3Style General Characteristics The style came to be characterized by the following:Heavy articulated masonry construction with narrow openingsفتحات ضيقة ,The use of the round archالقوس الدائري and barrel vault القبو المتوازيWall arcade or buttressالجدران الحاملةDevelopment of the vaulting rib and shaftCylindrical apse and chapelsالخنيات و المصليات اسطوانيةIntroduction of central and western square, round or polygonal towersالأبراج الدائرية و المضلعة .Ornamentation in the form of stylistically rendered animal and plantsالنباتات و الحيوانات forms
4A.PlansChurch plans adhered substantially the basilicas, and naves were divided from aisles by antique columns and the use of transeptsالأجنحةThe choir الجوقةwas raised above a crypt reached by steps from the nave. the churches are mostly vaultedالكنائس معظمها مقبب, with certain modifications due to Italian influence, such as transepts, as at S. Michele, Pavia .There were many circular buildings, chiefly baptisteriesاماكن التعميد , such as the one at Novara, which is connected to the Cathedral by an atrium similar to the famous atrium at S. Ambrogio, Milan.Open arcades round the apses, with the arcaded octagonal lantern at the crossingفوانيس ثمانية عند التقاطع , give great charm to the buildings externallyاعطاء سحر كبير للمباني في الخارج.
5low lanterns الفوانيس منخفضةat the crossing of nave and transepts are marked features, as at Monreale Cathedral.Projecting porchesالشرفات , which were preferred to recessed doorways, are bold arched structures often of two storeys, as at Verona, flanked by isolated columns on huge semi-grotesque lions.Towers are straight, detached shafts, as at Piacenza and Verona, without buttresses or spiresبدون دعائم .In section, the typical aisled church or cathedral has a nave with a single aisle on either sideصحن مع ممر واحد .The nave and aisles are separated by an arcade carried on piers or on columns. على ركائز او اعمدةThe roof of the aisle and the outer walls help to buttress the upper walls and vault of the nave, if present.سقف وجدران الممر الخارجي ، تساعد على تدعيم الجدران العلوية والقفز من السذاجة ، إذا كان موجودا
6Above the aisle roof are a row of windows known as the clerestory, which give light to the nave. The development from this two-stage elevation to a three-stage elevation in which there is a gallery, known as a triforium, between the arcade and the clerestory. This varies from a simple blind arcade decorating the walls, to a narrow arcaded passage, to a fully-developed second story with a row of windows lighting the gallery
18B. WallsThe walls of Romanesque buildings are often of massive thicknessالجدران بسمك ضخم with few and comparatively small openingsعدد قليل من الفتحات .The building material differs, depending upon the local stone and building traditions. In Italy, Poland, much of Germany and parts of the Netherlands, brick is generally usedالطوب . Other areas saw extensiveاستخدام واسع use of limestone, granite and flintالصوان .The building stone was often used in comparatively small and irregular piecesقطع صغيرة و غير منتظمة , bedded in thick mortar.قصارة سميكة
19B. WallsElaborated wall arcades into many storeys of galleries, which decorated alike facades, apses Facades have less play of light and shade, as they have attached and not free-standing arcading or pilaster strips from ground to gable, as in S. Abbondio, Como often broken only by a large circular window over the entrance.The entrance front have the width of nave and aisles and terminated in one wide-spreading gable filled in with open arcaded galleries as at Pavia.The lateral walls الجدران الجانبية are decorated with flat pilaster strips connected horizontally by small arches springing from corbels.
20B. WallsSant'Ambrogio, Milan is constructed of bricks
21B. WallsSan Vittore alle -Italy, of undressed stone, has a typically fortress-like appearance
22B. Walls-Italy, of undressed stone حجر الرخام, has a typically fortress-like appearance
26C. OpeningsOpenings in consequence of the brilliant climate, while arcades are universal, doors and windows, whether in Central, North, or South Italy, are small and unimportant features, with their " jambs " or sides formed in rectangular recesses or " orders " filled in with small shafts, crowned with semicircular arches.Window traceryالنوافذ المزخرفة was at no time employed to any great extent in Italy, and even wheel windows are only primary in pattern
27C. OpeningsIn South Italy, as in the churches of Palermo, these windows are highly elaborated.Arches are semicircular, with the exception of a very small number of buildings such as Monreale Cathedral in Sicily of which pointed arches have been used extensively in a direct imitation of Islamic architecture.small windows might be surmounted by a solid stone lintel and larger windows are nearly always arched.Doorways are also surmounted by a semi-circular arch, except where the door is set into a large arched recesswith decorative carving
30C. OpeningsThe outsides of the principal doorways and their pointed arches are magnificently enriched with carving and colored inlay a curious combination of three styles - Norman-French, Byzantine and Arab.
33D.Vaults and roofsThe majority of buildings have wooden roofs, generally of a simple truss, tie beam or king post formIn the case of trussed rafter roofs, they are sometimes lined with wooden ceilings in three sections like Peterborough cathedrals in England.In churches, typically the aisles are vaulted, but the nave is roofed with timber, as is the case at both Peterborough and ElyIn Italy where open wooden roofs are common, and tie beams frequently occur in conjunction with vaults, the timbers have often been decorated as at San Miniato al Monte, FlorenceVaults of stone or brick took on several different forms and showed marked development during the period, evolving into the pointed ribbed arch
34D.Vaults and roofsIn Central Italy timber roofs over naves are of the simple, open basilican type with rafters and tie-beams often effectively decorated in colour ; while aisles occasionally have groined vaults of small span, divided into compartments by transverse archesاقواس مستعرضةIn South Italy domes rather than vaults were adopted, but timber roofs are the rule in Sicily under Mahometan influence and have ceilings, rich in design and colourIn North Italy not only aisles but also naves began to be vaulted although the nave roofs of Italian churches generally were still constructed of wood, and were not vaulted till the Gothic period in the thirteenth century
38Vault DefinitionsVault - An arched structure of stone, brick, or reinforced concrete, forming a supporting structure of a ceiling or roofa masonry roof or ceiling constructed on the arch principleBarrel (or tunnel) vault - semi cylindrical in cross-section is, in effect, a deep arch or an uninterrupted series of arches, one behind the other, over an oblong spaceGroin (or cross) vault - formed at the point at which two barrel (tunnel) vaults intersect at right anglesRibbed vault- framework of ribs or arches under the intersections of the vaulting sections.In general, the system fails in one critical requirement - that of lighting. Due to the great thrust exerted by the barrel vault, a clerestory was difficult to construct, and windows cut into the haunch of the vault would make it unstable. A more complex and efficient type of vaulting was needed.
39barrel vaultA straight, continuous arched vault or ceiling, either semicircular or semi-elliptical in profileA barrel vault is a simple, concave cylindrical roof surface which looks like a barrel.
41Groin(ed) arch One arched division of a cross vault The groin vault is produced by the intersection of two barrel vaults which are perpendicular to each other.When two barrel vaults intersect at a right angle, the juncture forms a groin or cross-vault, which provides lunette windows for lighting at either end.
45Ribbed vaultA vault supported by or decorated with arched diagonal ribs
46Crystal(ine) vault a vault without ribs.قبو بدون اضلاع Ribs are replaced with sharp intradosThe name reminds of crystal surfaces, which are cut sharply with concave walls similar to inverted pyramidsالاهرامات المقلوبة .Crystal(ine) vault
48E. ColumnsRomanesque columns were massive, as they supported thick upper walls with small windows, and sometimes heavy vaults. The most common method of construction was to build them out of stone cylinders called drums, as in the crypt كما في السردابat Speyer Cathedralكاتدرائية شبايرIn Central Italy during this period, a great number of antique Roman columns were reused in the interiors and on the porticos اروقةof churches and this retarded the development of the novel typesو هذا سبب التأخير في ظهور انواع جديدة which were introduced in districts more remote from Rome. They may have retained their original Roman capitals, generally of the Corinthian or Roman Composite style
49E. ColumnsIn some places, as at Toscan, rudely carved Corinthianesque columnsالاعمدة الكورنثية carry round-arched arcadesتحمل اعمدة مستديرة instead of entablaturesالاسطح المعمدة .The finely carved and slender twisted columns in the cloisters of S. Giovanni in Laterano and S. Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome, are delicate variations of the Classic type (p. 267),In North Italy sturdy piers faced with attached half-columns took the place of the Classic column, as supports to the heavy stone vaulting).
50E. ColumnsThe half-columns on the side towards the nave were carried up as vaulting shafts, and this was the beginning of a system which was destined in the Gothic period to transform the shape of piers.In South Italy and especially in Sicily greater variety in columns and capitals was brought about by changes which resulted from the successive introduction of Byzantine, Mahometan, and Norman art, of which the nave arcade columns and the coupled columnsالاعمدة المزدوجة in the cloisters at Montreale are good examples.
51E. ColumnsThe spacious nave of St. John Lateranالقديس يوحنا لاتران , looking east
56F. MouldingsIn Central Italy there are rough imitationsنقوشات رئيسي of old Classic mouldings, but elaborate variations of a more pronounced Romanesque type in recessed planes were used in doorways and windows.In North Italy flat moulded bands or strings on the exterior are varied by a series of small archesسلسلة من الاقواس connecting the pilaster stripsIn South Italy mouldings are specially characterized by grintricacy of carving النقوشات المعقدة
57G. Ornament In Central Italy Classic models were followed so as to suit the old fragments incorporated in the new buildings, and rough variations of the old Roman acanthus scroll are frequent.all parts of Italy Christian symbolism entered into decorative carving and mosaics.The monogram of Christحرف واحد من المسيح , the emblems of evangelists and saints شعارات المبشرين والقديسين, and the whole system of symbolism, represented by trees, birds, fishes, and animals, are all worked into the decorative scheme.The High Altar المذبح السامي او العاليand the mosaic paving are characteristic examples of the period.
58G. Ornament In North Italy Roughly carved grotesques of men and beasts وحوشoccur, along with hunting scenes and incidents of daily life. Crouching lions الاسد الجاثمsupport columns of projecting porches and of bishops' thrones سقف العرش and are symbolical of Davidداوود as the Lion of Judahاسد يهوذا ; while the columns represent Christالاعمدة تمثل المسيح , the Pillar of the Church. The continuous scroll, known as Solomon's knotعقدة سليمان , is an emblem of Eternity شعار الخلود, without beginning or endبدون بداية او نهاية .
59G. OrnamentIn South ItalyElaborately modeled bronze doorsالابواب البرونزية are characteristic externally, while colored mosaics add to the beauty of the interiors of Palermo churches.Color, in spreading masses of geometric design, was the predominant note of internal decoration of South Italian and Sicilian churchesكنائس صقلية , while the bronze pilasters clearly indicate the influence of the Classic traditionالتقاليد الكلاسيكية .