Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 The Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11 The Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans
Is it possible to determine when and where modern people first appeared? How would you go about this?
Homo sapiens All contemporary populations are placed within H. sapiens. Most paleoanthropologists agree that several fossil forms, dating back as far as 100,000 ya, should also be included in the same fully modern group as us.
Questions About the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans When (approximately) did modern humans first appear? Where did the transition take place?
Theories of Human Origins Complete Replacement Model Regional Continuity Model Partial Replacement Model
Complete Replacement Model: Recent African Evolution Developed by British paleoanthropologists Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews. Proposes anatomically modern populations arose in Africa in the last 200,000 years. They migrated from Africa, completely replacing populations in Europe and Asia. Does not account for the transition from premodern forms to H. sapiens anywhere except Africa.
Partial Replacement Model Various perspectives suggest that modern humans originated in Africa and then, when their population increased, expanded out of Africa into other areas of the Old World. This model claims that interbreeding occurred between emigrating Africans and resident premodern populations.
Regional Continuity Model: Multiregional Evolution Associated with paleoanthropologist Milford Wolpoff of the University of Michigan. Populations in Europe, Asia, and Africa continued evolutionary development from archaic H. sapiens to anatomically modern humans.
Early Homo sapiens Discoveries From Africa and the Near East DatesSiteHomininEvolutionary Significance 110,000 ya Qafzeh Israel H. sapiens sapiens Large sample; modern, but some individuals fairly robust; early date 115,000 yaSkhul H. sapiens sapiens Minimum of 10 individuals; earliest modern humans known outside of Africa
Early Homo sapiens Discoveries From Africa and the Near East DatesSiteHominind Evolutionary Significance 154,000 - 160,000 ya Herto Ethiopia H. sapiens idaltu Well-preserved cranium; best- preserved early modern human found anywhere 195,000 ya Omo Ethiopia H. sapiens Oldest modern human; two crania found, one more modern looking than the other
Herto Cranium Herto cranium from Ethiopia, dated 160,000–154,000 ya. Adult Very large, and extremely long cranial vault 1450 cm 3 Large, arching browridge and projecting occipital protuberance H. sapiens idaltu, “idaltu” is Afar language meaning “elder”
Specimens From Israel Skhül 5. (a) and Qafzeh 6 (b). These specimens from Israel are thought to be representatives of early modern Homo sapiens. The vault height, forehead, and lack of prognathism are modern traits.
Key Early Modern Homo sapiens from Europe and Asia DatesSiteHomininEvolutionary Significance 24,500 ya Abrigo do Lagar Velho Portugal H. sapiens sapiens Child’s skeleton; possible hybrid of Neandertal and modern human, it is controversial 30,000 ya Cro- Magnon France H. sapiens sapiens Most famous early modern human find; earliest evidence of modern humans in France
Key Early Modern Homo sapiens from Europe and Asia DatesSiteHominin Evolutionary Significance 40,000 ya Tianyuan Cave China H. sapiens sapiens Partial skull and a few postcranial bones; oldest modern human find from China 40,000- 45,000 ya Niah Cve Borneo, Indonesia H. sapiens sapiens Partial skull recently redated more accurately; oldest modern human find from Asia
Australia 50,000 ya modern humans inhabited Sahul, area including New Guinea and Australia Lake Mungo, SE Australia (60,000?) 30,000- 25,000 ya Kow Swamp 14,000-9,000 ya fossils with archaic features, including receding foreheads, heavy supraorbital tori, and thick bones
Mladec and Dolní Crania The Mladec (a) and Dolní Věstonice (b) crania from the Czech Republic, is a good example of early modern Homo sapiens in central Europe. Along with Oase in Romania, the evidence for early modern H. sapiens appears first in central Europe, then later in western Europe.
Cro-Magnon European H. sapiens associated with an Aurignacian tool assemblage, Upper Paleolithic industry
Aurignacian Pertaining to an Upper Paleolithic stone tool industry in Europe beginning at about 40,000 ya.
Cro-Magnon I Cro-Magnon I (France). In this specimen, modern traits are quite clear. (a) Lateral view, (b) Frontal view
Cultural Periods of the European Upper Paleolithic
Magdalenian Pertaining to the final phase of the Upper Paleolithic stone tool industry in Europe. Burin – Small, chisel-like tool with a pointed end, thought to have been used to engrave bone, antler, ivory, or wood.
Answer: Yes, all the early hominids evolved first in Africa and migrated to other parts of the world only after several million years of evolutionary history confined solely to Africa. In every meaningful evolutionary and biocultural aspect, we are all Africans. The next time you seriously consider the meaning of race, think about your African roots.