Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Moving Towards the Reformation Christianity in The Scandinavian Countries.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Moving Towards the Reformation Christianity in The Scandinavian Countries."— Presentation transcript:

1 Moving Towards the Reformation Christianity in The Scandinavian Countries

2 Scandinavian Churches & State  Danish and Norwegian State Church  Church of Sweden separate from State  Approx. 85% of population as members

3 Christianity  1000 AD Iceland – referendum!  1250 AD End of Viking Age - Catholicism  1537-44 AD Reformation  1800 AD Records of previous centuries, stories, history

4 The Vikings  The Old Norse Gods (Odin, Thor etc.)  Ragnarok – the end of the World (Asgaard, Midgaard, Jotunheim)  Unreliable religion  The White Christ around 700 AD  RIP

5 Rich and Poor  Rich people  Believed in the Gods  Poor people  Believed in spirits  The Huldre – spirit from the mountains – hollow back!

6 The Venerable Bede  673 – 735 AD  Life is transient  Liberation

7 Transitional Period  Both religions were followed  Pagan - Thor’s Hammer  Catholic - Cross

8 Danish Flag  Dannebrog  June 15, 1219  Fell from the sky during a battle between Danes and Estonians  Missionaries

9

10 Conflict  Vatican Christianity  People’s Christianity

11 The Little Mermaid

12 The Woman in the Church

13 The Man and the Huldre

14 Change around 1250 From AGAPETo EROS  God loves Man  Christ died for our sins  Eternal Life  Enjoy the World God Distant Angry Pain, Punishment Man loves God Man is a sinner

15 Consequence of EROS  The Flagellants  “The Seventh Seal”  “Death in Bergamo”

16 Reformation 1536-37  Catholic Church powerful  Martin Luther, Wittenberg 1517,  95 Theses  Excommunicated  New Independent Church: Protestant  Change from EROS to AGAPE again  Divided Europe into Catholic South, Protestant North

17 Religion in Europe 1560 Lutheran Catholic Calvinist Anglican

18 Division  Catholics  EROS  Control  Rigid system of approaching God  Protestant  AGAPE  Education  Individual access to God

19 Petter Dass  1647-1707  Vicar  Norway’s greatest 17 th cent. Writer  Everything is seen as God’s work of creation

20 Religion and Churches – then and now  Denmark and Norway – State Church  Sweden – separation of state and Church in 2000

21 Denmark  Jelling Stone – Harald Bluetooth (ca.1000 AD)  2000 churches built 1050 - 1150  Paintings - life of Christ and the saints

22 Church Decorations  Parish churches - pictures of the Old and New Testaments  Reformation (1537): whitewashing  Last 100 years: removal of whitewash  Here: Estruplund 1542 Denmark 2Denmark 2 Denmark 2

23  400 churches with remains of medieval wallpaintings  Major art treasures  Here: Fresco from Skibby 1175 Denmark 3

24 Denmark 4 Church of Denmark  Church of Denmark (State Church) - 88% of population  Evangelical Lutheran Church  Freedom of religion, speech and assembly  State support: moral, political, financial and administrative (church taxes, about 0.15%)  Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs and diocesan administration

25 Denmark 5, Other Congregations  Muslims  Jews  Roman Catholic Church  Danish Baptist Church  Pentecostal Churches  Seventh Day Adventists  Catholic Apostolic Church  Reformed Churches  Salvation Army  Methodist Church  Anglican Church  Russian Orthodox Church  Jehovah’s Witnesses  Mormons  9 independent congregations of Grundvigian origin

26 Denmark 6 Functions of the Church  Primary civil registration of all citizens  Baptism and naming (within a year)  Confirmations (13½ yrs old)  Weddings  Funerals  Church Books = genealogical documents  Since 1969 - clerics of all other recognized communities perform legally valid weddings

27 Denmark 7 Organization of the church  12 dioceses  2000 clergy  2116 parishes  The Folketing (Parliament) = legislative body  The Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs = administrative body  Otherwise, democratic  Parish councils: clergy + members of the national church in the parish  Decide the choice of clergy

28 Denmark 8 Romanesque Churches  Romanesque dates from late 10th till 12th / 13 th Cent. Sædding Church (ca.1100).

29 Denmark 9 Romanesque 2  Heavy Walls  Small Windows  Clear Organization

30 Denmark 10 Romanesque 3  The architecture had only one fuction: a church service

31 Denmark 11 Romanesque 4  Use of open timber roofs (as Storage places)  Barrel /Tunnel, vault

32 Denmark 12 Romanesque 5  Barrel Vault or Tunnel Vault  The simplest form of a vault, consisting of a continuous surface of semicircular or pointed sections. It resembles a barrel or tunnel which has been cut in half lengthwise

33 Denmark 13 Romanesque 6  Groin Vault: produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel / tunnel vaults

34 Denmark 14 Romanesque 7  Rib Vault:  a masonry vault with a relatively thin web and set within a framework of ribs

35 Denmark 14 Gothic Churches  Originating in France  Spreading over western Europe 12th - 16th cent.  Design emphasizing skeleton construction  Taller, lighter  Keldby Church, 1275

36 Denmark 15 Gothic 2  Elimination of Wall Planes  Comparatively great height of building  Pointed Arch  Rib Vaulting  Rich outline of Exterior: towers, gables

37 Mørkøv Kirke, ca. 1450

38 Denmark 16 Gothic 4  Flying Buttress:  A free-standing buttress attached to the main vessel (nave, choir, or transept wall) by an arch or half-arch which transmits the thrust of the vault to the buttress

39 Denmark 17 Gothic 5  15 th and 16 th centuries  Weaponhouse added.  Weapons were left before going into the church.

40 Denmark 18 Gothic 6  The Gable:  steps called Battlements.  Especially prominent in Gothic architecture.

41 Denmark 19 Gothic 7  Another prominent feature  Recesses used as ornamentation on the wall.  Might be whitewashed as here

42 Denmark 20 Round Churches  A special type of church in Denmark were the Round Churches  5 round churches in all,  4 on Bornholm,  1 on Funen

43 Denmark 21 Round Churches 2  Østerlars Round Church - the largest of the 4 on Bornholm.  Built around 1150  Fortified church  Dedicated to St.Lawrence.  Built of split granite boulders  55 ft in diameter

44 Denmark 22 Round Churches 3  The church is constructed around a hollow central pillar  6 arches leading into a small room  used for christenings.

45 Denmark 23 The Cathedral of Aarhus  Construction began ca. 1200  First church completed in Romanesque style ca.1300  One of the oldest brick buildings in Denmark.  Burned down in 1330  Reconstructed in Gothic Style ca. 1500

46 Denmark 24 The Cathedral of Aarhus 2  Longest church in Denmark: 305 ft long  305 ft. Tall  Seats 1200 people  Dedicated to the patron saint of seafarers, St.Clemens

47 Denmark 25 The Cathedral of Odense  Originally a wooden church where King Knud 2 (The Holy) (1040-86) was killed by rebellious peasants.  He was consecrated in 1101 and later buried in the new Gothic church

48 Denmark 26 The Cathedral of Odense

49 Denmark 27 The Cathedral of Roskilde  Construction of Romanesque Church began in 1170 under Bishop Absalon  13 th cent.: new construction in Gothic Style  The twin towers were added in the 14th cent.

50 Denmark 28 The Cathedral of Roskilde  The famous last resting place for 38 kings and queens.  Modern day monarchy is also buried there.

51 Denmark 29 Grundtvigskirke  Constructed from 1921- 1940  Danish Gothic and functionalism  Inspired by old Danish Gothic style, combined with an eye to functionalism  Drawn by famous Danish architects

52 Denmark 30 Grundtvigskirke  Quite a visual epiphany of old and new. A hope for the future of the Danish state church?

53 Norway Church of Norway  Evangelical Lutheran State Church since 1536  86% of the population is a member through baptism  The king is the Head of the Church  Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs determines administrative issues  Synodal system  Episcopal system

54 Norway 2 Church of Norway  Right now: a discussion to de- establish the state church is meeting with approval from a majority of the population  Olav Tryggvason imported Christianity around 1000 AD  Reformation in 1536  Free exercise of religion

55 Norway 3 Trondheim Cathedral = Nidaros Cathedral  King Olav Haraldsson, killed in the battle of Stiklestad in 1030  Became Norway's patron saint several days later  Buried on the exact spot where Trondheim Cathedral now stands.

56 Norway 4 Trondheim Cathedral  Construction began in 1070 - pilgrims flocking to St Olav's grave  Completed in 1300  Most beautiful church in Norway.  Nrway's monarchs are crowned and buried here  The Crown Jewels are on display

57 Norway 5 Stave Churches  Boat construction / home building - Viking times  the technique and tradition of combining art with wood working: stave churches  Common element: corner posts (staves) and a skeleton or framework of timber with wall planks standing on sills (to keep them from rotting).  These walls are known as stave walls  Most stave churches were built on old Norse heathen holy places or temples

58 Norway 6 Stave Churches 2  Around 800-1000 stave churches originally  Only 25 stave churches remain  Primarily in Western Norway  5 stave churches have been moved, re- erected and preserved at new locations  The oldest type was built in the 1000’s but the timber of their walls was set directly into the ground, and rotted.  The sills became common in the 1100’s

59 Norway 7 Stave Churches 3  Several kinds of stave churches  Simplest: a nave with a narrower chancel, the roof rests on the walls  Some have a tall, sturdy upright or mast in the middle which supports the ridge turret and strengthens the walls  Biggest: central section with a lofty ceiling supported by freestanding posts resting on the floor  Often richly ornamented with carvings, wall and ceiling paintings

60 Norway 8 Borgund Stave Church  Built around 1150, dedicated to St. Andrew.  One of the best preserved stave churches  Runic inscriptions on the walls

61 Norway 9 Hopperstad Stave Chuch  Built around 1150  Triple-Nave church

62 Urnes Stave Church  Built around 1150  Oldest stave church in Norway  On UNESCO’s World Heritage List Norway 10

63 Norway 11 Høre Stave Church  1180 - rebuilt 1820  Remnants of a stave church from 1100 found underneath  Tombs found underneath the church

64 Gol Stave Church  Built around 1200 with staves to support the roof  Pulled down, moved, and re-erected in 1885  Now part of the Norwegian Folkmuseum, in Oslo Norway 12

65 Norway 13 Hegge Stave Church  Built around 1230

66 Norway 14 Reinli Stave Church  Built around 1250  Extended during the late middle ages  Seats 64 people

67 Norway 15 Grip Stave Church  Built around 1470  One-nave stave church  One of the simplest and smallest of the stave churches.  On an island

68 Sweden  Slow in becoming christianized  1164 Uppsala was selected as the seat of the archbishop: breakthrough for Christianity  1210: first Swedish monarch crowned, marking the union of Church and State  Reformation 1544, Sweden proclaimed an evangelical Lutheran kingdom  Most people belong to the Church of Sweden (85%), Lutheran Protestant,  The State Church institution was ended in 2000

69 Sweden 2 Uppsala  The Holy Trinity Church = The Old Uppsala church  12th century,  Site of temple of the ancient gods of the Vikings

70 Sweden 3 Uppsala 2  Church of Old Uppsala built where there was once a wooden pagan temple.  The most spectacular pagan rite - the 'blot'  Animal and human sacrifice  Nine days every ninth year.  Under the hills three ancient kings are buried.

71 Sweden 4 Uppsala 3  Seat of the archbishop of Sweden.  The Uppsala Cathedral is the largest church in Scandinavia.

72 Sweden 5 Uppsala 4  Its construction started in 1260  Inaugurated in 1435.  Many famous Swedes are buried here, among them Carl von Linné.

73 The Future  Few people go to church except when they want to celebrate major events like baptism, confirmations, weddings, and funerals  Importance of church?  Dissolution of church and state?  Membership based congregations?


Download ppt "Moving Towards the Reformation Christianity in The Scandinavian Countries."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google