Change around 1250 From AGAPETo EROS God loves Man Christ died for our sins Eternal Life Enjoy the World God Distant Angry Pain, Punishment Man loves God Man is a sinner
Consequence of EROS The Flagellants “The Seventh Seal” “Death in Bergamo”
Reformation Catholic Church powerful Martin Luther, Wittenberg 1517, 95 Theses Excommunicated New Independent Church: Protestant Change from EROS to AGAPE again Divided Europe into Catholic South, Protestant North
Religion in Europe 1560 Lutheran Catholic Calvinist Anglican
Division Catholics EROS Control Rigid system of approaching God Protestant AGAPE Education Individual access to God
Petter Dass Vicar Norway’s greatest 17 th cent. Writer Everything is seen as God’s work of creation
Religion and Churches – then and now Denmark and Norway – State Church Sweden – separation of state and Church in 2000
Denmark Jelling Stone – Harald Bluetooth (ca.1000 AD) 2000 churches built Paintings - life of Christ and the saints
Church Decorations Parish churches - pictures of the Old and New Testaments Reformation (1537): whitewashing Last 100 years: removal of whitewash Here: Estruplund 1542 Denmark 2Denmark 2 Denmark 2
400 churches with remains of medieval wallpaintings Major art treasures Here: Fresco from Skibby 1175 Denmark 3
Denmark 4 Church of Denmark Church of Denmark (State Church) - 88% of population Evangelical Lutheran Church Freedom of religion, speech and assembly State support: moral, political, financial and administrative (church taxes, about 0.15%) Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs and diocesan administration
Denmark 5, Other Congregations Muslims Jews Roman Catholic Church Danish Baptist Church Pentecostal Churches Seventh Day Adventists Catholic Apostolic Church Reformed Churches Salvation Army Methodist Church Anglican Church Russian Orthodox Church Jehovah’s Witnesses Mormons 9 independent congregations of Grundvigian origin
Denmark 6 Functions of the Church Primary civil registration of all citizens Baptism and naming (within a year) Confirmations (13½ yrs old) Weddings Funerals Church Books = genealogical documents Since clerics of all other recognized communities perform legally valid weddings
Denmark 7 Organization of the church 12 dioceses 2000 clergy 2116 parishes The Folketing (Parliament) = legislative body The Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs = administrative body Otherwise, democratic Parish councils: clergy + members of the national church in the parish Decide the choice of clergy
Denmark 8 Romanesque Churches Romanesque dates from late 10th till 12th / 13 th Cent. Sædding Church (ca.1100).
Denmark 9 Romanesque 2 Heavy Walls Small Windows Clear Organization
Denmark 10 Romanesque 3 The architecture had only one fuction: a church service
Denmark 11 Romanesque 4 Use of open timber roofs (as Storage places) Barrel /Tunnel, vault
Denmark 12 Romanesque 5 Barrel Vault or Tunnel Vault The simplest form of a vault, consisting of a continuous surface of semicircular or pointed sections. It resembles a barrel or tunnel which has been cut in half lengthwise
Denmark 13 Romanesque 6 Groin Vault: produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel / tunnel vaults
Denmark 14 Romanesque 7 Rib Vault: a masonry vault with a relatively thin web and set within a framework of ribs
Denmark 14 Gothic Churches Originating in France Spreading over western Europe 12th - 16th cent. Design emphasizing skeleton construction Taller, lighter Keldby Church, 1275
Denmark 15 Gothic 2 Elimination of Wall Planes Comparatively great height of building Pointed Arch Rib Vaulting Rich outline of Exterior: towers, gables
Mørkøv Kirke, ca. 1450
Denmark 16 Gothic 4 Flying Buttress: A free-standing buttress attached to the main vessel (nave, choir, or transept wall) by an arch or half-arch which transmits the thrust of the vault to the buttress
Denmark 17 Gothic 5 15 th and 16 th centuries Weaponhouse added. Weapons were left before going into the church.
Denmark 18 Gothic 6 The Gable: steps called Battlements. Especially prominent in Gothic architecture.
Denmark 19 Gothic 7 Another prominent feature Recesses used as ornamentation on the wall. Might be whitewashed as here
Denmark 20 Round Churches A special type of church in Denmark were the Round Churches 5 round churches in all, 4 on Bornholm, 1 on Funen
Denmark 21 Round Churches 2 Østerlars Round Church - the largest of the 4 on Bornholm. Built around 1150 Fortified church Dedicated to St.Lawrence. Built of split granite boulders 55 ft in diameter
Denmark 22 Round Churches 3 The church is constructed around a hollow central pillar 6 arches leading into a small room used for christenings.
Denmark 23 The Cathedral of Aarhus Construction began ca First church completed in Romanesque style ca.1300 One of the oldest brick buildings in Denmark. Burned down in 1330 Reconstructed in Gothic Style ca. 1500
Denmark 24 The Cathedral of Aarhus 2 Longest church in Denmark: 305 ft long 305 ft. Tall Seats 1200 people Dedicated to the patron saint of seafarers, St.Clemens
Denmark 25 The Cathedral of Odense Originally a wooden church where King Knud 2 (The Holy) ( ) was killed by rebellious peasants. He was consecrated in 1101 and later buried in the new Gothic church
Denmark 26 The Cathedral of Odense
Denmark 27 The Cathedral of Roskilde Construction of Romanesque Church began in 1170 under Bishop Absalon 13 th cent.: new construction in Gothic Style The twin towers were added in the 14th cent.
Denmark 28 The Cathedral of Roskilde The famous last resting place for 38 kings and queens. Modern day monarchy is also buried there.
Denmark 29 Grundtvigskirke Constructed from Danish Gothic and functionalism Inspired by old Danish Gothic style, combined with an eye to functionalism Drawn by famous Danish architects
Denmark 30 Grundtvigskirke Quite a visual epiphany of old and new. A hope for the future of the Danish state church?
Norway Church of Norway Evangelical Lutheran State Church since 1536 86% of the population is a member through baptism The king is the Head of the Church Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs determines administrative issues Synodal system Episcopal system
Norway 2 Church of Norway Right now: a discussion to de- establish the state church is meeting with approval from a majority of the population Olav Tryggvason imported Christianity around 1000 AD Reformation in 1536 Free exercise of religion
Norway 3 Trondheim Cathedral = Nidaros Cathedral King Olav Haraldsson, killed in the battle of Stiklestad in 1030 Became Norway's patron saint several days later Buried on the exact spot where Trondheim Cathedral now stands.
Norway 4 Trondheim Cathedral Construction began in pilgrims flocking to St Olav's grave Completed in 1300 Most beautiful church in Norway. Nrway's monarchs are crowned and buried here The Crown Jewels are on display
Norway 5 Stave Churches Boat construction / home building - Viking times the technique and tradition of combining art with wood working: stave churches Common element: corner posts (staves) and a skeleton or framework of timber with wall planks standing on sills (to keep them from rotting). These walls are known as stave walls Most stave churches were built on old Norse heathen holy places or temples
Norway 6 Stave Churches 2 Around stave churches originally Only 25 stave churches remain Primarily in Western Norway 5 stave churches have been moved, re- erected and preserved at new locations The oldest type was built in the 1000’s but the timber of their walls was set directly into the ground, and rotted. The sills became common in the 1100’s
Norway 7 Stave Churches 3 Several kinds of stave churches Simplest: a nave with a narrower chancel, the roof rests on the walls Some have a tall, sturdy upright or mast in the middle which supports the ridge turret and strengthens the walls Biggest: central section with a lofty ceiling supported by freestanding posts resting on the floor Often richly ornamented with carvings, wall and ceiling paintings
Norway 8 Borgund Stave Church Built around 1150, dedicated to St. Andrew. One of the best preserved stave churches Runic inscriptions on the walls
Norway 9 Hopperstad Stave Chuch Built around 1150 Triple-Nave church
Urnes Stave Church Built around 1150 Oldest stave church in Norway On UNESCO’s World Heritage List Norway 10
Norway 11 Høre Stave Church rebuilt 1820 Remnants of a stave church from 1100 found underneath Tombs found underneath the church
Gol Stave Church Built around 1200 with staves to support the roof Pulled down, moved, and re-erected in 1885 Now part of the Norwegian Folkmuseum, in Oslo Norway 12
Norway 13 Hegge Stave Church Built around 1230
Norway 14 Reinli Stave Church Built around 1250 Extended during the late middle ages Seats 64 people
Norway 15 Grip Stave Church Built around 1470 One-nave stave church One of the simplest and smallest of the stave churches. On an island
Sweden Slow in becoming christianized 1164 Uppsala was selected as the seat of the archbishop: breakthrough for Christianity 1210: first Swedish monarch crowned, marking the union of Church and State Reformation 1544, Sweden proclaimed an evangelical Lutheran kingdom Most people belong to the Church of Sweden (85%), Lutheran Protestant, The State Church institution was ended in 2000
Sweden 2 Uppsala The Holy Trinity Church = The Old Uppsala church 12th century, Site of temple of the ancient gods of the Vikings
Sweden 3 Uppsala 2 Church of Old Uppsala built where there was once a wooden pagan temple. The most spectacular pagan rite - the 'blot' Animal and human sacrifice Nine days every ninth year. Under the hills three ancient kings are buried.
Sweden 4 Uppsala 3 Seat of the archbishop of Sweden. The Uppsala Cathedral is the largest church in Scandinavia.
Sweden 5 Uppsala 4 Its construction started in 1260 Inaugurated in Many famous Swedes are buried here, among them Carl von Linné.
The Future Few people go to church except when they want to celebrate major events like baptism, confirmations, weddings, and funerals Importance of church? Dissolution of church and state? Membership based congregations?