for him Manuscript illuminator with energy that amounts to frenzy


28 Crucifixion on front cover of Lindau Gospels Saint Gall, Switzerland ATP 870 C.E. Gold, precious stones, and pearls 1’ 1 3/8” x 10 3/8” Example of Carolingian book covers Made in workshop of Charles the Bald’s court Delicate metal relief in repoussé Statuesque and open eyed – less real portrayal


30 Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Aachen, Germany ATP 792-805 C.E. Built under Charlemagne Carolingian conversion of Byzantine building techniques-foreshadows Romanesque resembles San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy Geometric clarity

31 OTTONIAN ART Stylized figures with big eyes Completely linear and flat Hieratic scale Composition: central, frontal, symmetrical Isocephalic


33 Abbey Church of St. Pantaleon Cologne, Germany ATP 966-980 C.E. Begun by Archbishop Bruno Empress Theophanu expanded the church to include a crypt


35 St. Michael’s Doors with Relief Panels Hildesheim, Germany 1015 C.E. Commissioned by Bishop Bernward Bronze 16’ 6” high Left door: Genesis right door: Life of Christ Each cast separately with the figural sculpture using wax casting


37 Crucifix for Cologne Cathedral Commisioned by Archbishop Gero ATP 970 C.E. Painted carved wood 6’ 2” Cologne, Germany Example of revival of monumental sculpture Reliqaury-shrine for sacred relics More human and closer to Byzantine than Early Christian Powerful intense agony portrayed

38 ROMANESQUE Sculpture Attached to churches, completely dependent on the architecture Stylized, elongated Architecture Use of Roman round arch and barrel vault Larger churches built to accommodate pilgrimages: second aisle, ambulatory, radiating chapels Stone barrel vaults replace flammable wooden roofs, cause walls to be thicker, w/ smaller windows so darker


40 St. Sernin Cathedral Toulouse, France ATP 1070-1120 C.E. Counts of Toulouse had church built for Saint Saturninus Geometrically precise and crisply rational Lengthened nave, doubled the side aisles, and added a transept, ambulatory, and radiating chapels for pilgrimages Barrel vaults


42 St. Ambrogio Cathedral Milan, Italy ATP late 11th, early 12th century Built in Honor of Milan’s first bishop St. Ambrose First instances of rib vaulting


44 Saint Etienne Cathedral Caen, France Begun 1067 C.E. Begun by William of Normandy (William the Conqueror) Sexpartite vaulting- ribs creating six sections Very high vaults for clerestory


46 Durham Cathedral Durham, England Begun ATP 1093 C.E. William of Normandy’s conquest shanges the English style Patterned ribs on naive’s groin vaults Quadrant arches (curves extend ¼ circle’s circumference in tribune Quadrangular ashlar blocks carved by corps of expert masons for walls


48 Pisa Cathedral Complex Pisa, Italy Cathedral 1063 C.E., baptistery 1153 C.E., campanile 1174 C.E. Coherent group of 3 Romanesque buildings Marble incrustations-wall decoration of bright panels of different colors, as in Pantheon’s interior Pisans wanted it to be a glory to God and bring credit to the city


50 Christ in Majesty South portal of St. Pierre Cathedral Moisac, France ATP 1115-1135 C.E. Record the second coming of Christ as King and Judge Tympanum (semicircular lunnette) above door Frieze relief


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