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1 Tourism and Culture Lesson 8 , Historical Sites and Xi’an 孔海燕

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Presentation on theme: "1 Tourism and Culture Lesson 8 , Historical Sites and Xi’an 孔海燕"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Tourism and Culture Lesson 8 , Historical Sites and Xi’an 孔海燕

2 Class Activities Introduction Group discussion (Role play) Evaluation (Brainstorming)

3 Learning Objectives By the end of class today, you will be able to: Grasp the main key terms Understand the classification of attractions Explain the main factors of cultural attractions Understand the sustainable tourism Grasp the main information of Xi’an Explain the Terra Cotta warriors and Horses

4 Key Terms Cultural attractions Historical sites Sustainable tourism the terra cotta warriors and horses 兵马俑 the Qin Pottery Figures to become an active link in… 在 … 方面起到积极连接的纽带作用 trade route

5 Key Terms the terminal of the Silk Road 丝绸之路总站 burial site outside China excavation (unearth) to be unearthed tourist destination interior 内部、里面 to ascend the throne 登基 vault 墓穴 to be lined with 用 … 做衬护 coffin 棺木 priceless treasure 无价之宝

6 Key Terms crossbow 弓弩 sacred 神圣的 mercury 水银 to simulate 模仿 to be inlaid 被镶嵌上 cypress 柏 the reviewing stand 观礼台 array 列阵 to stand guard the Warring States Period

7 Key Terms to be arranged the way they were when unearthed 依照出土时的样子排列 cavern 坑 洞 infantry 步兵 torso 人体的躯干 to be individually sculpted 被雕刻得各有特性 chariot 战车 to be resealed 被重新封闭 To dig an irrigation well life-sized 与原物(真人)一样大小的 archeological discovery 考古学方面的发现

8 1. Classification of Attractions  In general, attractions can be classified into five categories.  Cultural attractions  Natural attractions  Events  Recreation  Entertainment attractions

9 2. Cultural Attractions  Cultural attractions include: Historical sites Architectural sites Architecture Cuisine Monuments industrial sites Museums Ethnic 民族的 Concerts 音乐会 Theater 剧场

10 3. Historical Attractions  Historical attractions have appeal for those inspired to learn more about contemporary and long-vanished civilizations.  People hope to know more about the history by visiting historical sites.

11 4. Tourists’ Perceptions of Cultural Tourism Growing interest in travelers’ desire to experience cultural, arts, historic, and heritage activities About 81% of the U.S. adults or 118 million are considered historic/cultural travelers (The Historical/Cultural Traveler, 2003)

12 4. Tourists’ Perceptions of Cultural Tourism Spend more money on historical/cultural trips compared to the average U.S. trip Average $623 VS $457, excluding transportation

13 4. Tourists’ Perceptions of Cultural Tourism Making cultural/historical travelers a great market for destinations In fact, 30% of these travelers, the destination choice was influenced by a special historic or cultural event or activity.

14 5. Xi’an Xi’an is one of the earliest ancient capital cities in china. The biggest city in northwest china and the capital of Shan’xi province.

15 5. Xi’an It has a history of over 3000 years. Served as china’s capital for 11 dynasties, for 1100 years, longer than other ancient Chinese capital cities.

16 5. Xi’an  During the 8 th and 7 th centuries B.C.,  Xi’an became an active link in the major trade Routes  between China and the commercial regions of Central Asia and Europe.

17 5. Xi’an  From the 11 th century B.C. to the 10 th century A.D.,  Xi’an had been the terminal of the Silk Road,  China’s political, economic and cultural center.

18 5. Xi’an In 1974, the astonishing burial site of Emperor Qin Shi Huang was discovered in Xi’an. The city became well-known both at home and abroad.

19 5. Xi’an  Along with the excavations of the Qin tomb, Xi’an has become one of the most popular tourist destinations in China.  That’s why people say that one’s China tour would be incomplete if he does not visit Xi’an.  Others even say without a visit to Xi’an, one can hardly claim to have visited China at all.

20 Xi’an

21 6. The Tomb of the First Emperor The tomb of the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty. The tomb has not yet been unearthed because except for some fragments of information in some historical records we have no ideas about its interior.

22 6. 1 The Construction of the Tomb  The construction of the tomb began immediately after the First Emperor of the Qin Dynastry ascended the throne  at the age of 13  in 246 B.C.

23 6. 1 The Construction of the Tomb After he had unified the whole of China, the work on the tomb continued, even on a larger scale with more than 700,000 laborers involved.

24 6.2 The Location of the Tomb  The tomb looks like a hill.

25 6.3 The Mystery of the Tomb  The bottom and sides of the vault were lined with bronze to protect the coffin from underground water.

26 6.3 The Mystery of the Tomb  Palace and pavilions were also built inside.  The interior of the tomb was decorated with priceless treasures  and equipped with automatic crossbows  to shoot anyone who would dare to step into this sacred palace.

27 6.3 The Mystery of the Tomb  Mercury was poured into ditches and pools to simulate flowing rivers and surging seas; pearls were inlaid on the ceiling to symbolize the sun and the moon; wild geese and ducks made of gold pines and cypresses carved out of precious stones  Were arranged on the floor.

28 6. The Tomb of the First Emperor

29  It is said that at the end of the Emperor’s funeral, all the palace maids who had served him when he was alive and all the craftsmen who had been engaged in the construction of his tomb were shut up inside and buried alive.  No one alive might know the inner secrets of the tomb.

30 7.Terra Cotta Warrior and Horse Museum The Terra Cotta Warrior and Horse Museum is just 1500 meters east of the tomb of the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty.

31 7.Terra Cotta Warrior and Horse Museum  This museum, housing terra cotta warriors and horses  is the largest one of this kind in China.

32 7.Terra Cotta Warrior and Horse Museum It’s 230 meters long, 70 meters wide and 22 meters high.

33 7.Terra Cotta Warrior and Horse Museum  It is a mighty army.  They have been standing guard by the tomb of the Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi for over 2000 years.

34 7.1 Why They Face the East?  All these terra cotta warriors and horses were used to guard the tomb of the first Emperor.  The State of Qin in the Warring States Period was located in the west  They fought east-ward against other states.

35 7.2 The Arrangement  Are the terra cotta warriors and horses arranged the way they were when unearthed?  Yes, they are.  So far, only three vaults, containing 8,000 figures, have been identified.

36 7.3 The First Vault  The first cavern contains the infantry section of Qin’s massive clay army.  There are 6000 warriors, ranging from 1.78 meters to 1.87 meters in height. They are all in armor gowns.

37 7.3 The First Vault  The torsos are hollow  and the arms and legs solid.  They were individually sculpted, after models chosen from throughout the military ranks of China.

38 7.3 The First Vault  The figures were originally brightly painted.  But the color faded after excavation.

39 7.4 The Second and Third Vaults  The second and third vaults were discovered in  They contain an additional 2000 figures of men, horses and chariots

40 7.4 The Second and Third Vaults  After test excavations, they were resealed until full-scale exploration could be undertaken.  We haven’t found the way of how to keep the originally bright colors from fading yet.

41 7.5 How Were the Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses discovered?  Quite by chance.  In the spring of 1974, a group of farmers were digging an irrigation well in Lintong County 临潼 about 30 kilometers east of Xi’an.

42 7.5 How Were the Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses discovered?  First one of them hit something hard.  Then another, then all of them.  What they have found led to the excavation of thousands of life-sized terra cotta warriors of several thousand years old.  That’s how one of the century’s greatest archeological discoveries was made.

43 The First Finder 杨志发

44 8. Sustainable Tourism  As tourism moves further into the 21st century, we should make the environment a priority.  Tourism must preserve and protect the environment and attractions, so that people will continue to travel;  We must set use limits so that sites will be truly sustainable.

45 8. Sustainable Tourism  The concept of sustainable development indicates that  We should hold out the promise of maintaining a standard of living somewhat similar to that which we possess today  while recognizing that we cannot continue to exploit the global environment as we have in the past.

46 Sustainable Development  可持续发展是指既满足现代人的需求以不 损害后代人满足需求的能力。  指经济、社会、资源和环境保护协调发展 ,它们是一个密不可分的系统,  既要达到发展经济的目的,又要保护好人 类赖以生存的大气、淡水、海洋、土地和 森林等自然资源和环境,  使子孙后代能够永续发展和安居乐业。

47 Group Discussion  Is it the time for us to open the tomb of the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty?  Should we open it to make money or preserve it for the coming generation?  Please elaborate your ideas with sound reasons.

48 Role Play Situation and requirement:  A group of foreigners visit Xi’an  The tour guide should show tourists around and introduce Xi’an to them, including The history and location of Xi’an The tomb of the First Emperor of Qin Dynasty The terra cotta warriors and horses

49 Thank You Most pictures were download online from


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