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Internal Control and Managing Cash Chapter 4.

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1 Internal Control and Managing Cash Chapter 4

2 system of internal control.
Set up an effective system of internal control.

3 Internal Control Safeguard assets. Promote operational efficiency.
It is the organizational plan and all the related measures that an entity adopts. Encourage Adherence to company policies. Safeguard assets. Ensure Accurate and reliable accounting records. Promote operational efficiency.

4 Components of an Effective System
Competent, reliable, and ethical personnel Assignment of responsibilities Authorization Recording Custody Separation of duties

5 Separation of Duties Separation of the Authorization of transactions
from the Recording of transactions from the Custody of assets

6 Internal and External Audits
An audit is an examination by an outside party of the company’s financial statements, accounting systems, and internal controls. An internal auditor is an employee of the business. An external auditor is an independent auditor.

7 Business documents and records include:
invoices (bills) paid checks accounting journals accounting ledgers

8 Electronic and Computer Controls
Businesses use electronic devices to safeguard assets.

9 The Onion Model of E-Commerce System Security
Sensitive Hardware, Software, and Data Encryption Firewalls Intrusion detection devices Incident response procedures Audits by external specialists

10 Encryption It is the transformation of data by a mathematical
process into a form that is unreadable by anyone who does not have the secret decryption key. Same key Clear message Encryption Encoded Decryption

11 Firewall Internet Passwords Other codes
It is a technique that limits access to hardware, software, or data to persons within a network. Inquirers Customers Hackers Firewall 1 Firewall 2 Firewall 3 Internet Passwords Other codes

12 Other Controls – Fireproof vaults – Burglar alarms
– Point of sale terminals – Frequent bank deposits – Mandatory vacations – Job rotation

13 The Limitations of Internal Control
Systems designed to thwart one person’s fraud can be beaten by two or more employees working together – colluding – to defraud the firm. A system of internal control that is too complex can be inefficient.

14 Use a bank reconciliation
as a control device.

15 The Bank Reconciliation
There are two records of a business’s cash: the company’s cash account on its own books, and… 1 the bank statement, which shows the actual amount of cash in the bank. 2

16 The Bank Reconciliation
Two common items that cause differences between the bank balance and the book balance. 1. Items recorded by the company but not yet recorded by the bank: – Deposits in transit – Outstanding checks

17 The Bank Reconciliation
2. Items on a bank statement and not recorded by the business: – Bank collections – Electronic funds transfers – Service charge – Interest revenue earned on account – NSF checks – Errors

18 Bank Reconciliation Illustrated
The bank statement of Business Research, Inc., shows a balance of $5, on January 31. The company Cash account on the books has a balance of $3, The following reconciling items explain why the two balances differ:

19 The Bank Reconciliation Illustrated
1. The January 30 deposit of $1,591.63 does not appear on the bank statement. 2. The bank erroneously charged to the account a $100 check (No. 656) not written by Business Research Associates. 3. Five company checks issued late in January and recorded in the journal have not been paid by the bank.

20 The Bank Reconciliation Illustrated
Check No Date Amount Jan $ Total $1,350.14

21 The Bank Reconciliation Illustrated
4. The bank received $ by EFT on behalf of Business Research, Inc. 5. The bank collected on behalf of the company a note receivable, $2,114 (including interest revenue of $214). 6. The bank statement shows interest revenue of $28.01.

22 The Bank Reconciliation Illustrated
7. Check number 333 for $150 paid to Brown Company on account was recorded as a cash payment of $510. 8. The bank service charge for the month was $14.25. 9. The bank statement shows an NSF check for $52. 10. Business Research pays insurance expense by EFT and has not recorded this $361 payment.

23 The Bank Reconciliation Illustrated
Balance per bank, January 31 $5,931.51 Add deposit in transit ,591.63 Check erroneously charged $7,623.14 Less outstanding checks –1,350.14 Adjusted bank balance $6,273.00

24 The Bank Reconciliation Illustrated
Balance per books, January $3,294.21 Add: ETF receipt of rent revenue Collection of note receivable ,114.00 Interest revenue earned Correction of book error $6,700.25 Less: Service charge $ NSF check Payment of insurance expense – Adjusted book balance $6,273.00

25 Apply internal controls
to cash receipts and cash payments.

26 Controlling and Managing Cash
Internal control over cash receipts ensures that all cash receipts are deposited in the bank and no collections are lost.

27 Over the Counter Receipts
The point-of-sale terminal (cash register) offers control over the cash received in a store.

28 Mail Receipts All incoming mail should be opened
by a mailroom employee. This person should compare the check received with the remittance advice. The mailroom clerk keeps a running total of cash receipts for the day.

29 Mail Receipts Many companies use a lock-box system.
Customers send checks directly to an address that is essentially a bank account.

30 Internal Controls Over Cash Receipts
Element of Internal Control Internal Controls over Cash Receipts Competent, reliable, ethical personnel Carefully screen and train employees. Proper authorization Only designated employees can grant exceptions for customers.

31 Internal Controls Over Cash Receipts
Separation of duties Employees who handle cash do not have access to accounting records. Internal: management policies External: control over cash receipts Internal and external audits Electronic and computer controls Match receipts with remittances and bank deposit ticket daily.

32 Internal Control: Payments Purchasing Process
Purchase request (requisition) Sales department Purchasing Business Document Prepared by Sent to Purchase order Purchasing department Supplier Invoice (bill) Supplier Accounting department Receiving report Receiving department Accounting Disbursement packet Accounting department Officer who signs the check

33 Internal Control: Payments Disbursement Packet
Purchase Request Purchase Order Receiving Report Invoice Disbursement Packet

34 Internal Controls Over Cash Payments
Element of Internal Control Internal Controls over Cash Payments Competent, reliable, ethical personnel Payments entrusted to high level employees and the treasurer. Proper authorization Large expenditures must be authorized by top management.

35 Internal Controls Over Cash Payments
Separation of duties Employees who handle checks have no access to accounting records. Internal: management policies External: control over cash payments Internal and external audits Electronic and computer controls Computer programmers do not operate the computers.

36 Use a budget to manage cash.

37 Using a Budget to Manage Cash
A budget is a financial plan that helps coordinate business activities. A cash budget helps a company, or an individual, manage cash by planning the receipt and payment of cash during a future period.

38 Cash Budget Example 1. Cash balance, February1, 20x2 $ 202.6
Estimated cash receipts: 2. Collections from customers ,858.3 3. Interest and dividends on investments 4. Sale of store fixtures $3,072.0 Estimated cash payments: 5. Purchases of inventory $1,906.2 6. Operating expenses 7. Expansion of existing stores 8. Opening of new stores 9. Payment of long-term debt Payment of dividends ,385.9 11. Net cash position at January 31, 20x (111.3) 12. Budgeted / Desired cash balance, January 31, 20x 13. Additional cash needed to meet desired 1/31/x3 balance $ Cash Budget For the Year Ended January 31, 20x3 (In millions)

39 Reporting Cash on the Balance Sheet
Companies usually combine all cash amounts into a single total called “Cash and Cash Equivalents” on the balance sheet. Cash equivalents include liquid assets… Time deposits Certificates of deposit

40 Reporting Cash on the Balance Sheet
America Online, Inc. Consolidated Balance Sheet December 31 Excerpts (In Millions) Assets Current assets: Cash and cash equivalents $2,610 Short-term investments Accounts receivable

41 Weigh ethical judgment in

42 Ethics and Accounting Most large companies have a code of ethics
designed to encourage ethical and responsible behavior by employees. Accountants have additional incentives to behave ethically. AICPA Code of Professional Conduct Standards of Ethical Conduct for Management Accountants

43 Ethics and Accounting Conflict of Interest Business transactions
Enron Corporation A. Fastow, CEO Outside Partnership A. Fastow, Principal Business transactions

44 End of Chapter 4

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