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Originally created by Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY.

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Presentation on theme: "Originally created by Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Originally created by Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

3 Geography of the Romans  Rome’s central location contributed to its success in unifying Italy and then all the lands ringing the Mediterranean Sea which it called the “Middle of the Earth.”  Italy was a crossroads within the Mediterranean and Rome was a crossroads within Italy.  The Tiber River on one side and a double ring of seven hills on the other afforded natural protection to the site.  The Apennine Range runs along its length like a spine, separating the eastern and western coastal plains.  The mild Mediterranean climate affords a long growing season and conditions suitable for a variety of crops and the conditions for sustaining large populations.  The mountainous regions were abundant in timber and iron and other metal were found in the northwest region of Etruria.  Rome’s central location contributed to its success in unifying Italy and then all the lands ringing the Mediterranean Sea which it called the “Middle of the Earth.”  Italy was a crossroads within the Mediterranean and Rome was a crossroads within Italy.  The Tiber River on one side and a double ring of seven hills on the other afforded natural protection to the site.  The Apennine Range runs along its length like a spine, separating the eastern and western coastal plains.  The mild Mediterranean climate affords a long growing season and conditions suitable for a variety of crops and the conditions for sustaining large populations.  The mountainous regions were abundant in timber and iron and other metal were found in the northwest region of Etruria.

4 The Geography of Rome

5 The Mythical Founding of Rome: Romulus & Remus

6 From Kingdom to Republic  Modern scholars do not support the myths of Romulus and Remus but it appears bands of Indo- European migrants crossed the Alps and settled throughout the Italian Peninsula.  Like their distant cousins in India, Greece, and northern Europe, these migrants blended with the Neolithic inhabitants of the region, adopted agriculture, and established tribal federations. Bronze metallurgy appeared around 1800 B.C.E. and iron around 900 B.C.E.  The first major group of Italy were the Etruscans. Coming from Anatolia, they settled from the Po River in the north to modern-day Naples in the south.  The Etruscans deeply influenced the early development of Rome. Several of the first Roman kings were Etruscan and ruled through the seventh and sixth century B.C.E.  Modern scholars do not support the myths of Romulus and Remus but it appears bands of Indo- European migrants crossed the Alps and settled throughout the Italian Peninsula.  Like their distant cousins in India, Greece, and northern Europe, these migrants blended with the Neolithic inhabitants of the region, adopted agriculture, and established tribal federations. Bronze metallurgy appeared around 1800 B.C.E. and iron around 900 B.C.E.  The first major group of Italy were the Etruscans. Coming from Anatolia, they settled from the Po River in the north to modern-day Naples in the south.  The Etruscans deeply influenced the early development of Rome. Several of the first Roman kings were Etruscan and ruled through the seventh and sixth century B.C.E.

7 Influence of the Etruscans  Writing  Religion  The Arch

8 Apennine Peninsula in 753 BCE

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10 Formation of an Empire  About 509 B.C.E., Romans drove out the Etruscan kings and declared Rome a republic, a government in which power resides in a body of citizens and consists of representatives elected by them.  The Roman Republic which lasted from 507 to 31 B.C.E. was not a democracy. Sovereign power resided in assemblies and while all male citizens were eligible to attend, the votes of the wealthy classes counted for more than the votes of poor citizens.  In Rome, as in classical China and Greece, patterns of land distribution caused serious political and social tensions. Conquered lands fell into the hands of wealthy elites who organized large plantations known as latifundia.  About 509 B.C.E., Romans drove out the Etruscan kings and declared Rome a republic, a government in which power resides in a body of citizens and consists of representatives elected by them.  The Roman Republic which lasted from 507 to 31 B.C.E. was not a democracy. Sovereign power resided in assemblies and while all male citizens were eligible to attend, the votes of the wealthy classes counted for more than the votes of poor citizens.  In Rome, as in classical China and Greece, patterns of land distribution caused serious political and social tensions. Conquered lands fell into the hands of wealthy elites who organized large plantations known as latifundia.

11 The Roman Republic The real center of power was the Roman Senate. Technically an advisory council, first to kings and later to Republican officials, the Senate increasingly made policy and governed. Senators nominated their sons for public offices and filled Senate vacancies from the ranks of former officials.  The Senate whose members served for life brought together the state’s wealth, influence, and political and military experience.  The inequities in roman society led to periodic unrest and conflict between the elite (patricians) and the majority of the population (plebeians).  It became apparent in time the republic which was constructed for small city-states was not suitable for a large and growing republic. The real center of power was the Roman Senate. Technically an advisory council, first to kings and later to Republican officials, the Senate increasingly made policy and governed. Senators nominated their sons for public offices and filled Senate vacancies from the ranks of former officials.  The Senate whose members served for life brought together the state’s wealth, influence, and political and military experience.  The inequities in roman society led to periodic unrest and conflict between the elite (patricians) and the majority of the population (plebeians).  It became apparent in time the republic which was constructed for small city-states was not suitable for a large and growing republic.

12 Expansion of the Empire  As it expanded, Rome often offered its opponents a choice between alliance and conquest. If they accepted Roman rule, they would receive Roman citizenship and protection.  Rome fought protracted and bloody wars against the Carthaginians (Hannibal) called the Punic Wars. The Carthaginians were the heirs of the Phoenicians which controlled much of the southern and eastern Mediterranean.  During the early first century B.C.E., Rome fell into civil war as individuals fought for land and power in the new lands of the Romans. While there were attempts to reform the empire under Tiberius in 132 B.C.E. and Gaius in 121 B.C.E., they were both assassinated and the die had been caste for a move away from the Republican ideals and a move toward a centralized imperial form of government.  As it expanded, Rome often offered its opponents a choice between alliance and conquest. If they accepted Roman rule, they would receive Roman citizenship and protection.  Rome fought protracted and bloody wars against the Carthaginians (Hannibal) called the Punic Wars. The Carthaginians were the heirs of the Phoenicians which controlled much of the southern and eastern Mediterranean.  During the early first century B.C.E., Rome fell into civil war as individuals fought for land and power in the new lands of the Romans. While there were attempts to reform the empire under Tiberius in 132 B.C.E. and Gaius in 121 B.C.E., they were both assassinated and the die had been caste for a move away from the Republican ideals and a move toward a centralized imperial form of government.

13 Carthaginian Empire

14 Hannibal’s Route

15 PompeyPompey First Triumvirate Julius Caesar Crassus (Licinius)

16 Imperial Rome Emerges  In addition to the Carthagians, the Romans also fought with the Gauls (Celts) from Modern-day France.  Under Julius Caesar, Rome expanded its empire across the Mediterranean and the continent of Europe.  The conquest of Gaul helped to create a political crisis. As a result of his military victories, Caesar had become very popular in Rome. As tensions arose in early 49 B.C.E., Caesar had turned his armies toward Rome.  By early 46 B.C.E., he had made himself master of the Roman state and named himself dictator-an office he claimed for life rather than the usual six-month term.  Caesar’s policies pointed the way toward a centralized, imperial form of government for Rome and its possessions but Caesar’s rule had alienated many members of the Roman elite and he was assassinated in 44 B.C.E. which led to continued civil conflict until the acceptance of Octavian, Caesar’s nephew and adopted son.  In addition to the Carthagians, the Romans also fought with the Gauls (Celts) from Modern-day France.  Under Julius Caesar, Rome expanded its empire across the Mediterranean and the continent of Europe.  The conquest of Gaul helped to create a political crisis. As a result of his military victories, Caesar had become very popular in Rome. As tensions arose in early 49 B.C.E., Caesar had turned his armies toward Rome.  By early 46 B.C.E., he had made himself master of the Roman state and named himself dictator-an office he claimed for life rather than the usual six-month term.  Caesar’s policies pointed the way toward a centralized, imperial form of government for Rome and its possessions but Caesar’s rule had alienated many members of the Roman elite and he was assassinated in 44 B.C.E. which led to continued civil conflict until the acceptance of Octavian, Caesar’s nephew and adopted son.

17 Beware the Ides of March! 44 BCE

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19 Octavian Augustus: Rome’s First Emperor

20 Pax Romana  Octavian known now as Augustus, a term with strong religious connotations suggesting the divine nature of its holder, would rule virtually unopposed and fashioned an imperial government that guided Roman affairs for the next three centuries.  During the two centuries following Augustus’s rule, Roman armies conquered much of the Mediterranean. The empire had expanded to include not only the lands of Italy, Greece, Syria, Gaul, and most of the Iberian Peninsula, but it would go onto conquer lands as far as Britain, most of northern Africa, SW Asia, and Anatolia.  Roman Expansion had especially dramatic effects on European lands embraced by the Empire. Egypt, Syria, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia had long been sites of complex city-based societies but Gaul, Germany, Britain, and Spain were not.  When Roman soldiers, diplomats, governors, and merchants arrived, they stimulated the development of local economies and states.  Octavian known now as Augustus, a term with strong religious connotations suggesting the divine nature of its holder, would rule virtually unopposed and fashioned an imperial government that guided Roman affairs for the next three centuries.  During the two centuries following Augustus’s rule, Roman armies conquered much of the Mediterranean. The empire had expanded to include not only the lands of Italy, Greece, Syria, Gaul, and most of the Iberian Peninsula, but it would go onto conquer lands as far as Britain, most of northern Africa, SW Asia, and Anatolia.  Roman Expansion had especially dramatic effects on European lands embraced by the Empire. Egypt, Syria, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia had long been sites of complex city-based societies but Gaul, Germany, Britain, and Spain were not.  When Roman soldiers, diplomats, governors, and merchants arrived, they stimulated the development of local economies and states.

21 The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire – 14 CE

22 Pax Romana : 27 BCE – 180 CE

23 The Roman Forum

24 Rome’s Early Road System

25 Roman Roads: The Appian Way

26 Imperial Roman Road System

27 Roman Aqueducts

28 The Roman Colosseum

29 The Colosseum Interior

30 Circus Maximus

31 The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire – 14 CE

32 The Empire Stops Expanding  One noticeable difference during this time is the building of walls to keep out the Barbarians of the Empire.  The most famous was Emperor Hadrian’s Wall (117 - 138 C.E.) which defined the most northern extent of Roman expansion on Britain.  As military commanders were more focused on defensive strategies than on offensive strategies, these changes started to sow seeds for future conflict.

33 Roman Law  Under conditions of political stability and the Pax Romana, jurists constructed an elaborate system of law.  Romans began a tradition of written law about 450 B.C.E., when they created the Twelve Tables.  As armies spread Roman influence, jurists worked to construct a rational body of law that would apply to all peoples under Roman rule.  They established the principle that defendants were innocent under proven guilty and they also had the right to challenge their accusers in a court of law.  Like transportation and communication networks, Roman law helped to integrate diverse lands that made up the empire and the principles of Roman law continued to shape Mediterranean and European society long after the empire had disappeared.  Under conditions of political stability and the Pax Romana, jurists constructed an elaborate system of law.  Romans began a tradition of written law about 450 B.C.E., when they created the Twelve Tables.  As armies spread Roman influence, jurists worked to construct a rational body of law that would apply to all peoples under Roman rule.  They established the principle that defendants were innocent under proven guilty and they also had the right to challenge their accusers in a court of law.  Like transportation and communication networks, Roman law helped to integrate diverse lands that made up the empire and the principles of Roman law continued to shape Mediterranean and European society long after the empire had disappeared.

34 Roman Society  As Rome expands, it did levy tribute, taxes, rents, and recruited soldiers from the peoples in conquered. They settled their own soldiers in captured lands, turning those lands into Roman estates and enslaving millions of people.  The Supplying of Rome, the construction of cities, and trade across the Eurasian land mass transformed the Empire dramatically.  Even though it was law for the peoples of the empire to worship Roman deities, as conditions worsened and contact with other areas increased, new religious thoughts would permeate the empire.  The two groups who were creating the greatest concern for the Romans were the Jews of Palestine and a Jewish sect, known as Christians.  As Rome expands, it did levy tribute, taxes, rents, and recruited soldiers from the peoples in conquered. They settled their own soldiers in captured lands, turning those lands into Roman estates and enslaving millions of people.  The Supplying of Rome, the construction of cities, and trade across the Eurasian land mass transformed the Empire dramatically.  Even though it was law for the peoples of the empire to worship Roman deities, as conditions worsened and contact with other areas increased, new religious thoughts would permeate the empire.  The two groups who were creating the greatest concern for the Romans were the Jews of Palestine and a Jewish sect, known as Christians.

35 The Rise of Christianity

36 “Third Century Crisis” 235 to 284 C.E.

37 The Empire in Crisis: 3c

38 Empire in Crisis  From 235 to 284 C.E., Rome was beset and nearly destroyed when political, military, and economic problems befell the empire because of a frequent change of rulers.  Twenty or more men claimed the office of emperor during this period and most only reigned for a period of months or years.  Diocletian implemented radical reforms that saved the Roman state by transforming it. One thing he did was to divide the empire into two: One primarily Latin-speaking and one primarily Greek-speaking which led to a period of multiple emperors ruling the West and East Roman Empires.  In addition, the barbarians were also gathering and attacking the Empires outer flanks (Celts,Goths, Huns, Saxons, Vandals, Franks, and others).  From 235 to 284 C.E., Rome was beset and nearly destroyed when political, military, and economic problems befell the empire because of a frequent change of rulers.  Twenty or more men claimed the office of emperor during this period and most only reigned for a period of months or years.  Diocletian implemented radical reforms that saved the Roman state by transforming it. One thing he did was to divide the empire into two: One primarily Latin-speaking and one primarily Greek-speaking which led to a period of multiple emperors ruling the West and East Roman Empires.  In addition, the barbarians were also gathering and attacking the Empires outer flanks (Celts,Goths, Huns, Saxons, Vandals, Franks, and others).

39 Diocletian Splits the Empire in Two: 294 CE

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41 The New Rome  When Diocletian resigned in 305 C.E., the old divisiveness reemerged as various claimants battled for the throne.  The eventual winner was Constantine who reunited the entire empire under his sole rule by 324.  In 312, Constantine won a key battle near Rome. He later claimed he had seen a cross superimposed on the sun before battle. Believing the Christian God had helped him achieve victory, he would later legalize Christianity called the Edict of Milan.  This ended the persecution of Christians in the empire.  When Diocletian resigned in 305 C.E., the old divisiveness reemerged as various claimants battled for the throne.  The eventual winner was Constantine who reunited the entire empire under his sole rule by 324.  In 312, Constantine won a key battle near Rome. He later claimed he had seen a cross superimposed on the sun before battle. Believing the Christian God had helped him achieve victory, he would later legalize Christianity called the Edict of Milan.  This ended the persecution of Christians in the empire.

42 Byzantium: The Eastern Roman Empire

43 Constantine: 312 - 337

44 Constantinople  In 324, Constantine transferred the imperial city from Rome to Byzantium, an ancient Greek city on the Bosporus Strait between the Black and the Mediterranean Seas.  This move reflected and accelerated changes in the empire. Constantine and his mother, Helena, studded the city and the Empire with churches and involved himself in doctrinal disputes over which beliefs constituted heresy. This discussion will eventually give way to a further break of the empire and the Christian faith.  However,the heavy involvement with religion of the emperors in Constantinople did not prevent them from playing conqueror and lawmaker.  In 324, Constantine transferred the imperial city from Rome to Byzantium, an ancient Greek city on the Bosporus Strait between the Black and the Mediterranean Seas.  This move reflected and accelerated changes in the empire. Constantine and his mother, Helena, studded the city and the Empire with churches and involved himself in doctrinal disputes over which beliefs constituted heresy. This discussion will eventually give way to a further break of the empire and the Christian faith.  However,the heavy involvement with religion of the emperors in Constantinople did not prevent them from playing conqueror and lawmaker.

45 The Spread of Christianity

46 The “Barbarians”  Rome labeled many of its neighbors on its borders barbarians, including the Celts of central Europe, the various Germanic groups of northern and eastern Europe, and the steppe nomads of central Asia.  Many of these groups did not have cities, written languages, formal governments, established geographical boundaries, nor codified laws.  The view of the Barbarian peoples as being beneath the true “Roman” would shape harsh treatment and sow the seeds of conflict with the Roman Empires.  Rome labeled many of its neighbors on its borders barbarians, including the Celts of central Europe, the various Germanic groups of northern and eastern Europe, and the steppe nomads of central Asia.  Many of these groups did not have cities, written languages, formal governments, established geographical boundaries, nor codified laws.  The view of the Barbarian peoples as being beneath the true “Roman” would shape harsh treatment and sow the seeds of conflict with the Roman Empires.

47 Barbarian Invasions: 4c-5c

48 Rise of the Barbarians  Continuing imperial vitality in the Eastern Empire contrasted with deepening decline in the Western Empire, which became a separate entity after 395.  While the Byzantine armies were able to stop the warring bands north of the Danube River, many of these groups would move toward the west and create havoc for the Western empire.  The primary “Barbarian” groups were the Huns, Vandals, Goths, Saxons, and Franks.  The Goths, a Germanic People, would go on to sack Rome in 410. By 530, with the old Roman economy and urban centers in shambles, the Western Roman empire would eventually fall to numerous tribes from across Europe and Asia.  Continuing imperial vitality in the Eastern Empire contrasted with deepening decline in the Western Empire, which became a separate entity after 395.  While the Byzantine armies were able to stop the warring bands north of the Danube River, many of these groups would move toward the west and create havoc for the Western empire.  The primary “Barbarian” groups were the Huns, Vandals, Goths, Saxons, and Franks.  The Goths, a Germanic People, would go on to sack Rome in 410. By 530, with the old Roman economy and urban centers in shambles, the Western Roman empire would eventually fall to numerous tribes from across Europe and Asia.

49 The Byzantine Empire During the Reign of Justinian

50 Attila the Hun: “The Scourge of God”

51 Byzantine Empire  The Byzantine Empire originated as the eastern half of the classical Roman empire, which survived the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century C.E.  In the early days, the Byzantine Empire embraced Greece, the Balkan region, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Northern Africa.  Under Justinian (527-565), armies were sent out to regain control of lost territories and he would regain some of the areas and establish a legal code which will influence most of the modern European systems.  One of the reasons why the Byzantine Empire was able to survive 1000 years after the fall of Rome may be due to its administrative system. The ruling classes were never isolated and alienated as they were in the west.  The Byzantine Empire originated as the eastern half of the classical Roman empire, which survived the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century C.E.  In the early days, the Byzantine Empire embraced Greece, the Balkan region, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Northern Africa.  Under Justinian (527-565), armies were sent out to regain control of lost territories and he would regain some of the areas and establish a legal code which will influence most of the modern European systems.  One of the reasons why the Byzantine Empire was able to survive 1000 years after the fall of Rome may be due to its administrative system. The ruling classes were never isolated and alienated as they were in the west.

52 The Byzantine Emperor Justinian

53 Justinian’s Empire

54 Constantinople: (Istanbul Today)

55 Empress Theodora

56 Church of Hagia Sophia [Holy Wisdom]

57 Interior of the Church of Hagia Sophia

58 Byzantine & Sassanid Empires, 6 c

59 Rome’s Last Days  Even though by the end of the 5th century Rome would cease to be symbol of the capital of the past, the legacy of Roman rule would live on in the Byzantine Empire (East Roman) until Muslim invaders would eventually control the capital of Constantinople in 1453 and rename it Istanbul.  The Ottomans and many other Islamic groups were also influenced by the splendor of Justinian’s Hagya Sophia…so in many ways Roman Architecture lives on in the west and the east.  Even though by the end of the 5th century Rome would cease to be symbol of the capital of the past, the legacy of Roman rule would live on in the Byzantine Empire (East Roman) until Muslim invaders would eventually control the capital of Constantinople in 1453 and rename it Istanbul.  The Ottomans and many other Islamic groups were also influenced by the splendor of Justinian’s Hagya Sophia…so in many ways Roman Architecture lives on in the west and the east.

60 The Legacy of Rome  Republic Government  Roman Law  Latin Language  Roman Catholic and Easter Orthodox Churches  City Planning  Romanesque Architectural Style  Cultural Distinctions (Ethnicity)  Roman Engineering Aqueducts Aqueducts Sewage systems Sewage systems Dams Dams Cement Cement Arch Arch

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63 Model of Rome

64 CharacteristicsCharacteristics 1.During the Republic – Temple Architecture: K blended Etruscan, Greek, Persian, etc. features. K emphasis on the front of the building. K example: Temple of Fortuna Virilis.

65 Temple of “Fortuna Virilis”

66 CharacteristicsCharacteristics 2.CONCRETE: K created a revolution in architectural design. K create larger, heavier buildings. * example: - The Sanctuary of Fortuna Palestrina.

67 Sanctuary of Fortuna Palestrina

68 Model of Roman Forum

69 Model of Trajan’s Forum Forum

70 CharacteristicsCharacteristics 3.ARCH & VAULT: K Coliseum K Race Track – Circus Maximus K Public Baths K Amphitheaters

71 Triumphal Arch of Titus

72 Arch of Constantine

73 Barrel or “Tunnel” Vault K Windows can be placed at any point. K These vaults require buttressing to counter-act the downward thrust of weight.

74 Groin Vault K Also called a cross vault. K Needs less buttressing.

75 Multi Groin Vaults K A series of groin vaults can have open lateral arches that form Clerestories. K Windows that allow light into the interior of churches. K These concrete windows are fireproof [an important consideration since many early churches burned!]

76 Early Roman Amphitheater  Seats about 20,000

77 Roman Theater

78 Theater of Marcellus

79 Roman Coliseum

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81 Interior of the Coliseum  Arena is Latin for the sand, coating the floor that soaks up the blood of the combatants.

82 Circus Maximus 300,000 seat capacity! 300,000 seat capacity!

83 Roman Bath in England

84 CharacteristicsCharacteristics 4.DOME: K Basilicas - Large and relatively open space. - examples: ► Pantheon ► early Christian churches

85 Cylindrical Dome K With the dome, the Romans could surpass earlier cultures by their ability to span space. K Light enters through the oculus on top.

86 The Pantheon Plans

87 The Pantheon

88 Pantheon’s Dome

89 The Pantheon Interior

90 Painting by Giovanni Paolo Pannini (18c) Painting by Giovanni Paolo Pannini (18c)

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92 Innovative Engineering Techniques 1. Roads – macadam 2. Aqueducts 3. Arch Bridge

93 Via Appia All roads lead to Rome! All roads lead to Rome!

94 Roman Aqueduct

95 Aqueduct in Segovia

96 Roman Arch Bridge in Spain

97 Hadrian’s Wall in Britain

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99 Characteristics of Roman Sculpture 1. Collectors and copiers of Greek works [more idealistic]. 2. Categories: K Portrait sculpture K Statues K Paintings & mosaics K Relief sculptures 3. More realism [show the wrinkles, the bulges, and ageing!]

100 Roman Copy of Greek Art Original created by the Greek sculptor, Polyclitus, 5c BCE

101 Republican Couple  Realistic portraits – like Hellenistic Greek style.

102 Portraits of Emperors Julius Caesar Julius Caesar Nero Nero Hadrian Hadrian Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius

103 Mosaics on a Roman Villa Floor

104 Roman Citizens

105 ColumnOfTrajanColumnOfTrajan

106 Base Relief Legionnaires on Trajan’s Column

107 Roman Sarcophagus  Marble base relief – Etruscan influence?

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109 Roman Villa

110 House in Herculaneum

111 Frescoes on aVilla’s Walls Frescoes on aVilla’s Walls

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113 Roman Crafts 1c BCE glass bowl Ivory Cameo Gold earrings

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115 Jefferson Memorial

116 Lincoln Memorial

117 The US Capitol Building

118 Statue of Justice US Supreme Court Building

119 Federal Court Building in NYC

120 Metropolitan Museum of Art

121 Statue of Liberty


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